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1.
Science Translational Medicine ; 14(662):eabn5168, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029464

ABSTRACT

Although it has been more than 2 years since the start of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, COVID-19 continues to be a worldwide health crisis. Despite the development of preventive vaccines, therapies to treat COVID-19 and other inflammatory diseases remain a major unmet need in medicine. Our study sought to identify drivers of disease severity and mortality to develop tailored immunotherapy strategies to halt disease progression. We assembled the Mount Sinai COVID-19 Biobank, which was composed of almost 600 hospitalized patients followed longitudinally through the peak of the pandemic in 2020. Moderate disease and survival were associated with a stronger antigen presentation and effector T cell signature. In contrast, severe disease and death were associated with an altered antigen presentation signature, increased numbers of inflammatory immature myeloid cells, and extrafollicular activated B cells that have been previously associated with autoantibody formation. In severely ill patients with COVID-19, lung tissue-resident alveolar macrophages not only were drastically depleted but also had an altered antigen presentation signature, which coincided with an influx of inflammatory monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages. In addition, we found that the size of the alveolar macrophage pool correlated with patient outcome and that alveolar macrophage numbers and functionality were restored to homeostasis in patients who recovered from COVID-19. These data suggest that local and systemic myeloid cell dysregulation are drivers of COVID-19 severity and modulation of alveolar macrophage numbers and activity in the lung may be a viable therapeutic strategy for the treatment of critical inflammatory lung diseases.

2.
Emerging Microbes & Infections ; : 1-25, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028962

ABSTRACT

To further describe the effect of the "fragile population" and their "higher-risk" comorbidities on prognosis among hospitalized Omicron patients, this observational cohort study enrolled hospitalized patients confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 during the 2022 Omicron wave in Shanghai, China. The primary outcome was progression to severe or critical cases. The secondary outcome was viral shedding time from the first positive SARS-CoV-2 detection. A total of 847 participants were enrolled, most of who featured as advanced age (>70 years old: 30.34%), not fully vaccinated (55.84%), combined with at least 1 comorbidity (65.41%). Multivariate cox regression suggested age > 70 years old (aHR[95%CI] 0.78[0.61-0.99]), chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 4-5 (aHR[95%CI] 0.61[0.46-0.80]), heart conditions (aHR[95%CI] 0.76[0.60-0.97]) would elongate viral shedding time and fully/booster vaccination (aHR[95%CI] 0.35[0.12-0.87]) would shorten this duration. Multivariate logistic regression suggested CKD stage 4-5 (aHR[95%CI] 3.21[1.45-7.27]), cancer (aHR[95%CI] 9.52[4.19-22.61]), and long-term bedridden status (aHR[95%CI] 4.94[2.36 -10.44]) were the "higher" risk factor compared with the elderly, heart conditions, metabolic disorders, isolated hypertension, etc. for severity while female (aHR[95%CI] 0.34[0.16-0.68]) and fully/booster Vaccination (aHR[95%CI] 0.35[0.12-0.87]) could provide protection from illness progression. CKD stage 4-5, cancer and long-term bedridden history were "higher-risk" factors among hospitalized Omicron patients for severity progression while full vaccination could provide protection from illness progression.

3.
Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy ; 7(1):318, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028663

ABSTRACT

Excessive inflammatory responses contribute to the pathogenesis and lethality of highly pathogenic human coronaviruses, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, the N proteins of highly pathogenic human coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), were found to bind MASP-2, a key serine protease in the lectin pathway of complement activation, resulting in excessive complement activation by potentiating MBL-dependent MASP-2 activation, and the deposition of MASP-2, C4b, activated C3 and C5b-9. Aggravated inflammatory lung injury was observed in mice infected with adenovirus expressing the N protein. Complement hyperactivation was also observed in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. Either blocking the N protein:MASP-2 interaction, MASP-2 depletion or suppressing complement activation can significantly alleviate N protein-induced complement hyperactivation and lung injury in vitro and in vivo. Altogether, these data suggested that complement suppression may represent a novel therapeutic approach for pneumonia induced by these highly pathogenic coronaviruses.

4.
Dermatology Practical and Conceptual ; 12(3), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2025227

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Improving remote triage is crucial given expansions in tele-dermatology and with limited in-person care during COVID-19. In addition to clinical pictures, dermoscopic images may provide utility for triage. Objectives: To determine if dermoscopic images enhance confidence, triage accuracy, and triage prioritization for tele-dermatology. Methods: In this preliminary parallel convergent mixed-methods study, a cohort of dermatologists and residents assessed skin lesions using clinical and dermoscopic images. For each case, participants viewed a clinical image and determined diagnostic category, management, urgency, and decisionmaking confidence. They subsequently viewed the associated dermoscopy and answered the same questions. A moderated focus group discussion followed to explore perceptions on the role of dermoscopy in tele-dermatology. Results: Dermoscopy improved recognition of malignancies by 23% and significantly reduced triage urgency measures for non-malignant lesions. Participants endorsed specific utilities of tele-dermoscopy, such as for evaluating pigmented lesions, with limitations including poor image quality. Conclusions: Dermoscopic images may be useful when remotely triaging skin lesions. Standardized imaging protocols are needed. © 2022 Dermatology Practical and Conceptual. All rights reserved.

5.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2022758

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a severe pandemic that has posed an unprecedented challenge to public health worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common digestive system malignancy, with high aggressiveness and poor prognosis. HCC patients may be vulnerable to COVID-19. Since the anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antiviral effects of vitamin D, we aimed to investigate the possible therapeutic effects and underlying action mechanisms of vitamin D in COVID-19 and HCC in this study. By using a range of bioinformatics and network pharmacology analyses, we identified many COVID-19/HCC target genes and analyzed their prognostic significance in HCC patients. Further, a risk score model with good predictive performance was developed to evaluate the prognosis of HCC patients with COVID-19 based on these target genes. Moreover, we identified seven possible pharmacological targets of vitamin D against COVID-19/HCC, including HMOX1, MB, TLR4, ALB, TTR, ACTA1 and RBP4. And we revealed the biological functions, signaling pathways and TF-miRNA coregulatory network of vitamin D in COVID-19/HCC. The enrichment analysis revealed that vitamin D could help in treating COVID-19/HCC effects through regulation of immune response, epithelial structure maintenance, regulation of chemokine and cytokine production involved in immune response and anti-inflammatory action. Finally, the molecular docking analyses were performed and showed that vitamin D possessed effective binding activity in COVID-19. Overall, we revealed the possible molecular mechanisms and pharmacological targets of vitamin D for treating COVID-19/HCC for the first time. But these findings need to be further validated in actual HCC patients with COVID-19 and need further investigation to confirm.

6.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 68(6):1232-1237, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2020713

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Medical students are under high pressure to perform academically and also face the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, putting them at risk of developing burnout. AIMS: This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and degree of burnout among medical students in Indonesia during 1 month of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: From April to May 2021, we conducted an online survey of Indonesian medical students to assess burnout (using Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey, MBI-SS). RESULTS: A total of 1,947 students from 27 universities participated in the study. About 35.5% had burnout, 41.7% with a moderate to high level of emotional exhaustion, 45% had moderate to high level of depersonalization and 66.7% had a low level of personal accomplishment. CONCLUSION: A total of 35.5% of medical students in our sample experienced burnout. We suggest further research to explore and identify factors related to these findings and the need for potential interventions at global and national level to enhance the well-being of medical students.

7.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 09:09, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019097

ABSTRACT

Pediatric solid organ transplant recipients (pSOTR) often demonstrate suboptimal vaccine responses and are not included in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine efficacy trials. This population has shown variable humoral immunity following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, and no studies have assessed cell-mediated responses after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in pSOTR. SARS-CoV2-specific interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA), immunoglobulin G (IgG), and receptor-binding domain (RBD)-ACE2 blocking antibody (Ab), were measured in pSOTR aged 5-17 years after 2-3 doses of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine. Thirty-three subjects were included, with 25 tested after the 2nd dose of mRNA vaccine (V2) and 21 tested after the 3rd dose of mRNA vaccine (V3). Of the 19 subjects who had IgG testing after V3, 100.0% (19/19) had a positive IgG response. Of the 17 subjects who had IGRA testing after V3, 94.1% (16/17) had a positive IGRA response. RBD-ACE2 blocking antibody increased significantly from V2 to V3 (p=0.007). Subjects <1 year from transplant demonstrated a significantly larger increase in RBD-ACE2 blocking Ab from V2 to V3 than did those >1 year from transplant (p=0.05). SARS-CoV-2 vaccination induces humoral and cell-mediated responses in the majority of pSOTR, with improved quantitative humoral response after 3 doses.

8.
19th International Joint Conference on Computer Science and Software Engineering, JCSSE 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2018935

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has wreaked havoc on social and economic systems worldwide. The variance in the rapidly increasing number of illnesses and deaths in each country is primarily due to national policies and actions. As a result, governments and institutions need to get insights into the critical factors influencing COVID-19 future case counts to properly manage the adverse effects of pandemics and promptly prepare appropriate measures. Thus, in this paper, we conduct extensive experiments on the real-world covid-19 datasets to examine the important factors influencing in the pandemic growth. In particular, we perform an exploratory data analysis to get the statistic and characteristics of multivariate time-series data on pandemic dynamic. Also, we utilize a statistical measure such as Pearson correlation to compute the relations of the past on the future daily new cases. The experimental results demonstrate that some restrictions have a positive effect on daily new confirmed cases at the early stage of the local pandemic transmission. Also, the results show that the early trend of COVID-19 can be explained well by human mobility in various categories. Thus, our proposed framework can be served as a guideline for future pandemic prevention and control decision-making. © 2022 IEEE.

9.
Brief Bioinform ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2017730

ABSTRACT

We present a novel self-supervised Contrastive LEArning framework for single-cell ribonucleic acid (RNA)-sequencing (CLEAR) data representation and the downstream analysis. Compared with current methods, CLEAR overcomes the heterogeneity of the experimental data with a specifically designed representation learning task and thus can handle batch effects and dropout events simultaneously. It achieves superior performance on a broad range of fundamental tasks, including clustering, visualization, dropout correction, batch effect removal, and pseudo-time inference. The proposed method successfully identifies and illustrates inflammatory-related mechanisms in a COVID-19 disease study with 43 695 single cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

10.
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Education ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2017324

ABSTRACT

The COVID 19 pandemic has forced educators and students to embrace e-learning. It has become urgent that educators expedite their efforts in establishing criteria to assess the overall effectiveness of e-learning, in which student emotional intelligence (EI) cultivation and development play an increasingly centric role. However, a survey of the current literature shows that EI in e-learning appears to have received little attention. This study was thus designed to help fill this research void. Specifically, it set out to understand typical hospitality and tourism students’ EI behaviors in the e-learning environment. To achieve this goal, this study applied a two-round Delphi approach. The findings show that in the e-learning environment, students commonly exhibit high self-awareness, low self-management, low social management, and low relationship-building competence. Prior EI studies mainly focus on employee performance and behavior but this study extends the effect of EI in education and offers significant implications for hospitality and tourism educators and researchers (word count: 155). © 2022 ICHRIE.

11.
Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy ; 7(1), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2016658

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still rapidly spreading worldwide. Many drugs and vaccines have been approved for clinical use show efficacy in the treatment and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infections. However, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs), such as Delta (B.1.617.2) and the recently emerged Omicron (B.1.1.529), has seriously challenged the application of current therapeutics. Therefore, there is still a pressing need for identification of new broad-spectrum antivirals. Here, we further characterized a human antibody (58G6), which we previously isolated from a patient, with a broadly authentic virus-neutralizing activity that inhibits the Delta and Omicron variants with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 1.69 ng/ml and 54.31 ng/ml, respectively. 58G6 shows prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy in hamsters challenged with the Delta and Omicron variants through nasal delivery. Notably, a very low dosage (2 mg/kg daily) of 58G6 efficiently prevented Omicron variant replication in the lungs. These advantages may overcome the efficacy limitation of currently approved neutralizing antibodies that can be administered only by intravenous injection. In general, 58G6 is a promising prophylactic and therapeutic candidate against current circulating VOCs and even future emerging mutants. To the best of our knowledge, 58G6 is one of the most potent neutralizing antibodies against Omicron, with a broader spectrum than those approved for clinical use. 58G6 could be developed as a nebulized therapy, which would be more cost effective and user friendly and enhance the clinical outcome compared to that obtained with direct nasal delivery.

12.
21st International Conference on Image Analysis and Processing , ICIAP 2022 ; 13374 LNCS:529-535, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2013966

ABSTRACT

A better backbone network usually benefits the performance of various computer vision applications. This paper aims to introduce an effective solution for infection percentage estimation of COVID-19 for the computed tomography (CT) scans. We first adopt the state-of-the-art backbone, Hierarchical Visual Transformer, as the backbone to extract the effective and semantic feature representation from the CT scans. Then, the non-linear classification and the regression heads are proposed to estimate the infection scores of COVID-19 symptoms of CT scans with the GELU activation function. We claim that multi-tasking learning is beneficial for better feature representation learning for the infection score prediction. Moreover, the maximum-rectangle cropping strategy is also proposed to obtain the region of interest (ROI) to boost the effectiveness of the infection percentage estimation of COVID-19. The experiments demonstrated that the proposed method is effective and efficient. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

13.
J Med Virol ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2013628

ABSTRACT

To rapidly identify individuals infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and control the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), there is an urgent need for highly sensitive on-site virus detection methods. A clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas)-based molecular diagnostic method was developed for this purpose. Here, a CRISPR system-mediated lateral flow assay (LFA) for SARS-CoV-2 was established based on multienzyme isothermal rapid amplification, CRISPR-Cas13a nuclease, and LFA. To improve the limit of detection (LoD), the crispr RNA, amplification primer, and probe were screened, in addition to concentrations of various components in the reaction system. The LoD of CRISPR detection was improved to 0.25 copy/mul in both fluorescence- and immunochromatography-based assays. To enhance the quality control of the CRISPR-based LFA method, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was detected as a reference using a triple-line strip design in a lateral flow strip. In total, 52 COVID-19-positive and 101 COVID-19-negative clinical samples examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were tested using the CRISPR immunochromatographic detection technique. Results revealed 100% consistency, indicating the comparable effectiveness of our method to that of RT-PCR. In conclusion, this approach significantly improves the sensitivity and reliability of CRISPR-mediated LFA and provides a crucial tool for on-site detection of SARS-CoV-2.

14.
Business Strategy and the Environment ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2013375

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has spread worldwide, resulting in crises in public health and sustainable development. Aimed at understanding the determinants of conscious green purchasing behavior (GPB), this paper developed a comprehensive framework linking the moderating effect of negative environmental affective reactions (NEAR) to COVID-19 based on the S–O–R paradigm. Using randomly selected urban residents from China's Yangtze River Delta and Bohai Rim regions, the empirical study was conducted using 559 valid responses. The results show that media and peers are the major social forces activating altruistic and egoistic motivations, while family influence was not significant. Dual motivations significantly mediated the relationships of unconditional and conditional GPB with media exposure and peer influence. Contrary to expectations, NEAR negatively moderated the formation process of conscious GPB. The findings indicate that the influence of peers on conscious GPB through dual motivations is stronger compared to media. Negative affective reactions to COVID-19 were also found to inhibit the impact of peer influence on altruistic and egoistic motivations, as well as the path of altruistic motivation on unconditional GPB. The results of this study have important theoretical and practical implications for enterprise marketing and environmental campaigns, and narrowing the green attitude-behavior gap. © 2022 ERP Environment and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

15.
Frontiers in Genetics ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009857

ABSTRACT

Aims: The causal relationship between COVID-19 infection and stroke has not yet been fully established. This study aimed to explore this causality using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR). Materials and Methods: Genetic variants associated with COVID-19 infection and stroke were both obtained from genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary data. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected as instrumental variables. The standard inverse variance weighted (IVW) was primarily used to assess this causality. Finally, sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the reliability and stability. Results: The results showed that being hospitalized due to COVID-19 had a positive effect on stroke [OR = 1.05;95% CI= (1.01, 1.10);p = 2.34 × 10−5] and ischemic stroke [OR = 1.06;95% CI= (1.02, 1.11);p = 2.28 × 10−6] analyzed by inverse variance weighted. Moreover, the results revealed that severe respiratory symptoms due to COVID-19 had a positive effect on stroke [OR = 1.04;95% CI= (1.00, 1.06);p = 0.04] and that the causal effect of severe respiratory symptoms due to COVID-19 on ischemic stroke estimated by IVW suggested a positive effect [OR = 1.06;95% CI= (1.02, 1.09);p = 0.0068], too. Conclusion: In summary, this study showed that severe COVID-19 might increase the risk of stroke, thus much more attention should be paid to patients with severe COVID-19.

16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(35), 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2008666

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have distinct clinical features in the pediatric groups. However, there is a paucity of research focused on clinical manifestation within pediatric group in Taiwan. This study is to conduct a retrospective study of the clinical features of COVID-19 in Taiwan pediatric patients.A retrospective study was conducted on pediatric patients (Aged ≤ 18 years) in a Northern Taiwan hospital from May 1st, 2021 to June 30th, 2021. Thirty-eight patients were included from emergency room. They were laboratory confirmed COVID-19 through specimens from nasopharyngeal swab by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Data including RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values, clinical and epidemiological features were collected and analyzed.Thirty-eight patients aged from 7-month to 18-year-old were included. The median age of patients was 15-year-old. The patients had sex ratio of 23 males to 15 females. More than half patients were infected from family members. Asymptomatic patients were 47.37%. In the symptomatic patients, fever (34.21%) was the most predominant symptom. Cough, nasal obstruction and sore throat were also common. Asymptomatic children had significantly higher Ct-values than symptomatic children, and diagnosed patients with Ct-values more than 19 were associated with asymptomatic infection (P = .0084).Ct-values higher than 19 were associated with asymptomatic infection, which may be a predictor of pediatric disease severity. Our results highlight the distinct clinical manifestations and outcomes in pediatric COVID-19 patients. Compared to the adults, pediatric patients aged ≤ 18 years with COVID-19 in Taiwan mainly had mild disease.

17.
American Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Medicine and Surgery ; 43(6), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2007384

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To investigate the clinical characteristics of infantile subglottic hemangioma (SGH), and to observe the safety and efficacy of propranolol in the treatment of SGH. Methods: The data of 21 children diagnosed with SGH and treated with propranolol in our hospital from March 2013 to January 2021 were retrospectively analyzed and followed up. Results: Among the 21 cases, there were 7 males and 14 females. SGH was found 11 left-sided, 9 right-sided and 1 bilateral-sided. The clinical manifestations included stridor (13/21), respiratory distress (6/21), barking cough (5/21), feeding difficulty (4/21), three concave sign (4/21), cyanosis (2/21) and hoarseness (1/21). 8 patients had multiple cutaneous hemangiomas. The age of presentation ranged from 1 to 8 months, with a median of 1.1 months. 18 cases (85.7 %) had a history of misdiagnosis, 14 bronchitis/pneumonia, 5 laryngomalacia, 2 laryngeal obstruction and 1 asthma. The median ages at diagnosis were 3 months, with a range of 1.2–28 months. The treatment duration ranged from 6 to 25.6 months, with an average of (14.3 ± 4.9) months. Age at termination of treatment ranged from 9 to 38 months, with a median of 18.6 months, and only 2 cases were beyond 2 years old at that time. No adverse side effects from propranolol therapy occurred and all 21 cases were cured. Conclusions: We advocate a strong index of suspicion for SGH presenting with respiratory symptoms under 2 years old who has poor effect or repeated condition after routine treatment. Laryngoscopy combined with contrast-enhanced CT can confirm the diagnosis of SGH. Oral propranolol is safe and effective, and that early diagnosis and intervention of propranolol without further delay are crucial to the successful management. We advocate continue propranolol treatment beyond 18 months of age, furthermore, 2 years old may be the best time for therapy termination.

18.
Infectious Diseases and Therapy ; 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2007310

ABSTRACT

Introduction: This study explored circulating pneumoproteins in the diagnosis, severity, and prognosis of COVID-19 by meta-analysis. Methods: We searched five databases and other sources until December 16, 2021. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were the overall outcomes. RevMan 5.3, Stata 16, and Meta-DiSc 1.4 were utilized for pooled analysis. Results: A total of 2432 subjects from 26 studies were included. Patients with COVID-19 had higher circulating KL-6, SP-D, and SP-A levels (SMD 1.34, 95% CI [0.60, 2.08];SMD 1.74, 95% CI [0.64, 2.84];SMD 3.42, 95% CI [1.31, 5.53], respectively) than healthy individuals. Circulating SP-D levels were not significantly different in survivors and non-survivors (SMD − 0.19, 95% CI [− 0.78, 0.40]). Circulating KL-6, SP-D, and RAGE levels in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 were significantly lower (SMD − 0.93, 95% CI [− 1.22, − 0.65];SMD − 1.32, 95% CI [− 2.34, − 0.29];SMD − 1.17, 95% CI [− 2.06, − 0.28], respectively) than in patients with severe COVID-19. Subgroup analysis suggested that country and total number may be related to the heterogeneity when analyzing SP-D in patients with mild to moderate vs. severe COVID-19. The meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy including KL-6 for severity, KL-6 for mortality, and SP-D for severity demonstrated that they all had limited diagnostic value. Conclusion: Therefore, circulating pneumoproteins (KL-6, SP-D, and RAGEs) reflect the diagnosis, severity, and prognosis of COVID-19, and follow-up studies are still needed.

19.
Biochemistry and molecular biology education : a bimonthly publication of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology ; 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007091

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic forced many courses to move online, presenting a particular challenge for hands-on laboratory courses. One such course in our Biotechnology track is an advanced Protein Interactions lecture/laboratory course. This 8-week course typically meets for 5 h a week in the laboratory space. For the Fall 2020 version of the course, first-person videos were produced for each of the laboratory experiments, and the corresponding experimental data produced by students in previous semesters were provided for the current students to analyze in their electronic lab notebooks and lab reports. Student perspectives and assessments were collected on course participants from Fall 2019 (in-person laboratories) and Fall 2020 (online laboratories) to compare experiences and outcomes. Analysis of the data shows that the online students appreciated the videos and gained self-confidence in the procedures, but maintained more misconceptions about the material. In addition to being unable to perform the hands-on experiments, other factors such as anxiety could also be interfering with the learning process under the pandemic conditions. The implementation process for the remote labs, student reactions, and lessons learned are discussed.

20.
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology ; 12, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2005850

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a challenge of world. The latest research has proved that Xuanfei Baidu granule (XFBD) significantly improved patient’s clinical symptoms, the compound drug improves immunity by increasing the number of white blood cells and lymphocytes, and exerts anti-inflammatory effects. However, the analysis of the effective monomer components of XFBD and its mechanism of action in the treatment of COVID-19 is currently lacking. Therefore, this study used computer simulation to study the effective monomer components of XFBD and its therapeutic mechanism. Methods: We screened out the key active ingredients in XFBD through TCMSP database. Besides GeneCards database was used to search disease gene targets and screen intersection gene targets. The intersection gene targets were analyzed by GO and KEGG. The disease-core gene target-drug network was analyzed and molecular docking was used for verification. Molecular dynamics simulation verification was carried out to combine the active ingredient and the target with a stable combination. The supercomputer platform was used to measure and analyze the number of hydrogen bonds, the binding free energy, the stability of protein target at the residue level, the solvent accessible surface area, and the radius of gyration. Results: XFBD had 1308 gene targets, COVID-19 had 4600 gene targets, the intersection gene targets were 548. GO and KEGG analysis showed that XFBD played a vital role by the signaling pathways of immune response and inflammation. Molecular docking showed that I-SPD, Pachypodol and Vestitol in XFBD played a role in treating COVID-19 by acting on NLRP3, CSF2, and relieve the clinical symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Molecular dynamics was used to prove the binding stability of active ingredients and protein targets, CSF2/I-SPD combination has the strongest binding energy. Conclusion: For the first time, it was found that the important active chemical components in XFBD, such as I-SPD, Pachypodol and Vestitol, reduce inflammatory response and apoptosis by inhibiting the activation of NLRP3, and reduce the production of inflammatory factors and chemotaxis of inflammatory cells by inhibiting the activation of CSF2. Therefore, XFBD can effectively alleviate the clinical symptoms of COVID-19 through NLRP3 and CSF2.

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