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1.
The Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment for New Coronavirus Pneumonia ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-691328
2.
Front. Med. ; (7)20200710.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-689650

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of the study was to analyze the characteristics of renal function in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Methods: In this retrospective, single-center study, we included all confirmed cases of COVID-19 in a tertiary hospital in Guangdong, China from January 20, 2020 to March 20, 2020. Blood and urine laboratory findings related to renal function were summarized, and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and endogenous creatinine clearance (Ccr) were also calculated to assess the renal function. Results: A total of 12 admitted hospital patients were diagnosed with COVID-19, included 3 severe cases, and 9 common cases. Serum creatinine (Scr) was not abnormally elevated in all of the patients, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was abnormally elevated in only 25.0% of the patients. However, compared with the recovery period, the patient's Scr and BUN increased significantly in peak of disease (p-scr = 0.002 & p-bun < 0.001). By observing the fluctuations in Scr and BUN from admission to recovery, it was found that the peak of Scr and BUN appeared within the first 14 day of the course of the disease. Urinary microprotein detection indicated that the abnormally elevated rates of urine microalbumin (UMA), α1-microglobulin (A1M), urine immunoglobulin-G (IGU), and urine transferring (TRU) standardized by urinary creatinine in peak of disease were 41.7, 41.7, 50.0, and 16.7%, respectively. The abnormal rates of the calculated eGFR and Ccr were 66.7 and 41.7%. Conclusion: Scr and BUN were generally increased during the course of COVID-19. Detection of urinary microproteins and application of multiple indicators assessment could be helpful for discovering abnormal renal function in patients with COVID-19. However, the evidence is limited due to the small sample size and observational nature. Additional studies, especially large prospective cohort studies, are required to confirm these findings.

3.
Carbohydr Polym ; (247)20201101.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-635683

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a lung disease with highly heterogeneous and mortality rate, but its therapeutic options are now still limited. Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been characterized by WHO as a pandemic, and the global number of confirmed COVID-19 cases has been more than 8.0 million. It is strongly supported for that PF should be one of the major complications in COVID-19 patients by the evidences of epidemiology, viral immunology and current clinical researches. The anti-PF properties of naturally occurring polysaccharides have attracted increasing attention in last two decades, but is still lack of a comprehensively understanding. In present review, the resources, structural features, anti-PF activities, and underlying mechanisms of these polysaccharides are summarized and analyzed, which was expected to provide a scientific evidence supporting the application of polysaccharides for preventing or treating PF in COVID-19 patients.

4.
Sleep Med ; 2020 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-457298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An outbreak of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has been ongoing in China since January 2020. The threat of infection affects the work and life of most of the population and may also damage sleep. This study aims to examine the subjective sleep status and mental health of the population during the peak of the COVID-19 epidemic. METHOD: The data were collected through an online questionnaire with a sample of 5461 individuals in China from February 5, 2020, to February 23, 2020. Participants were divided into four groups based on their degree of threat from COVID-19: Group 1 was most closely associated with COVID-19, including inpatients diagnosed with COVID-19, first-line hospital workers and first-line management staff; Group 2 included outpatients diagnosed with COVID-19 and patients who developed a fever and visited the hospital; Group 3 included people related to Group 1 or 2, such as their colleagues, relatives, friends and rescuers; and Group 4 was the farthest removed from contact with COVID-19, covering the general public affected by COVID-19 prevention strategies. The Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) and Acute Stress Disorder Scale (ASDS) were used. RESULTS: Threat degree of COVID-19 (groups) had significant correlations with insomnia, depression, anxiety, and stress (p < 0.05, p < 0.01). Age, gender, and area (Hubei province or other provinces) had significant correlations with insomnia (p < 0.01). A total of 1380 (24.46%) participants were suspected of having major depression based on the PHQ-9. Additionally, 1042 (18.47%) participants were suspected of having generalized anxiety disorder based on the GAD-7. A total of 892 (15.8%) of the participants had Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) according to the ASDS. The prevalence of clinical insomnia during the outbreak was 20.05% (1131) according to the ISI. The factors of satisfaction with the current sleep pattern and how perceptible the symptoms of the current sleep pattern are to other people (p < 0.05) and the middle (difficulty staying asleep) and terminal (waking up too early) (p < 0.01) factors of the ISI were significantly different across groups. A total of 1129 (20.01%) participants spent more than one hour awake in bed. CONCLUSION: The results indicated that insomnia is more severe in people who are female, young, living in the epicenter and experiencing a high degree of threat from COVID-19. As prevention and treatment efforts continue with regard to COVID-19, the general public has developed poor sleep hygiene habits, which deserve attention.

5.
J Med Virol ; 2020 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-378304

ABSTRACT

This retrospective study was designed to explore whether neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a prognostic factor in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A cohort of patients with COVID-19 admitted to the Tongren Hospital of Wuhan University from 11 January 2020 to 3 March 2020 was retrospectively analyzed. Patients with hematologic malignancy were excluded. The NLR was calculated by dividing the neutrophil count by the lymphocyte count. NLR values were measured at the time of admission. The primary outcome was all-cause in-hospital mortality. A multivariate logistic analysis was performed. A total of 1004 patients with COVID-19 were included in this study. The mortality rate was 4.0% (40 cases). The median age of nonsurvivors (68 years) was significantly older than survivors (62 years). Male sex was more predominant in nonsurvival group (27; 67.5%) than in the survival group (466; 48.3%). NLR value of nonsurvival group (median: 49.06; interquartile range [IQR]: 25.71-69.70) was higher than that of survival group (median: 4.11; IQR: 2.44-8.12; P < .001). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for confounding factors, NLR more than 11.75 was significantly correlated with all-cause in-hospital mortality (odds ratio = 44.351; 95% confidence interval = 4.627-425.088). These results suggest that the NLR at hospital admission is associated with in-hospital mortality among patients with COVID-19. Therefore, the NLR appears to be a significant prognostic biomarker of outcomes in critically ill patients with COVID-19. However, further investigation is needed to validate this relationship with data collected prospectively.

6.
Front. Microbiol. ; (10)20200124.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-326186

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus (CoV) envelope (E) protein is a small structural protein critical for virion morphogenesis and release. The recently characterized E protein ion channel activity (EIC) has also been implicated in modulating viral pathogenesis. In this study, we used infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV) as a model to study EIC. Two recombinant IBVs (rIBVs) harboring EIC-inactivating mutations – rT16A and rA26F – were serially passaged, and several compensatory mutations were identified in the transmembrane domain (TMD). Two rIBVs harboring these putative EIC-reverting mutations – rT16A/A26V and rA26F/F14N – were recovered. Compared with the parental rIBV-p65 control, all four EIC mutants exhibited comparable levels of intracellular RNA synthesis, structural protein production, and virion assembly. Our results showed that the IBV EIC contributed to the induction of ER stress response, as up-regulation of ER stress-related genes was markedly reduced in cells infected with the EIC-defective mutants. EIC-defective mutants also formed smaller plaques, released significantly less infectious virions into the culture supernatant, and had lower levels of viral fitness in cell culture. Significantly, all these defective phenotypes were restored in cells infected with the putative EIC revertants. EIC mutations were also implicated in regulating IBV-induced apoptosis, induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and viral pathogenicity in vivo. Taken together, this study highlights the importance of CoV EIC in modulating virion release and various aspects of CoV – host interaction.

7.
Nature ; 583(7815): 286-289, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-210764

ABSTRACT

The current outbreak of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) poses unprecedented challenges to global health1. The new coronavirus responsible for this outbreak-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-shares high sequence identity to SARS-CoV and a bat coronavirus, RaTG132. Although bats may be the reservoir host for a variety of coronaviruses3,4, it remains unknown whether SARS-CoV-2 has additional host species. Here we show that a coronavirus, which we name pangolin-CoV, isolated from a Malayan pangolin has 100%, 98.6%, 97.8% and 90.7% amino acid identity with SARS-CoV-2 in the E, M, N and S proteins, respectively. In particular, the receptor-binding domain of the S protein of pangolin-CoV is almost identical to that of SARS-CoV-2, with one difference in a noncritical amino acid. Our comparative genomic analysis suggests that SARS-CoV-2 may have originated in the recombination of a virus similar to pangolin-CoV with one similar to RaTG13. Pangolin-CoV was detected in 17 out of the 25 Malayan pangolins that we analysed. Infected pangolins showed clinical signs and histological changes, and circulating antibodies against pangolin-CoV reacted with the S protein of SARS-CoV-2. The isolation of a coronavirus from pangolins that is closely related to SARS-CoV-2 suggests that these animals have the potential to act as an intermediate host of SARS-CoV-2. This newly identified coronavirus from pangolins-the most-trafficked mammal in the illegal wildlife trade-could represent a future threat to public health if wildlife trade is not effectively controlled.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Eutheria/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral/genetics , Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid , Animals , Betacoronavirus/classification , China , Chiroptera/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Genomics , Host Specificity , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Malaysia , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Recombination, Genetic , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vero Cells , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology
8.
J Evid Based Med ; 13(2): 93-101, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-8439

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Previous meta-analyses concluded that there was insufficient evidence to determine the effect of N95 respirators. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of N95 respirators versus surgical masks for prevention of influenza by collecting randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMbase and The Cochrane Library from the inception to January 27, 2020 to identify relevant systematic reviews. The RCTs included in systematic reviews were identified. Then we searched the latest published RCTs from the above three databases and searched ClinicalTrials.gov for unpublished RCTs. Two reviewers independently extracted the data and assessed risk of bias. Meta-analyses were conducted to calculate pooled estimates by using RevMan 5.3 software. RESULTS: A total of six RCTs involving 9 171 participants were included. There were no statistically significant differences in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza (RR = 1.09, 95% CI 0.92-1.28, P > .05), laboratory-confirmed respiratory viral infections (RR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.70-1.11), laboratory-confirmed respiratory infection (RR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.42-1.29) and influenzalike illness (RR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.33-1.14) using N95 respirators and surgical masks. Meta-analysis indicated a protective effect of N95 respirators against laboratory-confirmed bacterial colonization (RR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.43-0.78). CONCLUSION: The use of N95 respirators compared with surgical masks is not associated with a lower risk of laboratory-confirmed influenza. It suggests that N95 respirators should not be recommended for general public and nonhigh-risk medical staff those are not in close contact with influenza patients or suspected patients.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Masks , Respiratory Protective Devices , Humans , Influenza, Human/transmission , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
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