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1.
Rheumatology & Autoimmunity ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1863866

ABSTRACT

Background We examined attitudes toward the COVID‐19 vaccine, potential factors underlying these attitudes, and ways to increase vaccination willingness in autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD) patients. Methods A multicenter, web‐based, observational survey using an online questionnaire was conducted among AIIRD patients aged ≥18 years from May 24, 2021, to June 3, 2021. Participants were 3104 AIIRD patients (2921 unvaccinated and 183 vaccinated). Results Of the unvaccinated patients, 32.9% were willing to receive the COVID‐19 vaccine, 45.0% were uncertain, and 14.8% were unwilling. When vaccination was recommended by physicians, patients' willingness increased to 93.8%. Participants' main concerns were that the vaccine may aggravate AIIRD disease (63.0%) and may cause vaccine‐related adverse events (19.9%). Female patients were less likely to be vaccinated. However, patients who had children aged ≤18 years were more willing to be vaccinated. In addition, vaccination willingness was higher in patients with trust in the safety and efficacy of the COVID‐19 vaccine. Notably, 183 (5.9%) patients were vaccinated. The major vaccination side effects were injection reaction, myalgia, and fatigue. At a median follow‐up of 88 (38, 131) days, patients' disease activities were stable. Conclusions The findings show that AIIRD patients were unwilling to receive the COVID‐19 vaccine because of fears of potential disease exacerbation and additional adverse events. Sociodemographic characteristics and concerns about COVID‐19 disease and vaccines had a significant effect on vaccination willingness. Key points The percentage of patients willing to receive the COVID‐19 vaccine greatly increased when vaccination was recommended by a physician. Gender, marital status, age of the patients' children, smoking, trust in the safety and efficacy of the vaccine, and previous vaccinations had significant effects on the willingness of patients with AIIRDs to receive the COVID‐19 vaccine. The data from vaccinated patients indicated no aggravation of AIIRD or additional adverse events. The population characteristics of AIIRD patients with different attitudes towards COVID‐19 vaccine.

2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 864775, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862607

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and particularly the emerging variants have deepened the need for widely available therapeutic options. We have demonstrated that hexamer-enhancing mutations in the Fc region of anti-SARS-CoV IgG antibodies lead to a noticeable improvement in IC50 in both pseudo and live virus neutralization assay compared to parental molecules. We also show that hexamer-enhancing mutants improve C1q binding to target surface. To our knowledge, this is the first time this format has been explored for application in viral neutralization and the studies provide proof-of-concept for the use of hexamer-enhanced IgG1 molecules as potential anti-viral therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/genetics , Immunologic Tests , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 735699, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775876

ABSTRACT

Background: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is one of the most common outdoor air pollutants, and secondhand smoking (SHS) is an important source of inhalable indoor air pollution. Previous studies were controversial and inconsistent about PM2.5 and SHS air pollutants on neonatal birth weight outcomes, and no studies assessed the potential interactive effects between PM2.5 and SHS on birth weight outcomes. Purpose: To investigate the interaction between gestational PM2.5 and SHS air pollution exposure on the risk of macrosomia among pregnant women and examine the modifying effect of SHS exposure on the association of PM2.5 air pollution and birth weight outcomes during pregnancy. Methods: Research data were derived from the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project (NFPHEP), which lasted 3 years from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2012. At least 240,000 Chinese women from 220 counties were enrolled in this project. PM2.5 exposure concentration was obtained using a hindcast model specific for historical PM2.5 estimation from satellite-retrieved aerosol optic depth. Different interaction models about air pollution exposure on birth weight outcomes were established, according to the adjustment of different confounding factors and different pregnancy stages. The establishment of interaction models was based on multivariable logistic regression, and the main confounding factors were maternal age at delivery and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) of participants. SHS subgroups analysis was conducted to further confirm the results of interaction models. Results: In total, 197,877 participants were included in our study. In the full-adjusted interaction model, maternal exposure to PM2.5 was associated with an increased risk of macrosomia in whole, the first-, second-, and third trimesters of pregnancy (p < 0.001). The interactive effect was statistically significant between maternal exposure to PM2.5 and SHS on the risk of macrosomia in the whole (interaction p < 0.050) and the first-trimester pregnancy (interaction p < 0.050), not in the second (interaction p > 0.050) or third trimester (interaction p > 0.050) of pregnancy. The higher frequency of SHS exposure prompted the stronger interaction between the two air pollutants in the whole pregnancy and the first-trimester pregnancy. Conclusions: In the whole and first-trimester pregnancy, maternal exposure to SHS during pregnancy enhanced the risk of macrosomia among pregnant women exposed to PM2.5 air pollutants, and the interaction became stronger with the higher frequency of SHS exposure.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Fetal Macrosomia , Particulate Matter , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Female , Fetal Macrosomia/chemically induced , Fetal Macrosomia/etiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/analysis
4.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 322(5): L712-L721, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759484

ABSTRACT

Accumulating evidence has confirmed that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a risk factor for development of severe pathological changes in the peripheral lungs of patients with COVID-19. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Because bronchiolar club cells are crucial for maintaining small airway homeostasis, we sought to explore whether the altered susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection of the club cells might have contributed to the severe COVID-19 pneumonia in COPD patients. Our investigation on the quantity and distribution patterns of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in airway epithelium via immunofluorescence staining revealed that the mean fluorescence intensity of the ACE2-positive epithelial cells was significantly higher in club cells than those in other epithelial cells (including ciliated cells, basal cells, goblet cells, neuroendocrine cells, and alveolar type 2 cells). Compared with nonsmokers, the median percentage of club cells in bronchiolar epithelium and ACE2-positive club cells was significantly higher in COPD patients. In vitro, SARS-CoV-2 infection (at a multiplicity of infection of 1.0) of primary small airway epithelial cells, cultured on air-liquid interface, confirmed a higher percentage of infected ACE2-positive club cells in COPD patients than in nonsmokers. Our findings have indicated the role of club cells in modulating the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2-related severe pneumonia and the poor clinical outcomes, which may help physicians to formulate a novel therapeutic strategy for COVID-19 patients with coexisting COPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Lung , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , SARS-CoV-2
5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329732

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 vaccination of persons aged 12 years and older has reduced disease burden in the United States. The COVID-19 Scenario Modeling Hub convened multiple modeling teams in September 2021 to project the impact of expanding vaccine administration to children 5-11 years old on anticipated COVID-19 burden and resilience against variant strains. Methods: Nine modeling teams contributed state- and national-level projections for weekly counts of cases, hospitalizations, and deaths in the United States for the period September 12, 2021 to March 12, 2022. Four scenarios covered all combinations of: 1) presence vs. absence of vaccination of children ages 5-11 years starting on November 1, 2021;and 2) continued dominance of the Delta variant vs. emergence of a hypothetical more transmissible variant on November 15, 2021. Individual team projections were combined using linear pooling. The effect of childhood vaccination on overall and age-specific outcomes was estimated by meta-analysis approaches. Findings: Absent a new variant, COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations, and deaths among all ages were projected to decrease nationally through mid-March 2022. Under a set of specific assumptions, models projected that vaccination of children 5-11 years old was associated with reductions in all-age cumulative cases (7.2%, mean incidence ratio [IR] 0.928, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.880-0.977), hospitalizations (8.7%, mean IR 0.913, 95% CI 0.834-0.992), and deaths (9.2%, mean IR 0.908, 95% CI 0.797-1.020) compared with scenarios where children were not vaccinated. This projected effect of vaccinating children 5-11 years old increased in the presence of a more transmissible variant, assuming no change in vaccine effectiveness by variant. Larger relative reductions in cumulative cases, hospitalizations, and deaths were observed for children than for the entire U.S. population. Substantial state-level variation was projected in epidemic trajectories, vaccine benefits, and variant impacts. Conclusions: Results from this multi-model aggregation study suggest that, under a specific set of scenario assumptions, expanding vaccination to children 5-11 years old would provide measurable direct benefits to this age group and indirect benefits to the all-age U.S. population, including resilience to more transmissible variants.

6.
Cell Discov ; 8(1): 17, 2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692628

ABSTRACT

The continuous emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants highlights the need of developing vaccines with broad protection. Here, according to the immune-escape capability and evolutionary convergence, the representative SARS-CoV-2 strains carrying the hotspot mutations were selected. Then, guided by structural and computational analyses, we present a mutation-integrated trimeric form of spike receptor-binding domain (mutI-tri-RBD) as a broadly protective vaccine candidate, which combined heterologous RBDs from different representative strains into a hybrid immunogen and integrated immune-escape hotspots into a single antigen. When compared with a homo-tri-RBD vaccine candidate in the stage of phase II trial, of which all three RBDs are derived from the SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain, mutI-tri-RBD induced significantly higher neutralizing antibody titers against the Delta and Beta variants, and maintained a similar immune response against the prototype strain. Pseudo-virus neutralization assay demonstrated that mutI-tri-RBD also induced broadly strong neutralizing activities against all tested 23 SARS-CoV-2 variants. The in vivo protective capability of mutI-tri-RBD was further validated in hACE2-transgenic mice challenged by the live virus, and the results showed that mutI-tri-RBD provided potent protection not only against the SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain but also against the Delta and Beta variants.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306299

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 is sweeping the world with deadly consequences. Its contagious nature and clinical similarity to other pneumonias make separating subjects contracted with COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia a priority and a challenge. However, COVID-19 testing has been greatly limited by the availability and cost of existing methods, even in developed countries like the US. Intrigued by the wide availability of routine blood tests, we propose to leverage them for COVID-19 testing using the power of machine learning. Two proven-robust machine learning model families, random forests (RFs) and support vector machines (SVMs), are employed to tackle the challenge. Trained on blood data from 208 moderate COVID-19 subjects and 86 subjects with non-COVID-19 moderate viral pneumonia, the best result is obtained in an SVM-based classifier with an accuracy of 84%, a sensitivity of 88%, a specificity of 80%, and a precision of 92%. The results are found explainable from both machine learning and medical perspectives. A privacy-protected web portal is set up to help medical personnel in their practice and the trained models are released for developers to further build other applications. We hope our results can help the world fight this pandemic and welcome clinical verification of our approach on larger populations.

8.
Rheumatol Autoimmun ; 2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680540

ABSTRACT

Background: We examined attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine, potential factors underlying these attitudes, and ways to increase vaccination willingness in autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD) patients. Methods: A multicenter, web-based, observational survey using an online questionnaire was conducted among AIIRD patients aged ≥18 years from May 24, 2021, to June 3, 2021. Participants were 3104 AIIRD patients (2921 unvaccinated and 183 vaccinated). Results: Of the unvaccinated patients, 32.9% were willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine, 45.0% were uncertain, and 14.8% were unwilling. When vaccination was recommended by physicians, patients' willingness increased to 93.8%. Participants' main concerns were that the vaccine may aggravate AIIRD disease (63.0%) and may cause vaccine-related adverse events (19.9%). Female patients were less likely to be vaccinated. However, patients who had children aged ≤18 years were more willing to be vaccinated. In addition, vaccination willingness was higher in patients with trust in the safety and efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine. Notably, 183 (5.9%) patients were vaccinated. The major vaccination side effects were injection reaction, myalgia, and fatigue. At a median follow-up of 88 (38, 131) days, patients' disease activities were stable. Conclusions: The findings show that AIIRD patients were unwilling to receive the COVID-19 vaccine because of fears of potential disease exacerbation and additional adverse events. Sociodemographic characteristics and concerns about COVID-19 disease and vaccines had a significant effect on vaccination willingness.

9.
Energy Economics ; : 105838, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1627163

ABSTRACT

The paper develops a two-insurer contingent claim framework to evaluate their equities. One insurer conducts carbon-linked investment, while the other conducts conventional (non-carbon-linked) investment. The free-riding issue becomes essential because of the carbon-emission externality. We show that the life insurance policyholders are free riders when either the return of carbon-linked or the conventional investment increases. But the cost burden of policyholder protection is the reduced insurer interest margin. The results also apply to the increased carbon-linked investment volatility and the different coronavirus COVID-19 impacts on the two-insurer interest margins. In the soundness test, we show that insurance stability at the cost of insurer profits is less significant when the carbon-linked investor's barrier increases. Free riding would be intimately relevant to insurance and carbon-emission environments in the barrier option model.

10.
Gut ; 71(2): 238-253, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622066

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Helicobacter pylori infection is mostly a family-based infectious disease. To facilitate its prevention and management, a national consensus meeting was held to review current evidence and propose strategies for population-wide and family-based H. pylori infection control and management to reduce the related disease burden. METHODS: Fifty-seven experts from 41 major universities and institutions in 20 provinces/regions of mainland China were invited to review evidence and modify statements using Delphi process and grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation system. The consensus level was defined as ≥80% for agreement on the proposed statements. RESULTS: Experts discussed and modified the original 23 statements on family-based H. pylori infection transmission, control and management, and reached consensus on 16 statements. The final report consists of three parts: (1) H. pylori infection and transmission among family members, (2) prevention and management of H. pylori infection in children and elderly people within households, and (3) strategies for prevention and management of H. pylori infection for family members. In addition to the 'test-and-treat' and 'screen-and-treat' strategies, this consensus also introduced a novel third 'family-based H. pylori infection control and management' strategy to prevent its intrafamilial transmission and development of related diseases. CONCLUSION: H. pylori is transmissible from person to person, and among family members. A family-based H. pylori prevention and eradication strategy would be a suitable approach to prevent its intra-familial transmission and related diseases. The notion and practice would be beneficial not only for Chinese residents but also valuable as a reference for other highly infected areas.


Subject(s)
Family Health , Helicobacter Infections/prevention & control , Helicobacter pylori , Infection Control/organization & administration , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Consensus , Delphi Technique , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Helicobacter Infections/transmission , Humans , Infant , Middle Aged , Young Adult
12.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296177

ABSTRACT

Summary What is already known about this topic? The highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant has begun to cause increases in cases, hospitalizations, and deaths in parts of the United States. With slowed vaccination uptake, this novel variant is expected to increase the risk of pandemic resurgence in the US in July—December 2021. What is added by this report? Data from nine mechanistic models project substantial resurgences of COVID-19 across the US resulting from the more transmissible Delta variant. These resurgences, which have now been observed in most states, were projected to occur across most of the US, coinciding with school and business reopening. Reaching higher vaccine coverage in July—December 2021 reduces the size and duration of the projected resurgence substantially. The expected impact of the outbreak is largely concentrated in a subset of states with lower vaccination coverage. What are the implications for public health practice? Renewed efforts to increase vaccination uptake are critical to limiting transmission and disease, particularly in states with lower current vaccination coverage. Reaching higher vaccination goals in the coming months can potentially avert 1.5 million cases and 21,000 deaths and improve the ability to safely resume social contacts, and educational and business activities. Continued or renewed non-pharmaceutical interventions, including masking, can also help limit transmission, particularly as schools and businesses reopen.

13.
Sustainability ; 13(22):12816, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1538508

ABSTRACT

Career commitment refers to individuals’ dedication to their career;in the field of vocational psychology, career commitment is considered a vital factor for promoting a sustainable career. The current study examined a mediation model of career concern related to career commitment with career exploration and Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy (CDMSE) as two mediators. The participants were 1105 high school students (males = 594, females = 511) recruited from three main cities in Jiangsu Province, China. Results indicated that the hypotheses were all confirmed: the direct effect of career concern on career commitment was significant (β = 0.598, p < 0.001);the indirect effect of career concern on career commitment through career exploration and CDMSE was also significant (β = 0.255, p < 0.001);and career exploration and CDMSE mediated the relation from career concern to career commitment. Finally, the authors discussed the implications of the findings which could be applied to improve a high school student’s career commitment and the sustainability of career development. The limitations of the study and the future research needed to complement the current work are also discussed.

14.
Eur Respir J ; 58(1)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496128

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pulmonary function and clinical symptoms in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors within 3 months after hospital discharge, and to identify risk factors associated with impaired lung function. METHODS AND MATERIAL: COVID-19 patients were prospectively followed-up with pulmonary function tests and clinical characteristics for 3 months following discharge from a hospital in Wuhan, China between January and February 2020. RESULTS: 647 patients were included. 87 (13%) patients presented with weakness, 63 (10%) with palpitations and 56 (9%) with dyspnoea. The prevalence of each of the three symptoms were markedly higher in severe patients than nonsevere patients (19% versus 10% for weakness, p=0.003; 14% versus 7% for palpitations, p=0.007; 12% versus 7% for dyspnoea, p=0.014). Results of multivariable regression showed increased odds of ongoing symptoms among severe patients (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.6; p=0.026) or patients with longer hospital stays (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.05; p=0.041). Pulmonary function test results were available for 81 patients, including 41 nonsevere and 40 severe patients. In this subgroup, 44 (54%) patients manifested abnormal diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (D LCO) (68% severe versus 42% nonsevere patients, p=0.019). Chest computed tomography (CT) total severity score >10.5 (OR 10.4, 95% CI 2.5-44.1; p=0.001) on admission and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (OR 4.6, 95% CI 1.4-15.5; p=0.014) were significantly associated with impaired D LCO. Pulmonary interstitial damage may be associated with abnormal D LCO. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary function, particularly D LCO, declined in COVID-19 survivors. This decrease was associated with total severity score of chest CT >10.5 and ARDS occurrence. Pulmonary interstitial damage might contribute to the imparied D LCO.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carbon Monoxide , China , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Glycoconj J ; 2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482240

ABSTRACT

Furin is one of the nine-member proprotein convertase family. Furin cleaves proteins with polybasic residues, which includes many viral glycoproteins such as SARS-Cov-2 spike protein. The cleavage is required for the activation of the proteins. Currently, the mechanisms that regulate Furin activity remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrated that Furin is a novel heparin/heparan sulfate binding protein by the use of biochemical and genetic assays. The KD is 9.78 nM based on the biolayer interferometry assay. Moreover, we found that sulfation degree, site-specific sulfation (N-sulfation and 3-O-sulfation), and iduronic acid are the major structural determinants for the binding. Furthermore, we found that heparin inhibits the enzymatic activity of Furin when pre-mixes heparin with either Furin or Furin substrate. We also found that the Furin binds with cells of different origin and the binding with the cells of lung origin is the strongest one. These data could advance our understanding of the working mechanism of Furin and will benefit the Furin based drug discovery such as inhibitors targeting the interaction between heparan sulfate and Furin for inhibition of viral infection.

16.
World J Diabetes ; 12(10): 1789-1808, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that diabetes mellitus is a common comorbidity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the effects of diabetes or anti-diabetic medication on the mortality of COVID-19 have not been well described. AIM: To investigate the outcome of different statuses (with or without comorbidity) and anti-diabetic medication use before admission of diabetic after COVID-19. METHODS: In this multicenter and retrospective study, we enrolled 1422 consecutive hospitalized patients from January 21, 2020, to March 25, 2020, at six hospitals in Hubei Province, China. The primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality. Epidemiological material, demographic information, clinical data, laboratory parameters, radiographic characteristics, treatment and outcome were extracted from electronic medical records using a standardized data collection form. Most of the laboratory data except fasting plasma glucose (FPG) were obtained in first hospitalization, and FPG was collected in the next day morning. Major clinical symptoms, vital signs at admission and comorbidities were collected. The treatment data included not only COVID-19 but also diabetes mellitus. The duration from the onset of symptoms to admission, illness severity, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and length of hospital stay were also recorded. All data were checked by a team of sophisticated physicians. RESULTS: Patients with diabetes were 10 years older than non-diabetic patients [(39 - 64) vs (56 - 70), P < 0.001] and had a higher prevalence of comorbidities such as hypertension (55.5% vs 21.4%, P < 0.001), coronary heart disease (CHD) (9.9% vs 3.5%, P < 0.001), cerebrovascular disease (CVD) (3% vs 2.2%, P < 0.001), and chronic kidney disease (CKD) (4.7% vs 1.5%, P = 0.007). Mortality (13.6% vs 7.2%, P = 0.003) was more prevalent among the diabetes group. Further analysis revealed that patients with diabetes who took acarbose had a lower mortality rate (2.2% vs 26.1, P < 0.01). Multivariable Cox regression showed that male sex [hazard ratio (HR) 2.59 (1.68 - 3.99), P < 0.001], hypertension [HR 1.75 (1.18 - 2.60), P = 0.006), CKD [HR 4.55 (2.52-8.20), P < 0.001], CVD [HR 2.35 (1.27 - 4.33), P = 0.006], and age were risk factors for the COVID-19 mortality. Higher HRs were noted in those aged ≥ 65 (HR 11.8 [4.6 - 30.2], P < 0.001) vs 50-64 years (HR 5.86 [2.27 - 15.12], P < 0.001). The survival curve revealed that, compared with the diabetes only group, the mortality was increased in the diabetes with comorbidities group (P = 0.009) but was not significantly different from the non-comorbidity group (P = 0.59). CONCLUSION: Patients with diabetes had worse outcomes when suffering from COVID-19; however, the outcome was not associated with diabetes itself but with comorbidities. Furthermore, acarbose could reduce the mortality in diabetic.

17.
Emerging Markets Finance and Trade ; : 1-12, 2021.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-1462095
18.
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics ; 11(9):2490-2494, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1435137

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinical manifestations and lung CT findings of patients infected with the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Methods: The clinical manifestations and lung CT image data of 56 confirmed COVID-19 patients were retrospectively analyzed. These data were collected in the Fourth People’s Hospital of Huai’an from January 23-February 13, 2020. All 56 patients were confirmed cases with positive nucleic acid test. Results: The main clinical manifestations of 56 patients were fever, cough, sputum, and some patients were accompanied by headache, sore throat, nasal congestion and runny nose, fatigue, muscle aches and other symptoms. 42 patients had the symptoms of moderate or low fever, with an average body temperature of 38.0 ±0.7 °C, and 41 patients had the symptoms of dry cough. Of 56 patients with chest CT examination, 50 cases showed ground glass opacity (GGO) in the lungs, 38 cases showed varying degrees of consolidation in the GGO, 49 cases showed the vascular enhancement sign (VES) in the lung lesions, 28 cases showed the pavement stone sign, and 17 cases had the lungs of fiber stripes. Only 1 of the 56 patients had a little pleural effusion, and there was no mediastinal lymphadenopathy. The frequency of ground glass opacity and vascular enhancement sign was the highest, however, there were no significant differences among the three groups in the early stage, progression stage and recovery stage. In the early stage, the occurrence rate of pavement stone signs and air bronchi signs were significantly lower than that of the progression stage and recovery stage. The occurrence rate of fiber stripes was the highest in the recovery period, which was obviously higher than that in the first and second stages. Conclusion: Combined with epidemiological history and clinical symptoms, chest CT abnormalities and routine blood examination can be used as an important reference before nucleic acid detection so as to screen the risky population, which is helpful for early clinical treatment.

19.
Front Public Health ; 9: 726144, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376723

ABSTRACT

Aim: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a form of disease triggered by a new strain of coronavirus. This paper proposes a novel model termed "deep fractional max pooling neural network (DFMPNN)" to diagnose COVID-19 more efficiently. Methods: This 12-layer DFMPNN replaces max pooling (MP) and average pooling (AP) in ordinary neural networks with the help of a novel pooling method called "fractional max-pooling" (FMP). In addition, multiple-way data augmentation (DA) is employed to reduce overfitting. Model averaging (MA) is used to reduce randomness. Results: We ran our algorithm on a four-category dataset that contained COVID-19, community-acquired pneumonia, secondary pulmonary tuberculosis (SPT), and healthy control (HC). The 10 runs on the test set show that the micro-averaged F1 (MAF) score of our DFMPNN is 95.88%. Discussions: This proposed DFMPNN is superior to 10 state-of-the-art models. Besides, FMP outperforms traditional MP, AP, and L2-norm pooling (L2P).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Algorithms , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Earthquake Research Advances ; : 100006, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1329796

ABSTRACT

We lay out the ramifications of the 2020 pandemic for all people in geosciences, especially the young, and argue for significant changes on training and career development. We focus primarily on its devastating impact in U.S.A. and compare with that in other countries especially China. We review the potential effect for the next four years or so on the aspirations of an academic career versus more realistic career goals. We urge people in mid-career about the need to reassess previous goals. We stress the need for students or researchers to acquire technical skills in high-performance computing (HPC), data analytics, artificial intelligence, and/or visualization along with a broad set of technical skills in applied computer science and mathematics. We give advice about hot prospects in several areas that have great potential for advancement in the coming decade, such as visualization, deep learning, quantum computing and information, and cloud computing, all of which lie within the aegis of HPC. Our forecast is that the pandemic will significantly reshape the job landscape and career paths for both young and established researchers and we discuss bluntly the dire situation facing junior people in geosciences in the aftermath of the pandemic around the world until 2024.

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