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1.
Transpl Immunol ; 79: 101864, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324268

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) who become infected with SARS-CoV-2 are at greater risk of serious illness and death than the general population. To date, the efficacy and safety of the fourth dose of the COVID-19 vaccine in KTRs have not been systematically discussed. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis included articles from PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Med Online published before May 15, 2022. Studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of a fourth dose of the COVID-19 vaccine in kidney transplant recipients were selected. RESULTS: Nine studies were included in the meta-analysis, with a total of 727 KTRs. The overall pooled seropositivity rate after the fourth COVID-19 vaccine was 60% (95% CI, 49%-71%, I2 = 87.83%, p > 0.01). The pooled proportion of KTRs seronegative after the third dose that transitioned to seropositivity after the fourth dose was 30% (95% CI, 15%-48%, I2 = 94.98%, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The fourth dose of the COVID-19 vaccine was well tolerated in KTRs with no serious adverse effects. Some KTRs showed a reduced response even after receiving the fourth vaccine dose. Overall, the fourth vaccine dose effectively improved seropositivity in KTRs, as recommended by the World Health Organization for the general population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , China , Transplant Recipients
2.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 45(2): 171-177, 2023 Apr.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322740

ABSTRACT

Respiratory infectious diseases (RID) are the major public health problems threatening the people's lives and health.Infection control (IC) is one of the effective tools to contain the occurrence and spread of RID.We collected the articles and data on IC published since January 1,2018 and summarized the achievements,problems,and challenges of IC from administrative control,management control,environment and engineering control,and personal protection in the medical institutions and public places in China.The efforts for IC vary in different regions and medical institutions of different levels.There are still links to be improved for IC from administrative control,management control,environment and engineering control,and personal protection,especially in community-level medical institutions and public areas.It is urgent to strengthen the implementation of IC policies and conduct IC precisely according to local situations.We proposed the following suggestions.First,the existing IC products and tools should be applied to precisely implement the IC measures;second,modern high technology should be employed to develop efficient and convenient IC products and tools;finally,a digital or intelligent IC platform should be built for monitoring infections,so as to contain the occurrence and spread of RID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Humans , Infection Control , China/epidemiology
3.
Med Clin (Engl Ed) ; 160(9): 418-419, 2023 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314645
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(51): e31494, 2022 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2307868

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a rock-ribbed public pandemic and caused substantial health concerns worldwide. In addition to therapeutic strategies, the epidemiologic features and clinical characteristics of patients responded to COVID-19 infection are of equal importance. The study aims to systematically evaluate the clinical presentations and remission of cases with COVID-19 infection in Zunyi, Southwest of China, and to determine the similarities and variations for further clinical classification and comprehensive treatment. Herein, we conducted a retrospective study upon 9 patients in Zunyi, southwest of China, including 1 mild (LPA), 5 severe (SPA) and 3 critical (CPA) types of COVID-19 infection. In details, the demographic data, historical epidemiology, previous medical history, clinical symptoms and complications, laboratory examination, chest imaging, treatment and outcomes of the patients were throughout explored. The non-normal distribution of the data was conducted by utilizing the SPSS software, and significant statistical differences were identified when P < .05. By retrospective analysis of the 9 cases, we found there were multifaceted similarities and differences among them in clinical representation. The patients collectively showed negative for nucleic acid test (NAT) and favorable prognosis after receiving comprehensive therapy such as hormonotherapy, hemopruification, and antiviral administration as well as respiratory support. On the basis of the information, we systematically dissected the clinical features and outcomes of the enrolled patients with COVID-19 and the accompanied multiple syndromes, which would serve as new references for clinical classification and comprehensive treatment. Analysis of clinical characteristics and therapeutic effect of 9 cases of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19), ChiCTR2000031930. Registered April 15, 2020 (retrospective registration).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Prognosis , China/epidemiology
5.
Front Psychiatry ; 14: 1146277, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306452

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a significant and far-reaching impact on mental health. The psychiatric emergency department (PED) is pivotal in the management of acute and severe mental illnesses, especially anxiety-and stress-related disorders. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate whether changes in the frequency or patients' demographics of visiting the PED occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic among individuals with anxiety and stress-related disorders. Methods: This cross-sectional study used data on PED visit counts from the largest psychiatric hospital in China between 2018 and 2020 (before and during the COVID-19 pandemic). Data from 2020, representing the COVID-19 pandemic period, were extracted from electronic medical records and compared using descriptive statistics for the same periods in 2018 and 2019. Results: The number of PED visits related to anxiety and stress disorders per year increased from 83 in 2018 to 136 (63.9% increase) in 2019 and 239 (188.0% increase) in 2020. Compared to that in 2018 and 2019, the proportion of PED visits in 2020 among patients with anxiety and stress disorders increased significantly. Patients with anxiety-and stress-related disorders during PED visits in 2020 were younger than those in 2018 and 2019 (three-year groups: F = 9.124, df = 2, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Despite the epidemic-policy barriers against PED visits, PED care seeking has increased, thereby underscoring the need for crisis prevention services for patients with stress and anxiety disorders.

6.
World J Acupunct Moxibustion ; 2023 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298703

ABSTRACT

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by extreme fatigue that lasts for a long time and doesn't alleviate with rest. The number of the cases has been increasing during the era of COVID-19 pandemic. Acupuncture may have some effect on chronic fatigue syndrome, but its mechanism remains unclear. This article was to summarize the specific manifestations of abnormal central mechanism in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome through laboratory tests and neuroimaging. It was found from the laboratory evaluation that there were changes in the structure of the frontal cortex, thalamus and other brain tissues; factors, including IFN-α and IL-10 in cerebrospinal fluid were found abnormal; results of oxidative and nitrosative stress and changes in neurobiochemical substances, e.g. hypothalamus hormone levels and neurotransmitter concentrations, were observed. With magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, it was shown that the partial brain of persons with chronic fatigue syndrome had morphological changes with diminished grey matter and white; changes in cerebral blood flow velocity caused by decreased perfusion and functional activity with abnormal connectivity in brain were detected. In addition, there was significant decrease in glucose metabolism accompanied with neuroinflammatory response; metabolic disorders of serotonergic, cholinergic, glutamatergic and γ-aminobutyric acid energy neurotransmitters were also discovered. The regulatory effect of acupuncture on the above central neurological abnormalities in chronic fatigue syndrome model animals was elaborated, and the direction for further research was analyzed in order to provide ideas for further research on the central mechanism of acupuncture treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome.

8.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 12(1): 2185467, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286131

ABSTRACT

Replicating SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to degrade HLA class I on target cells to evade the cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response. HLA-I downregulation can be sensed by NK cells to unleash killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)-mediated self-inhibition by the cognate HLA-I ligands. Here, we investigated the impact of HLA and KIR genotypes and HLA-KIR combinations on COVID-19 outcome. We found that the peptide affinities of HLA alleles were not correlated with COVID-19 severity. The predicted poor binders for SARS-CoV-2 peptides belong to HLA-B subtypes that encode KIR ligands, including Bw4 and C1 (introduced by B*46:01), which have a small F pocket and cannot accommodate SARS-CoV-2 CTL epitopes. However, HLA-Bw4 weak binders were beneficial for COVID-19 outcome, and individuals lacking the HLA-Bw4 motif were at higher risk for serious illness from COVID-19. The presence of the HLA-Bw4 and KIR3DL1 combination had a 58.8% lower risk of developing severe COVID-19 (OR = 0.412, 95% CI = 0.187-0.904, p = 0.02). This suggests that HLA-Bw4 alleles that impair their ability to load SARS-CoV-2 peptides will become targets for NK-mediated destruction. Thus, we proposed that the synergistic responsiveness of CTLs and NK cells can efficiently control SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication, and NK-cell-mediated anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune responses being mostly involved in severe infection when the level of ORF8 is high enough to degrade HLA-I. The HLA-Bw4/KIR3DL1 genotype may be particularly important for East Asians undergoing COVID-19 who are enriched in HLA-Bw4-inhibitory KIR interactions and carry a high frequency of HLA-Bw4 alleles that bind poorly to coronavirus peptides.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , HLA-B Antigens/genetics , Killer Cells, Natural , Receptors, KIR3DL1/genetics
9.
World Journal of Acupuncture-Moxibustion ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2268629

ABSTRACT

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by extreme fatigue that lasts for a long time and doesn't alleviate with rest. The number of the cases has been increasing during the era of COVID-19 pandemic. Acupuncture may have some effect on chronic fatigue syndrome, but its mechanism remains unclear. This article was to summarize the specific manifestations of abnormal central mechanism in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome through laboratory tests and neuroimaging. It was found from the laboratory evaluation that there were changes in the structure of the frontal cortex, thalamus and other brain tissues;factors, including IFN-α and IL-10 in cerebrospinal fluid were found abnormal;results of oxidative and nitrosative stress and changes in neurobiochemical substances, e.g. hypothalamus hormone levels and neurotransmitter concentrations, were observed. With magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, it was shown that the partial brain of persons with chronic fatigue syndrome had morphological changes with diminished grey matter and white;changes in cerebral blood flow velocity caused by decreased perfusion and functional activity with abnormal connectivity in brain were detected. In addition, there was significant decrease in glucose metabolism accompanied with neuroinflammatory response;metabolic disorders of serotonergic, cholinergic, glutamatergic and γ-aminobutyric acid energy neurotransmitters were also discovered. The regulatory effect of acupuncture on the above central neurological abnormalities in chronic fatigue syndrome model animals was elaborated, and the direction for further research was analyzed in order to provide ideas for further research on the central mechanism of acupuncture treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome.

11.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 859682, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246410

ABSTRACT

Background: The safety of the COVID-19 vaccine in patients at stroke risk is poorly understood. Methods: A survey was conducted on risk factors related to stroke and adverse reactions to vaccines. The participants were divided into low-, medium-, and high-risk groups, according to the stroke risk scorecard recommended by the Stroke Prevention and Control Engineering Committee of the National Health and Family Planning Commission. Factors associated with adverse reactions were analyzed. Reasons for non-vaccination and the aggravation of underlying diseases after vaccination were investigated. Results: 1747 participants participated (138 unvaccinated) and 36.8, 22.1, 41.1% of the vaccinated participants had low, medium, high risk of stroke, respectively. The incidence of adverse reactions after the first and second injection was 16.6, 13.7%, respectively. There was no difference in the incidence of adverse reactions among different risk groups. Sex, vaccine type, sleep quality, worry of adverse reactions, age, and education level were significantly related to adverse reactions to vaccination. The most popular reason for non-vaccination for medium- or high risk-participants was the aggravation of the existing disease. Only 0.3% of vaccinated participants reported slight changes in blood pressure, sugar levels, and lipid levels. No aggravation of stroke sequelae, atrial fibrillation, or transient ischemic attack was reported. Conclusions: Vaccination against COVID-19 (inactive virus) is safe for people at risk of stroke when the existing disease condition is stable. It is suggested to strengthen vaccine knowledge and ensure good sleep before vaccination.

12.
Medicine ; 101(51), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2167922

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a rock-ribbed public pandemic and caused substantial health concerns worldwide. In addition to therapeutic strategies, the epidemiologic features and clinical characteristics of patients responded to COVID-19 infection are of equal importance. The study aims to systematically evaluate the clinical presentations and remission of cases with COVID-19 infection in Zunyi, Southwest of China, and to determine the similarities and variations for further clinical classification and comprehensive treatment. Herein, we conducted a retrospective study upon 9 patients in Zunyi, southwest of China, including 1 mild (LPA), 5 severe (SPA) and 3 critical (CPA) types of COVID-19 infection. In details, the demographic data, historical epidemiology, previous medical history, clinical symptoms and complications, laboratory examination, chest imaging, treatment and outcomes of the patients were throughout explored. The non-normal distribution of the data was conducted by utilizing the SPSS software, and significant statistical differences were identified when P < .05. By retrospective analysis of the 9 cases, we found there were multifaceted similarities and differences among them in clinical representation. The patients collectively showed negative for nucleic acid test (NAT) and favorable prognosis after receiving comprehensive therapy such as hormonotherapy, hemopruification, and antiviral administration as well as respiratory support. On the basis of the information, we systematically dissected the clinical features and outcomes of the enrolled patients with COVID-19 and the accompanied multiple syndromes, which would serve as new references for clinical classification and comprehensive treatment. Analysis of clinical characteristics and therapeutic effect of 9 cases of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19), ChiCTR2000031930. Registered April 15, 2020 (retrospective registration).

13.
Cell Res ; 32(12): 1068-1085, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117525

ABSTRACT

The emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, commonly with many mutations in S1 subunit of spike (S) protein are weakening the efficacy of the current vaccines and antibody therapeutics. This calls for the variant-proof SARS-CoV-2 vaccines targeting the more conserved regions in S protein. Here, we designed a recombinant subunit vaccine, HR121, targeting the conserved HR1 domain in S2 subunit of S protein. HR121 consisting of HR1-linker1-HR2-linker2-HR1, is conformationally and functionally analogous to the HR1 domain present in the fusion intermediate conformation of S2 subunit. Immunization with HR121 in rabbits and rhesus macaques elicited highly potent cross-neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants, particularly Omicron sublineages. Vaccination with HR121 achieved near-full protections against prototype SARS-CoV-2 infection in hACE2 transgenic mice, Syrian golden hamsters and rhesus macaques, and effective protection against Omicron BA.2 infection in Syrian golden hamsters. This study demonstrates that HR121 is a promising candidate of variant-proof SARS-CoV-2 vaccine with a novel conserved target in the S2 subunit for application against current and future SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Animals , Cricetinae , Mice , Humans , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2 , Macaca mulatta , Mesocricetus , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Mice, Transgenic , Antibodies, Viral
14.
Journal of thoracic disease ; 14(8):2757-2770, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2010631

ABSTRACT

Background Patients with moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have been recommended to receive prone position ventilation (PPV). However, the dynamic changes in respiratory mechanics during PPV and their relationship with the prognosis have not been sufficiently evaluated. In addition, the impact of using neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) during PPV on respiratory mechanics is not clear enough. Thus, the study aims to investigate the above-mentioned issues. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted on 22 patients with moderate to severe ARDS who received PPV in the intensive care unit (ICU) of the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University. A multifunctional gastric tube was used to measure the patients’ respiratory mechanics during supine position ventilation (SPV), early PPV (PPV within 4 h of initiation), and middle/late PPV (more than 6 h after the initiation of PPV). Longitudinal data were analyzed with generalized estimating equations (GEE). Results Compared with SPV, the esophageal pressure swings (ΔPes) measured during the PPV was significantly higher (SPV 7.46 vs. early PPV 8.00 vs. middle/late PPV 8.30 cmH2O respectively;PSPVvs.middle/late PPV =0.025<0.05). A stratified analysis by patients’ outcome showed that the peak airway pressure (Ppeak), ΔPes and respiration rate (RR) in the death group were significantly higher than survival group. On the contrary, the tidal volume (Vt), diaphragmatic electromyogram (EMGdi) and PaO2/FiO2 ratio (PFR) in the death group were significantly lower than survival group. Notably, the ΔPes and transpulmonary driving pressure (DPL) were significantly lower in the patients treated with NMBAs (7.08 vs. 8.76 cmH2O ΔPes;P<0.01), (14.82 vs. 18.08 cmH2O DPL;P<0.001). Conclusions During the transition from SPV to early PPV and then to middle/late PPV, the ΔPes in the PPV were greater than SPV and it fluctuated within a normal range while oxygenation improved significantly in all patients. The Ppeak, ΔPes and RR in the death group were significantly higher than survival group. When NMBAs were used, the ΔPes, inspiratory transpulmonary pressure (PLei), driving pressure (DP) and DPL were significantly decreased, suggesting that the rational combination of NMBAs and PPV may exert a synergistic protective effect on the lungs.

15.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2047051

ABSTRACT

Background The safety of the COVID-19 vaccine in patients at stroke risk is poorly understood. Methods A survey was conducted on risk factors related to stroke and adverse reactions to vaccines. The participants were divided into low-, medium-, and high-risk groups, according to the stroke risk scorecard recommended by the Stroke Prevention and Control Engineering Committee of the National Health and Family Planning Commission. Factors associated with adverse reactions were analyzed. Reasons for non-vaccination and the aggravation of underlying diseases after vaccination were investigated. Results 1747 participants participated (138 unvaccinated) and 36.8, 22.1, 41.1% of the vaccinated participants had low, medium, high risk of stroke, respectively. The incidence of adverse reactions after the first and second injection was 16.6, 13.7%, respectively. There was no difference in the incidence of adverse reactions among different risk groups. Sex, vaccine type, sleep quality, worry of adverse reactions, age, and education level were significantly related to adverse reactions to vaccination. The most popular reason for non-vaccination for medium- or high risk-participants was the aggravation of the existing disease. Only 0.3% of vaccinated participants reported slight changes in blood pressure, sugar levels, and lipid levels. No aggravation of stroke sequelae, atrial fibrillation, or transient ischemic attack was reported. Conclusions Vaccination against COVID-19 (inactive virus) is safe for people at risk of stroke when the existing disease condition is stable. It is suggested to strengthen vaccine knowledge and ensure good sleep before vaccination.

17.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 134(5): 416-423, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007813

ABSTRACT

5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), a vital precursor for the biosynthesis of tetrapyrrole compounds, has been widely applied in agriculture and medicine, while extremely potential for the treatment of cancers, corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and metabolic diseases in recent years. With the development of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology, the biosynthesis of 5-ALA has attracted increasing attention. 5-Aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALAS), the key enzyme for 5-ALA synthesis in the C4 pathway, is subject to stringent feedback inhibition by heme. In this work, cysteine-targeted mutation of ALAS was proposed to overcome this drawback. ALAS from Rhodopseudomonas palustris (RP-ALAS) and Rhodobacter capsulatus (RC-ALAS) were selected for mutation and eight variants were generated. Variants RP-C132A and RC-C201A increased enzyme activities and released hemin inhibition, respectively, maintaining 82.5% and 81.9% residual activities in the presence of 15 µM hemin. Moreover, the two variants exhibited higher stability than that of their corresponding wild-type enzymes. Corynebacterium glutamicum overexpressing RP-C132A and RC-C201A produced 14.0% and 21.6% higher titers of 5-ALA than the control, respectively. These results strongly suggested that variants RP-C132A and RC-C201A obtained by utilizing cysteine-targeted mutation strategy released hemin inhibition, broadening their applications in 5-ALA biosynthesis.


Subject(s)
Aminolevulinic Acid , COVID-19 , Humans , Aminolevulinic Acid/metabolism , Heme , 5-Aminolevulinate Synthetase/genetics , 5-Aminolevulinate Synthetase/metabolism , Cysteine/genetics , Hemin , Mutation
18.
Metabolites ; 12(8)2022 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969367

ABSTRACT

The effect of COVID-19 infection on the human metabolome has been widely reported, but to date all such studies have focused on a single wave of infection. COVID-19 has generated numerous waves of disease with different clinical presentations, and therefore it is pertinent to explore whether metabolic disturbance changes accordingly, to gain a better understanding of its impact on host metabolism and enable better treatments. This work used a targeted metabolomics platform (Biocrates Life Sciences) to analyze the serum of 164 hospitalized patients, 123 with confirmed positive COVID-19 RT-PCR tests and 41 providing negative tests, across two waves of infection. Seven COVID-19-positive patients also provided longitudinal samples 2-7 months after infection. Changes to metabolites and lipids between positive and negative patients were found to be dependent on collection wave. A machine learning model identified six metabolites that were robust in diagnosing positive patients across both waves of infection: TG (22:1_32:5), TG (18:0_36:3), glutamic acid (Glu), glycolithocholic acid (GLCA), aspartic acid (Asp) and methionine sulfoxide (Met-SO), with an accuracy of 91%. Although some metabolites (TG (18:0_36:3) and Asp) returned to normal after infection, glutamic acid was still dysregulated in the longitudinal samples. This work demonstrates, for the first time, that metabolic dysregulation has partially changed over the course of the pandemic, reflecting changes in variants, clinical presentation and treatment regimes. It also shows that some metabolic changes are robust across waves, and these can differentiate COVID-19-positive individuals from controls in a hospital setting. This research also supports the hypothesis that some metabolic pathways are disrupted several months after COVID-19 infection.

19.
Sustainability ; 14(13):7853, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1911584

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 control measures had a significant social and economic impact in Guangdong Province, and provided a unique opportunity to assess the impact of human activities on air quality. Based on the monitoring data of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and O3 concentrations from 101 air quality monitoring stations in Guangdong Province from October 2019 to April 2020, the PSCF (potential source contribution factor) analysis and LSTM (long short-term memory) neural network were applied to explore the impact of epidemic control measures on air quality in Guangdong Province. Results showed that during the lockdown, the average concentration of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and O3 decreased by 37.84%, 51.56%, 58.82%, and 24.00%, respectively. The ranges of potential sources of pollutants were reduced, indicating that air quality in Guangdong Province improved significantly. The Pearl River Delta, characterized by a high population density, recorded the highest NO2 concentration values throughout the whole study period. Due to the lockdown, the areas with the highest concentrations of O3, PM2.5, and PM10 changed from the Pearl River Delta to the eastern and western Guangdong. Moreover, LSTM simulation results showed that the average concentration of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and O3 decreased by 46.34%, 54.56%, 70.63%, and 26.76%, respectively, which was caused by human-made impacts. These findings reveal the remarkable impact of human activities on air quality and provide effective theoretical support for the prevention and control of air pollution in Guangdong Province.

20.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 74, 2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910355

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, seasonal influenza activity declined globally and remained below previous seasonal levels, but intensified in China since 2021. Preventive measures to COVID-19 accompanied by different epidemic characteristics of influenza in different regions of the world. To better respond to influenza outbreaks under the COVID-19 pandemic, we analyzed the epidemiology, antigenic and genetic characteristics, and antiviral susceptibility of influenza viruses in the mainland of China during 2020-2021. METHODS: Respiratory specimens from influenza like illness cases were collected by sentinel hospitals and sent to network laboratories in Chinese National Influenza Surveillance Network. Antigenic mutation analysis of influenza virus isolates was performed by hemagglutination inhibition assay. Next-generation sequencing was used for genetic analyses. We also conducted molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of circulating influenza viruses. Viruses were tested for resistance to antiviral medications using phenotypic and/or sequence-based methods. RESULTS: In the mainland of China, influenza activity recovered in 2021 compared with that in 2020 and intensified during the traditional influenza winter season, but it did not exceed the peak in previous years. Almost all viruses isolated during the study period were of the B/Victoria lineage and were characterized by genetic diversity, with the subgroup 1A.3a.2 viruses currently predominated. 37.8% viruses tested were antigenically similar to reference viruses representing the components of the vaccine for the 2020-2021 and 2021-2022 Northern Hemisphere influenza seasons. In addition, China has a unique subgroup of 1A.3a.1 viruses. All viruses tested were sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors and endonuclease inhibitors, except two B/Victoria lineage viruses identified to have reduced sensitivity to neuraminidase inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza activity increased in the mainland of China in 2021, and caused flu season in the winter of 2021-2022. Although the diversity of influenza (sub)type decreases, B/Victoria lineage viruses show increased genetic and antigenic diversity. The world needs to be fully prepared for the co-epidemic of influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Orthomyxoviridae , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Neuraminidase/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , Pandemics , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
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