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1.
Information Technology & People ; : 30, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1927498

ABSTRACT

Purpose This study seeks to explore digital natives' mobile usage behaviors and, in turn, develop an analytic framework that helps articulate the underlying components of mobile addiction syndrome (MAS), its severity levels and mobile usage purposes. Design/methodology/approach The investigation adopts a survey method and a case study. The results of the former are based on 411 random classroom observations and 205 questionnaire responses, and the insights of the latter are derived from 24 interviews and daily observations. Findings The findings validate five distinctive signs that constitute MAS and their significant correlations with each of the Big Five personality traits. Classroom observations confirm the prevalence of addiction tendency among digital natives in the research context. Seven levels of MAS and six different mobile usage purposes further manifest themselves from case analysis. There appears to be a sharp contrast between the addicted and non-addicted groups in their mobile purposes and behavioral patterns. Additionally, family relationships seem influential in shaping non-addictive mobile usage behaviors. Research limitations/implications Psychological perspectives on MAS may be important but insufficient. Empirical investigation on a global scale, especially with distinctive cross-cultural comparisons, will be highly encouraged. How MAS evolves over time should also serve as future research interests. Practical implications Teaching pedagogy of college education might need certain adjustments to intrigue digital natives' learning interests. Future managers might also need to adopt better performance measurements for digital natives who barely separate work from personal matters in their mobile devices. Social implications Parents and healthcare institutions may need to develop response mechanism to tackle this global issue at home and in society. The long-term effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on MAS might also deserve global attention. Originality/value The analytic framework developed provides an original mechanism that can be valuable in identifying MAS severity and associated behavioral patterns.

2.
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry ; 56(SUPPL 1):202-203, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1916660

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has highlighted the essential role of vaccination in preventing illness, modifying illness severity and averting hospital care. Mental health (MH) service users have low vaccination rates for many conditions, but evidence on individual and health system impacts is limited. Methods: The NSW Mental Health Living Longer links population-wide data from NSW hospitals and community MH services. We calculated hospitalisation rates and incidence rate ratios for vaccine-preventable conditions including hepatitis, influenza and pneumococcal pneumonia, comparing MH service users to other NSW residents. Rates were standardised for age and socio-economic disadvantage. Results: Over 12 months there were 14,530 vaccine preventable admissions in NSW, occupying 94,241 bed days. MH service users had a more than fourfold increased risk of admission for vaccine-preventable conditions (adjusted incidence rate ratio = 4.7;95% confidence interval = [4.5, 5.0]), with the highest relative risk in people aged 40-65 years. One-quarter of total excess potentially preventable bed days in MH service users were due to vaccine-preventable conditions, including respiratory illness. MH service users comprised 2.3% of the NSW population but contributed nearly 15% of vaccine-preventable bed days. Additional analyses will be presented examining specific conditions, demographic and clinical subgroups. Conclusion: Low vaccination rates have serious impacts for MH service users. Strategies to overcome barriers and support vaccination uptake could have quick and substantial benefits for individuals and health systems. Supporting uptake of COVID-19 vaccination will be essential to avoid further amplifying health inequalities for people using MH services.

3.
Global Advances in Health and Medicine ; 11:25, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1916565

ABSTRACT

Methods: This 16-week intervention conducted at community health centers combines integrative group medical visits with produce prescriptions. Participating patients are adults diagnosed with chronic conditions including diabetes, hypertension and depression. Virtual integrative group medical visits meet weekly in Spanish or English with health coach support between sessions. Participants also receive weekly doorstep delivery of fresh vegetables grown using regenerative agriculture. Ongoing mixed-methods data collection includes: 1) semi-structured interviews with program staff and patients, and 2) pre-and post-program patient surveys including the 8-Item UCLA Loneliness Scale and the 6-item USDA short form for household food insecurity. Preliminary quantitative analysis uses mixed-effects models to assess the effects of participation in the combined intervention (N=185). Qualitative analysis uses reflexive thematic analysis (N=35). Results: Qualitative interview data explored program implementation and stakeholders' experiences with Recipe4Health during COVID-19. Patients and staff reported that virtual group visits provided social connection and supported mental health. Weekly produce delivery increased food security and provided access to new and familiar foods. Preliminary quantitative analysis included 185 patients: 83% female;51% Latin, 27% Black;61% spoke English as primary language, 39% Spanish. Average loneliness scores decreased from 5.2 to 4.7 (p<.04), despite notable national inc1reases in isolation and loneliness during COVID-19. While food insecurity doubled nationwide, the proportion of study participants reporting food insecurity or marginal food security decreased from 79% to 54% (p<.01). Background: Food insecurity has been associated with social isolation;both have risen dramatically in the US during the COVID-19 pandemic. This project, Recipe4Health, is implementing and assessing the impact of integrative group medical visits and produce prescriptions for low-income adults with chronic conditions. Conclusion: Combining integrative group medical visits and produce prescriptions can improve key patient outcomes including loneliness and food security in a pandemic context.

4.
IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics (IEEE ROBIO) ; : 80-86, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1915995

ABSTRACT

The lasting difficulty imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic has made profound challenges to our daily lives. The prominent task to contend with the COVID-19 is the diagnosis of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The timely diagnosis guides further anti-infection measurements such as effective quarantine and dedicated therapy. Existing diagnosis majorly relies on manual face-to-face Oropharyngeal (OP) and Nasopharyngeal (NP) sampling, which results in high infection risk and heavy working burden to medical staff. Robotic sampling is a promising solution for this challenge because robots are intrinsically immune to viruses and working without fatigue. Following this target, we demonstrate our novel teleoperated OP swab sampling system with excellent safety guarantees, quick deployability, and task efficacy. A bio-inspired soft hand integrated with a soft wrist is developed, which can pick and manipulate the disposable swab as dexterous as a human hand. Stereo imaging is provided to the operator by a terminal binocular camera. The design, working mechanism, and control of our sampling system are discussed. Results show that our proposed robotic sampling system promises safe and effective OP swab sampling to protect medical staff and convenient the sampling process.

5.
Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development ; : 17, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1915347

ABSTRACT

Scholarly attention to foreign language learning boredom (FLLB) has surged in recent years. However, little is known about L2 learners' online FLLB experience prompted by the COVID-19 pandemic. To fill this gap, the present mixed-methods study explores the conceptual structure and sources of FLLB in an online learning environment. A corpus of 348 Chinese as second language (CSL) learners participated in a questionnaire survey and 10 of them attended follow-up interviews. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-factor structure underlying CSL learners' FLLB: classroom boredom, content boredom and teacher/learner boredom. Qualitative data enriched our understanding of the three-factor construct of FLLB and boredom sources in online classes. Results were discussed with reliance on the control-value theory of achievement emotions, previous findings, as well as their theoretical and practical implications for L2 teaching and learning. The newly found three-factor structure coincides with the long-lasting '3T' difficulties ['3T' difficulties refer to three major concerns in teaching CSL. They are connected with how to implement effective teaching strategies, develop high-quality teaching materials and build qualified and capable teaching teams] in International Chinese education;therefore, it inspires CSL researchers and teachers to attach more importance to the negative emotion of FLLB in the future.

6.
Value in Health ; 25(7):S467, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1914756

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Price and volume changing trends of medicines has become a focus of attention from a global perspective. This is especially true in China because of a series of drug reforms initiated in recent years, such as nationwide bulk procurement of medicines. This study aims to compile the drug purchase price index and volume index, which is applied to present their dynamic changes of prices and volumes and to reflect overall supply of medicines in Shanghai. Methods: Based on the database of Shanghai Sunshine Medical Procurement All-In-One, Laspeyres price index and Pascal purchase volume index was calculated monthly and annually by using Western medicines purchase records during 2018 and 2020, which were uploaded from all the medical institutions in Shanghai. Results: Compared with the previous year, the price index of medicines and those covered by the basic medical insurance schemes were 93.3 and 93.1 respectively in 2019, while they were 95.8 and 95.6 in 2020. Monthly price index declined significantly in March 2019, April 2020 and November 2020, for the new purchase prices were implemented in these months. Meanwhile, annual procurement volume had limited changes with monthly fluctuations. Prices of those drugs not covered by the medical insurance fell slightly, and their volumes dropped sharply after the COVID-19 outbreak. Conclusions: Prices of medicines maintained a downward trend in stability with limited procurement volume changes in Shanghai. The empirical case of price index and volume index of medicines in Shanghai has verified the feasibility of its application in drug price monitoring and management. It has also provided strong evidence for policy decision-making and evaluation.

7.
Acta Medica Mediterranea ; 38(3):1471-1476, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1912456

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on patients with liver abscess associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Data about consecutive cases of T2DM-associated liver abscess diagnosed and treated during the pandemic (January-April 2020) or earlier (January-April in 2017-2019) were compared. Results: A total of 177 patients (122 men;median age, 66 years;124 treated in 2017-2019 and 53 treated in 2020) were included in the study. Antibiotic therapy alone led to abscess resolution in 75 patients;the remaining 102 patients underwent successful abscess aspiration (n=56) or drain placement (n = 46). The mean random plasma glucose (15.9±2.7 vs 12.7±2.7 mmol/L;P<0.001), fasting plasma glucose (11.4±2.0 vs 10.6±2.0 mmol/L;P=0.017), and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (9.1%±1.5% vs 7.8%±0.9%;P<0.001) levels at the presentation were higher among patients treated in 2020 than among those treated earlier. The mean interval between symptom onset and presentation was shorter for patients treated in 2020 (36.5±7.2 hours) than for those treated earlier (50.4±17.4 hours;P<0.001). The mean interval between presentation and diagnosis was longer among patients treated in 2020 (18.4±9.9 hours) than among those treated earlier (11.3±4.9 hours;P<0.001). Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic may have promoted the occurrence of liver abscess among patients with poorly controlled T2DM, and control measures for the pandemic may have led to delays in diagnosis. © 2022 A. CARBONE Editore. All rights reserved.

8.
BJOG-AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY ; 129:142-143, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1905498
9.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 34(1): 36-40, 2022 Feb 23.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893447

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of four anti-cysticercus IgG, IgG4 or IgM antibody test kits (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA) by different manufacturers, so as to provide insights into the epidemiological investigation and clinical detection of cysticercosis. METHODS: Forty serum samples from cerebral cysticercosis patients, 100 serum samples from healthy volunteers, 30 serum samples from paragonimiasis skrjabini patients, 17 serum samples from cystic echinococcosis and 19 serum samples from subcutaneous or cerebral sparganosis patients were collected and detected using anti-cysticercus IgG, IgG4 or IgM antibody test kits (brand A) and the anti-cysticercus IgG antibody test kit (brand B). The sensitivity, specificity and false negative rate of the four kits for detection of cysticercosis were estimated. RESULTS: The anti-cysticercus IgG, IgG4 or IgM antibody test kits (brand A) showed 95.00% (38/40), 87.50% (35/40), 7.50% (3/40) sensitivities and 98.00% (98/100), 100.00% (100/100) and 100.00% (100/100) for detection of cysticercosis, while the anti-cysticercus IgG antibody test kit (brand B) presented a 75.00% (30/40) sensitivity and 100.00% (100/100) specificity for detection of cysticercosis. The sensitivity for detection of cysticercosis was significantly higher by the anti-cysticercus IgG antibody test kit (brand A) than by the anti-cysticercus IgG antibody test kit (brand B) (χ2 = 6.28, P < 0.05); however, no significant difference was seen in the specificity by two kits (χ2 = 2.01, P > 0.05). The four ELISA kits showed overall false positive rates of 37.88% (25/66), 22.73% (15/66), 62.12% (41/66) and 15.15% (10/66) for detection of paragonimiasis, echinococcosis and sparganosis (χ2 = 37.61, P < 0.05), and the anti-cysticercus IgG antibody test kit (brand A) presented the highest overall false positive rate for detection of paragonimiasis, echinococcosis and sparganosis (χ2 = 7.56, P' < 0.008), while a higher overall false positive rate was seen for detection of paragonimiasis, echinococcosis and sparganosis by the anti-cysticercus IgG antibody test kit (brand A) than by the anti-cysticercus IgG antibody test kit (brand B) (χ2 = 8.75, P' < 0.008). The four ELISA kits showed false positive rates of 40.00% (12/30), 16.67% (5/30), 76.67% (23/30) and 13.33% (4/30) for detection of paragonimiasis (χ2 = 32.88, P < 0.05) and 21.05% (4/19), 26.32% (5/19), 73.68% (14/19) and 15.79% (3/19) for detection of sparganosis (χ2 = 19.97, P < 0.05), and the highest false positive rates were found by the anti-cysticercus IgM antibody test kit (brand A) for detection of paragonimiasis and sparganosis (all P' < 0.008). However, the four ELISA kits showed comparable false positive rates of 52.94% (9/17), 29.41% (5/17), 23.53% (4/17) and 17.65% (3/17) for detection of echinococcosis (χ2 = 8.24, P > 0.05). In addition, the anti-cysticercus IgM anti-body test kit (brand A) showed false positive rates of 76.67% (23/30), 23.53% (4/17) and 73.68% (14/19) for detection of paragonimiasis, echinococcosis and sparganosis (χ2 = 14.537, P < 0.05), with the lowest false positive rate seen for detection of echinococcosis (χ2 = 14.537, P' < 0.014), while no significant differences were seen in the false positive rate for detection of paragonimiasis, echinococcosis and sparganosis by other three ELISA kits (all P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The four anti-cysticercus IgG, IgG4 or IgM antibody test kits exhibit various efficiencies for serodiagnosis of cysticercosis. The anti-cysticercus IgG antibody test kit (brand A) has a high sensitivity for serodiagnosis of cysticercosis; however, it still needs to solve the problems of cross-reaction with other parasitic diseases and stability.


Subject(s)
Cysticercosis , Cysticercus , Animals , Antibodies, Helminth , Cysticercosis/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests
10.
Traitement du Signal ; 39(2):701-710, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1893498

ABSTRACT

As Covid-19 plagues the world, a clean environment helps to control the factors and risks that threaten health, and curb the spread of the epidemic. However, the quality evaluation of environmental health faces some problems and challenges in actual management and practice. Firstly, the classification, identification, and quantification of road garbage are mainly done manually, because of the diversity of road garbage, as well as their sharp differences in geometry, color, and texture. Secondly, it is labor-intensive to manually manage the large operation areas on the wide urban roads. Thirdly, the accuracy of statistical indices is affected by the time-varying road environment, making the quality evaluation of environmental health untimely and inaccurate. To solve these problems, this paper proposes an intelligent image classification and evaluation method for urban environmental health. Specifically, an environmental garbage recognition and semantic segmentation approach was designed based on UNet++, and combined with the vehicle-mounted machine vision system to automatically identify the typical targets among the road waste control indices. Next, an image attention quantitative evaluation method was developed based on the eye tracking analyzer, and the quantified attention was fused with the statistical features for road garbage classification, forming an attention-based evaluation method for environmental quality. The proposed approach supports the automatic recognition and semantic segmentation of the garbage on urban roads, and realizes the identification of complex targets in different scenes through transfer learning. In addition, the attention-based evaluation method for environmental quality provides environmental management departments with visual basis for quantitative decision-making. © 2022 Lavoisier. All rights reserved.

11.
Traitement Du Signal ; 39(2):701-710, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1884816

ABSTRACT

As Covid-19 plagues the world, a clean environment helps to control the factors and risks that threaten health, and curb the spread of the epidemic. However, the quality evaluation of environmental health faces some problems and challenges in actual management and practice. Firstly, the classification, identification, and quantification of road garbage are mainly done manually, because of the diversity of road garbage, as well as their sharp differences in geometry, color, and texture. Secondly, it is labor-intensive to manually manage the large operation areas on the wide urban roads. Thirdly, the accuracy of statistical indices is affected by the time-varying road environment, making the quality evaluation of environmental health untimely and inaccurate. To solve these problems, this paper proposes an intelligent image classification and evaluation method for urban environmental health. Specifically, an environmental garbage recognition and semantic segmentation approach was designed based on UNet++, and combined with the vehicle-mounted machine vision system to automatically identify the typical targets among the road waste control indices. Next, an image attention quantitative evaluation method was developed based on the eye tracking analyzer, and the quantified attention was fused with the statistical features for road garbage classification, forming an attention-based evaluation method for environmental quality. The proposed approach supports the automatic recognition and semantic segmentation of the garbage on urban roads, and realizes the identification of complex targets in different scenes through transfer learning. In addition, the attention-based evaluation method for environmental quality provides environmental management departments with visual basis for quantitative decision-making.

12.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205:1, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880090
13.
1st International Conference on Technologies for Smart Green Connected Society 2021, ICTSGS 2021 ; 107:7509-7530, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1874811

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 belongs to a family of coronaviruses, responsible for the covid-19 pandemic. The Chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) and Papain-like protease (PLPro), two important enzymes of the SARSCoV-2 play a key role in translating the viral RNA genome into functional proteins. This study aimed to evaluate and analyse the binding interactions of phytochemicals of oleoresin of Commiphora mukul plant with 3CLPro and PLPro enzymes of SARS-CoV-2 virus. Docking studies were performed on 3CLPro and PLPro with 30 phytoconstituents using AutoDock Vina. A total of 12 compounds were shortlisted based on their minimum binding energies. Their minimum binding energy ranged from -9.2 to -7.1 kcal and the analysis and interpretations are tabulated. Further, the ADME, drug-likeness, and bioactivity scores were documented. The current study enlightened the binding abilities, and the interactions of constituents present in the oleoresin of Commiphora mukul plant with the active sites of 3CLPro and PLPro enzymes. © The Electrochemical Society

14.
Studies in Applied Mathematics ; : 36, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1854167

ABSTRACT

In this paper, a reaction-diffusion SIRE epidemic model in contaminated environments is proposed, in which the effect of protection for susceptible individuals is included by the nonlinear incidence functions b(S)E$b(S)E$ and g(S)I$g(S)I$. When the space is heterogeneous, the basic reproduction number R0$\mathcal {R}_{0}$ is derived, by which we find that if R0 <= 1$\mathcal {R}_{0}\le 1$, the disease-free steady state is globally asymptotically stable, while R0>1$\mathcal {R}_{0}>1$, the disease is uniform persistent. Furthermore, when R0>1$\mathcal {R}_{0}>1$ and additional conditions hold, the global asymptotic stability of special endemic steady state is obtained in homogeneous space. Finally, the theoretical results are validated by numerical simulations, some open questions are illustrated.

15.
Annals of Behavioral Medicine ; 56(SUPP 1):S106-S106, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1848594
16.
2nd International Conference on Electronics, Communications and Information Technology, CECIT 2021 ; : 292-297, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1831727

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is breaking out and spreading globally, posing a severe threat to public health and economies worldwide due to its highly transmissible and pathogenic nature. Early, accurate and rapid diagnosis of COVID-19 can effectively stop the spread of the COVID-19 virus. Automatic diagnostic models based on deep learning can detect COVID-19 quickly and accurately. This paper uses a three-dimensional Convolutional Neural Network (3D CNN) to build a COVID-19 diagnostic prediction model for COVID-19 detection. All 192 sets of chest Computed Tomography(CT) data collected are used for this study, including 96 sets of confirmed COVID-19 patients and 96 sets of CT scans of normal human lungs. 5-fold cross-validation is used to train and validate the model. 154 data sets are used to train the model, and 38 sets are used for testing. All experimental data are segmented using a pre-trained SP-V-Net to obtain 3D lung masks fed into 3D CNN for training and validation of the prediction model. In addition, to verify the accuracy of the model predictions and provide interpretability for medical diagnosis, we visualize the experimental results using Class Activation Maps(CAM) to localize the predicted disease regions. The results from several experiments show that the accuracy of our prediction model is 0.911, the Area Under Curve (AUC) 0.976, for no-COVID-19(Precision, 0.902, Recall 0.911, F1-Score 0.900), COVID-19 (Precision, 0.932, Recall 0.911, F1-Score 0.902). The experimental results show that our established diagnostic model can help physicians make a rapid and accurate diagnosis of COVID-19 in response to the spread of COVID-19. © 2021 IEEE.

17.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-334677

ABSTRACT

We conducted preclinical studies in mice using a yeast-produced SARS-CoV-2 RBD subunit vaccine candidate formulated with aluminum hydroxide (alum) and CpG deoxynucleotides. This formulation is equivalent to the CorbevaxTM vaccine that recently received emergency use authorization by the Drugs Controller General of India. We compared the immune response of mice vaccinated with RBD/alum to mice vaccinated with RBD/alum+CpG. We also evaluated mice immunized with RBD/alum+CpG and boosted with RBD/alum. Mice were immunized twice intramuscularly at a 21-day interval. Compared to two doses of the/alum formulation, the RBD/alum+CpG vaccine induced a stronger and more balanced Th1/Th2 cellular immune response, with high levels of neutralizing antibodies against the original Wuhan isolate of SARS-CoV-2 as well as the B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.351 (Beta), B.1.617.2 and (Delta) variants. Neutralizing antibody titers against the B.1.1.529 (BA.1, Omicron) variant exceeded those in human convalescent plasma after Wuhan infection but were lower than against the other variants. Interestingly, the second dose did not benefit from the addition of CpG, possibly allowing dose-sparing of the adjuvant in the future. The data reported here reinforces that the RBD/alum+CpG vaccine formulation is suitable for inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 including variants of concern.

18.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-334547

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The urgent need for massively scaled clinical testing for SARS-CoV-2, along with global shortages of critical reagents and supplies, has necessitated development of streamlined laboratory testing protocols. Conventional nucleic acid testing for SARS-CoV-2 involves collection of a clinical specimen with a nasopharyngeal swab in transport medium, nucleic acid extraction, and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) (1). As testing has scaled across the world, the global supply chain has buckled, rendering testing reagents and materials scarce (2). To address shortages, we developed SwabExpress, an end-to-end protocol developed to employ mass produced anterior nares swabs and bypass the requirement for transport media and nucleic acid extraction. METHODS: We evaluated anterior nares swabs, transported dry and eluted in low-TE buffer as a direct-to-RT-qPCR alternative to extraction-dependent viral transport media. We validated our protocol of using heat treatment for viral activation and added a proteinase K digestion step to reduce amplification interference. We tested this protocol across archived and prospectively collected swab specimens to fine-tune test performance. RESULTS: After optimization, SwabExpress has a low limit of detection at 2-4 molecules/uL, 100% sensitivity, and 99.4% specificity when compared side-by-side with a traditional RT-qPCR protocol employing extraction. On real-world specimens, SwabExpress outperforms an automated extraction system while simultaneously reducing cost and hands-on time. CONCLUSION: SwabExpress is a simplified workflow that facilitates scaled testing for COVID-19 without sacrificing test performance. It may serve as a template for the simplification of PCR-based clinical laboratory tests, particularly in times of critical shortages during pandemics.

19.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333778

ABSTRACT

Emergence of novel variants of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) underscores the need for next-generation vaccines able to elicit broad and durable immunity. Here we report the evaluation of a ferritin nanoparticle vaccine displaying the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (RFN) adjuvanted with Army Liposomal Formulation QS-21 (ALFQ). RFN vaccination of macaques using a two-dose regimen resulted in robust, predominantly Th1 CD4+ T cell responses and reciprocal peak mean neutralizing antibody titers of 14,000-21,000. Rapid control of viral replication was achieved in the upper and lower airways of animals after high-dose SARS-CoV-2 respiratory challenge, with undetectable replication within four days in 7 of 8 animals receiving 50 microg RFN. Cross-neutralization activity against SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.351 decreased only ~2-fold relative to USA-WA1. In addition, neutralizing, effector antibody and cellular responses targeted the heterotypic SARS-CoV-1, highlighting the broad immunogenicity of RFN-ALFQ for SARS-like betacoronavirus vaccine development. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) that reduce the efficacy of current COVID-19 vaccines is a major threat to pandemic control. We evaluate a SARS-CoV-2 Spike receptor-binding domain ferritin nanoparticle protein vaccine (RFN) in a nonhuman primate challenge model that addresses the need for a next-generation, efficacious vaccine with increased pan-SARS breadth of coverage. RFN, adjuvanted with a liposomal-QS21 formulation (ALFQ), elicits humoral and cellular immune responses exceeding those of current vaccines in terms of breadth and potency and protects against high-dose respiratory tract challenge. Neutralization activity against the B.1.351 VOC within two-fold of wild-type virus and against SARS-CoV-1 indicate exceptional breadth. Our results support consideration of RFN for SARS-like betacoronavirus vaccine development.

20.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333760

ABSTRACT

The emergence of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants stresses the continued need for next-generation vaccines that confer broad protection against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We developed and evaluated an adjuvanted SARS-CoV-2 Spike Ferritin Nanoparticle (SpFN) vaccine in nonhuman primates (NHPs). High-dose (50 micro g) SpFN vaccine, given twice within a 28 day interval, induced a Th1-biased CD4 T cell helper response and a peak neutralizing antibody geometric mean titer of 52,773 against wild-type virus, with activity against SARS-CoV-1 and minimal decrement against variants of concern. Vaccinated animals mounted an anamnestic response upon high-dose SARS-CoV-2 respiratory challenge that translated into rapid elimination of replicating virus in their upper and lower airways and lung parenchyma. SpFN's potent and broad immunogenicity profile and resulting efficacy in NHPs supports its utility as a candidate platform for SARS-like betacoronaviruses. ONE-SENTENCE SUMMARY: A SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein ferritin nanoparticle vaccine, co-formulated with a liposomal adjuvant, elicits broad neutralizing antibody responses that exceed those observed for other major vaccines and rapidly protects against respiratory infection and disease in the upper and lower airways and lung tissue of nonhuman primates.

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