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Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2207474, 2023 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316532


Vaccination is a cost-effective medical intervention. Inactivated whole virusor large protein fragments-based severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines have high unnecessary antigenic load to induce allergenicity and/orreactogenicity, which can be avoided by peptide vaccines of short peptide fragments that may induce highly targeted immune response. However, epitope identification and peptide delivery remain the major obstacles in developing peptide vaccines. Here, a multi-source data integrated linear B-cell epitope screening strategy is presented and a linear B-cell epitope enriched hotspot region is identified in Spike protein, from which a monomeric peptide vaccine (Epitope25) is developed and applied to subcutaneously immunize wildtype BALB/c mice. Indirect ELISA assay reveals specific and dose-dependent binding between Epitope25 and serum IgG antibodies from immunized mice. The neutralizing activity of sera from vaccinated mice is validated by pseudo and live SARS-CoV-2 wild-type strain neutralization assays. Then a dissolvable microneedle array (DMNA) is developed to pain-freely deliver Epitope25. Compared with intramuscular injection, DMNA and subcutaneous injection elicit neutralizing activities against SARS-CoV-2 wild-type strain as demonstrated by live SARS-CoV-2 virus neutralization assay. No obvious damages are found in major organs of immunized mice. This study may lay the foundation for developing linear B-cell epitope-based vaccines against SARS-CoV-2.

Science ; 369(6511): 1603-1607, 2020 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690532


The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has prioritized the development of small-animal models for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We adapted a clinical isolate of SARS-CoV-2 by serial passaging in the respiratory tract of aged BALB/c mice. The resulting mouse-adapted strain at passage 6 (called MASCp6) showed increased infectivity in mouse lung and led to interstitial pneumonia and inflammatory responses in both young and aged mice after intranasal inoculation. Deep sequencing revealed a panel of adaptive mutations potentially associated with the increased virulence. In particular, the N501Y mutation is located at the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein. The protective efficacy of a recombinant RBD vaccine candidate was validated by using this model. Thus, this mouse-adapted strain and associated challenge model should be of value in evaluating vaccines and antivirals against SARS-CoV-2.

Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Models, Animal , Mice , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Administration, Intranasal , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Female , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Lung/virology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/virology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Transgenic , Mutation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Virulence/genetics