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1.
Chinese Journal of Disease Control and Prevention ; 25(4):432-438 and 444, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2056571

ABSTRACT

Objective  To explore SARS-CoV-2 nsp8 genetic variation, Nsp8 protein structure, biological function and targeted drugs, and to lay foundation for establishing more effective prevention and control strategies.  Methods  Analyses of nsp8 genetic variability, physical and chemical characteristics, spatial structure, antigenic epitopes, biological function, and drug combined targets of Nsp8 were carried out using bioinformatics technology and large biological databases.  Results  Based on nsp8 sequences of 28 isolates of coronavirus of three species, evolutionary tree was successfully constructed. SARS-CoV-2 isolates showed 99%-100% conservation of nsp8 genes, less genetic distance to SARS than MERS isolates. Nsp8 had no signal peptide and transmembrane area. In reticulocytes in vitro, Nsp8 had a half-life of 4 h and was hydrophilic. A secondary model and a tertiary structure model were established. Linear B cell and CTL antigenic epitopes, phosphorylation and SUMB modification sites were found in Nsp8. Using the DrugBank database, four drugs targeted Nsp8 were obtained.  Conclusions  Nsp8 possesses the characteristics of typical antigens, participates in viral replication, and various isolates of the same species share high conservation of nsp8 gene, suggesting potential applications in researches on pathogenic mechanism, genotyping and prevention of this virus. Notably, this is the first report on Nsp8-targeted chemotherapeutic drugs, and the findings can be of considerable scientific significance and application value, under the conditions that measures with special effect for COVID-19 prevention and control are urgently needed. © 2021, Publication Centre of Anhui Medical University. All rights reserved.

2.
Frontiers in Energy Research ; 10:9, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1883910

ABSTRACT

The worldwide coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has greatly affected the power system operations as a result of the great changes of socio-economic behaviours. This paper proposes a short-term load forecasting method in COVID-19 context based on temporal-spatial model. In the spatial scale, the cross-domain couplings analysis of multi-factor in COVID-19 dataset is performed by means of copula theory, while COVID-19 time-series data is decomposed via variational mode decomposition algorithm into different intrinsic mode functions in the temporal scale. The forecasting values of load demand can then be acquired by combining forecasted IMFs from light Gradient Boosting Machine (LightGBM) algorithm. The performance and superiority of the proposed temporal-spatial forecasting model are evaluated and verified through a comprehensive cross-domain dataset.

3.
CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems ; 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1759470

ABSTRACT

There is an open call for technology to be more playful [5, 79] and for tech design to be more inclusive of people with disabilities [80]. In the era of COVID19, it is often unsafe for the public in general and people with disabilities, in particular, to engage in in-person design exercises using traditional methods. This presents a missed opportunity as these populations are already sharing playful content rich with tacit design knowledge that can be used to inspire the design of playful everyday technology. We present our process of scraping play potentials [4] from TikTok from content creators with disabilities to generate design concepts that may inspire future technology design. We share 7 emerging themes from the scraped content, a catalog of design concepts that may inspire designers, and discuss the relevance of the emerging themes and possible implications for the design concepts.

4.
American Journal of Cancer Research ; 11(10):4994-5005, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1498709

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 exploits the host cellular machinery for virus replication leading to the acute syndrome of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Growing evidence suggests SARS-CoV-2 also exacerbates many chronic diseases, including cancers. As mutations on the spike protein (S) emerged as dominant variants that reduce vaccine efficacy, little is known about the relation between SARS-CoV-2 virus variants and cancers. Compared to the SARS-CoV-2 wild-type, the Gamma variant contains two additional NXT/S glycosylation motifs on the S protein. The hyperglycosylated S of Gamma variant is more stable, resulting in more significant epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) potential. SARS-CoV-2 infection promoted NF-κB signaling activation and p65 nuclear translocation, inducing Snail expression. Pharmacologic inhibition of NF-κB activity by nature food compound, I3C suppressed viral replication and Gamma variant-mediated breast cancer metastasis, indicating that NF-κB inhibition can reduce chronic disease in COVID-19 patients. Our study revealed that the Gamma variant of SARS-CoV-2 activates NF-κB and, in turn, triggers the pro-survival function for cancer progression.

5.
Sustainability (Switzerland) ; 13(20), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1485178

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused an unprecedented public health crisis and was declared a global pandemic on 11 March 2020, by the World Health Organization. The Taiwanese government’s early deployment mitigated the effect of the pandemic, yet the breakout in May 2021 brought a new chal-lenge. This study focuses on examining Taiwanese newspaper articles regarding the government response before and after the soft lockdown, collecting 125,570 articles reported by three major news channels from 31 December 2019, to 30 June 2021, and splitting them into four stages. Latent Dirichlet Allocation topic modeling and sentiment analysis were used to depict the overall picture of Taiwan’s pandemic. While the news media focused on the impact and shock of the pandemic in the initial stage, prevention measures were more present in the last stage. Then, to focus on the government response indicators, we retrieved 31,089 related news from 125,570 news articles and catego-rized them into ten indicators, finding the news centered on the fundamental measures that were taken early and that were transformed into advanced measures in the latest and hardest period of the pandemic. Furthermore, this paper examines the temporal distribution of the news related to each indicator with the support of a sentiment analysis of the news’ titles and content, indicating the preparation of Taiwanese society to confront the pandemic. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

6.
Vascular Medicine ; 26(5):NP3-NP4, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1464481
7.
2020 Ieee International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedicine ; : 2320-2327, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1354392

ABSTRACT

With the recent outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), human life and the world economy have been severely affected, the propagation and scale of COVID-19 is top of mind for everyone. To reconstruct the development trend of COVID-19, we investigate the issue of the epidemic spreading process under vigorous non-pharmaceutical interventions. Here, an improved Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model with dynamic variables (i.e., health exposure individuals and close contacts) is proposed to predict the scale of COVID-19 and its dynamic evolution. We assume that the number of contacts and the reproduction number of COVID-19 changes dynamically over time. Then a gradient descent method is applied to estimate the effective reproduction number. We use the proposed model to reconstruct the dynamic transmission of COVID-19 in Chongqing between 14 January and 24 March 2020. The results show a similar development trend with a real-world epidemic. Our work has important implications when considering strategies for continuing surveillance and interventions to eventually contain outbreaks of COVID-19.

8.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(6): 983-991, 2021 Jun 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314797

ABSTRACT

Objective: To rapidly evaluate the level of healthcare resource demand for laboratory testing and prevention and control of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in different epidemic situation, and prepare for the capacity planning, stockpile distribution, and funding raising for infectious disease epidemic response. Methods: An susceptible, exposed, infectious, removed infectious disease dynamics model with confirmed asymptomatic infection cases and symptomatic hospitalized patients was introduced to simulate different COVID-19 epidemic situation and predict the numbers of hospitalized or isolated patients, and based on the current COVID-19 prevention and control measures in China, the demands of resources for laboratory testing and prevention and control of COVID-19 were evaluated. Results: When community or local transmission or outbreaks occur and total population nucleic acid testing is implemented, the need for human resources is 3.3-89.1 times higher than the reserved, and the current resources of medical personal protective equipment and instruments can meet the need. The surge in asymptomatic infections can also increase the human resource demand for laboratory testing and pose challenge to the prevention and control of the disease. When vaccine protection coverage reach ≥50%, appropriate adjustment of the prevention and control measures can reduce the need for laboratory and human resources. Conclusions: There is a great need in our country to reserve the human resources for laboratory testing and disease prevention and control for the response of the possible epidemic of COVID-19. Challenges to human resources resulted from total population nucleic acid testing and its necessity need to be considered. Conducting non-pharmaceutical interventions and encouraging more people to be vaccinated can mitigate the shock on healthcare resource demand in COVID-19 prevention and control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Taiwan Journal of Public Health ; 40(2):187-198, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1304839

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The Taiwan Centers for Disease Control have established government quarantine facilities (GQF) to prevent the community spread of COVID-19. Medical personnel are frontline workers who must have contact with individuals in quarantine and are thus at higher risk of infection. As a reference for future recruitment, this study investigated why some medical personnel volunteer to care for individuals in GQF. Methods: The researchers used purposive sampling to recruit participants from a GQF in northern Taiwan. Focus group interviews were administered. The consistency of the interview outline content was 91%. After the interviews, content analysis was performed to examine and summarize the data. The data were coded before comparison, categorization and summarization, producing various core categories. Results: A total of 12 participants voluntarily attended our interviews, compromising 4 men and 8 women, with an average age of 48.1 ±6.4 years and an average length of service in GQF of 82.1 ± 77.1 days. Our study results revealed four aspects and six reasons that affect the voluntary participation of medical personnel in epidemic prevention tasks. The first aspect was meeting safety needs, and the reasons included sufficient personal protective equipment, complete standard operating procedures, and orientation training and in-service education and training. The second aspect was meeting the needs of love and belonging, and the reason included a good working atmosphere. The third aspect was meeting the need for self-esteem, and the reason included Taiwan's previous SARS epidemic prevention experience. Finally, the fourth aspect was meeting the need for selfrealization, and the reason was based on the humanistic concern. Conclusions: At the time of the coronavirus outbreak, various countries reported insufficient medical personnel or personnel unwilling to participate in epidemic prevention work. Our results revealed that if the environment met the Maslow's hierarchy of needs, it can attract medical personnel to volunteer in GQF tasks. In formulating policies, the needs must be met at all levels, so that medical staff would be willing to participate in epidemic prevention work. © 2021 Chinese Public Health Association of Taiwan. All rights reserved.

12.
J Chem Inf Model ; 60(12): 5832-5852, 2020 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065780

ABSTRACT

We present a supercomputer-driven pipeline for in silico drug discovery using enhanced sampling molecular dynamics (MD) and ensemble docking. Ensemble docking makes use of MD results by docking compound databases into representative protein binding-site conformations, thus taking into account the dynamic properties of the binding sites. We also describe preliminary results obtained for 24 systems involving eight proteins of the proteome of SARS-CoV-2. The MD involves temperature replica exchange enhanced sampling, making use of massively parallel supercomputing to quickly sample the configurational space of protein drug targets. Using the Summit supercomputer at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, more than 1 ms of enhanced sampling MD can be generated per day. We have ensemble docked repurposing databases to 10 configurations of each of the 24 SARS-CoV-2 systems using AutoDock Vina. Comparison to experiment demonstrates remarkably high hit rates for the top scoring tranches of compounds identified by our ensemble approach. We also demonstrate that, using Autodock-GPU on Summit, it is possible to perform exhaustive docking of one billion compounds in under 24 h. Finally, we discuss preliminary results and planned improvements to the pipeline, including the use of quantum mechanical (QM), machine learning, and artificial intelligence (AI) methods to cluster MD trajectories and rescore docking poses.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Artificial Intelligence , Binding Sites , Computer Simulation , Databases, Chemical , Drug Design , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Conformation , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Structure-Activity Relationship
13.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(10): 1601-1605, 2020 Oct 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966014

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the characteristics of COVID-19 case spectrum and spread intensity in different provinces in China except Hubei province. Methods: The daily incidence data and case information of COVID-19 were collected from the official websites of provincial and municipal health commissions. The morbidity rate, severity rate, case-fatality rate, and spread ratio of COVID-19 were calculated. Results: As of 20 March, 2020, a total of 12 941 cases of COVID-19 had been conformed, including 116 deaths, and the average morbidity rate, severity rate and case-fatality rate were 0.97/100 000, 13.5% and 0.90%, respectively. The morbidity rates in Zhejiang (2.12/100 000), Jiangxi (2.01/100 000) and Beijing (1.93/100 000) ranked top three. The characteristics of COVID-19 case spectrum varied from province to province. The first three provinces (autonomous region, municipality) with high severity rates were Tianjin (45.6%), Xinjiang (35.5%) and Heilongjiang (29.5%). The case-fatality rate was highest in Xinjiang (3.95%), followed by Hainan (3.57%) and Heilongjiang (2.70%). The average spread ratio was 0.98 and the spread intensity varied from province to province. Tibet had the lowest spread ratio (0), followed by Qinghai (0.20) and Guangdong (0.23). Conclusion: The intervention measures were effective in preventing the spread of COVID-19 and improved treatment effect in China. However, there were significant differences among different regions in severity, case-fatality rate and spread ratio.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Beijing/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , China/epidemiology , Humans , Morbidity , Tibet/epidemiology
14.
PMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | PMC | ID: ppcovidwho-2508

ABSTRACT

… They used solutions obtained by genetic algorithm (GA) as samples for training the network. To solve the flow shop scheduling problem, Ramanan et al … We applied the proposed neural network scheduler to a medical mask manufacturer during the peak of COVID-19 in China …

15.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(5): 623-628, 2020 May 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-589595

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, COVID-19, a new emerging infection disease, has spread in 27 countries and regions. The clusters of many cases were reported with the epidemic progresses. We collected currently available information for 377 COVID-19 clusters (1 719 cases), excluded the hospital clusters and Hubei cases, during the period from January 1 to February 20, 2020. There were 297 family clusters (79%), case median was 4; 39 clusters of dining (10%), case median was 5; 23 clusters of shopping malls or supermarkets (6%), case median was 13; 12 clusters of work units (3%), case median was 6, and 6 clusters of transportation. We selected 325 cases to estimate the incubation period and its range was 1 to 20 days, median was 7 days, and mode was 4 days. The analysis of the epidemic situation in a department store in China indicated that there was a possibility of patients as the source of infection during the incubation period of the epidemic. From February 5 to 21, 2020, 634 persons were infected on the Diamond Princess Liner. All persons are susceptible to the 2019 coronavirus. Age, patients during the incubation period and the worse environment might be the cause of the cases rising. The progress of the two typical outbreaks clearly demonstrated the spread of the early cases in Wuhan. In conclusion, screening and isolating close contacts remained essential other than clinical treatment during the epidemic. Especially for the healthy people in the epidemic area, isolation was the key.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Humans , Pandemics
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