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1.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; : 20764020944200, 2020 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690594

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), provokes fear, anxiety and depression in the public, which further affects mental health issues. Taiwan has used their experience of the SARS epidemic for the management of foreseeable problems in COVID-19 endemic. AIM/OBJECTIVE: This review summarizes issues concerning mental health problems related to infectious diseases from current literatures. RESULTS: In suspected cases under quarantine, confirmed cases in isolation and their families, health care professionals, and the general population and related effective strategies to reduce these mental health issues, such as helping to identify stressors and normalizing their impact at all levels of response as well as public information and communication messages by electronic devices. The importance of community resilience was also addressed. Psychological first aid, psychological debriefing, mental health intervention and psychoeducation were also discussed. Issues concerning cultures and religions are also emphasized in the management plans. CONCLUSION: Biological disaster like SARS and COVID-19 not only has strong impact on mental health in those being infected and their family, friends, and coworkers, but also affect wellbeing in general public. There are evidenced that clear and timely psychoeducation, psychological first aid and psychological debriefing could amileorate negative impact of disaster, thus might also be helpful amid COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
International Journal of Biological Sciences ; 16(13):2382-2391, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-689142

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a public health emergency that has rapidly spread to over 200 countries and regions, and no effective treatment has been established to date Severe and critical cases have been associated with higher mortality due to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and cytokine storm Based on the novelty and recent emergence of COVID-19, no effective treatment regimen has been identified, thus prompting clinicians to engage in drug repurposing to address the immediate therapeutic need This study focused on the molecular target angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) of SARS-CoV-2 and screened a group of ACE2 agonists by bioinformatics Glucocorticoids are a type of ACE2 activator We verified the efficacy of nine chemicals on regulating ACE2 expression in human GES-1, an upper digestive tract epithelial cell line, and THP-1, a human monocyte cell line, and found that several glucocorticoids imparted activating effects on ACE2 in both cell lines The drugs triciribine and kinetin riboside activate ACE2 expression or inhibit IL-6 production in macrophages to some extent In addition, we compared the efficacies of several glucocorticoids Hydrocortisone showed the strongest effect on ACE2 activation, followed by prednisolone, dexamethasone, and methylprednisolone We retrospectively analyzed the therapeutic efficacy of nine severe or critical patients from a cohort of 90 COVID-19 cases, who received medium to small doses of glucocorticoids from our integrated medical team in Wuhan Seven out of nine patients revealed significant improvement in clinical parameters and chest CT images This study provides experimental and clinical evidence that medium-to-low-dose glucocorticoids may play a protective role in the respiratory and digestive systems by activating ACE2 and suppressing cytokine storm

3.
Frontiers in public health ; 8:355-355, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-688867

ABSTRACT

Background: The emerging coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a serious public health concern with a high number of fatalities It is unclear whether corticosteroids could be a candidate for an early intervention strategy for patients with COVID-19 Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed data from 28 corticosteroid-treated patients with non-severe but advanced COVID-19, in which short-course and low-dose corticosteroids were administered because of unremitting or worsening clinical conditions during hospitalization To compare the effect of corticosteroids on viral clearance, 44 corticosteroid-untreated patients were included as controls Results: At the time of admission, corticosteroid-treated patients (n = 28) had a more advanced baseline illness compared with corticosteroid-untreated patients (n = 44), as reflected by poorer blood laboratory parameters (lymphocytes, C-reactive protein, and lactate dehydrogenase) and more extensive chest computed tomography (CT) abnormalities Corticosteroids were given because of radiological evidence of pneumonia progression (26/28) and/or unremitting fever (22/28) after admission The median time from illness onset to corticosteroid treatment was 9 days (IQR, 7-10) The median duration and accumulated dose of corticosteroid treatment were 4 5 days [interquartile range (IQR), 3-5] and 140 mg of methylprednisolone (IQR, 120-200) Intravenous immunoglobulin (20 g per day for 3-5 days) was co-administered with corticosteroids With the corticosteroid treatment, all patients achieved an abatement of fever within 1 day, and 78 6% (22/28) of the patients achieved radiological remission when evaluated about 3 days later Only one (3 6%) patient progressed to severe COVID-19, and all patients recovered and were discharged without any sequela The median time from illness onset to viral clearance was similar, as compared with 44 corticosteroid-untreated patients with relatively milder disease [18 (IQR 14 3-23 5) days vs 17 (IQR, 12-20) days, p = 0 252] When adjusted for age, sex, underlying comorbidities, baseline blood laboratory parameters, viral load, and chest radiological findings, the causal hazard ratio of corticosteroid treatment for the viral clearance was 0 79 (95%CI, 0 48-1 30, p = 0 34) Conclusion: Short-course and low-dose applications of corticosteroids, when co-administered with intravenous immunoglobulin, in non-severe COVID-19 patients during the stage of clinical deterioration may possibly prevent disease progression, while having a negligible impact on the viral clearance

4.
Hepatology Communications ; n/a(n/a), 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-671944

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background & Aims Although abnormal liver chemistries are linked to a higher risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related death, liver manifestations may be diverse and even confusing Thus, we performed a meta-analysis of published liver manifestations and described the liver damage in patients with COVID-19 who died or discharged alive Approach & Results We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, medRxiv, bioRxiv, the Cochrane Library, Embase, and three Chinese electronic databases through April 22, 2020 We analyzed pooled data on liver chemistries stratified by the main clinical outcome of COVID-19, using a fixed or random-effects model In our meta-analysis of 19 studies, which included a total of 4,103 patients, the pooled mean alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were respectively 31 7 and 51 0 IU/L in the patients with COVID-19 who died and 27 7 and 32 9 IU/L in those discharged alive (both p < 0 0001) Compared with the patients discharged alive, those who died tended to have lower albumin levels but longer prothrombin time and higher international standardized ratio Conclusions In this meta-analysis, according to the main clinical outcome of COVID-19, we comprehensively described three patterns of liver impairment related to COVID-19, hepatocellular injury, cholestasis, and hepatocellular disfunction The patients who died from COVID-19 tended to have different liver chemistries from those discharged alive Special caution should be given to the patients with relatively higher index of liver chemistries

5.
Lancet ; 2020 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-666142

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This is the first randomised controlled trial for assessment of the immunogenicity and safety of a candidate non-replicating adenovirus type-5 (Ad5)-vectored COVID-19 vaccine, aiming to determine an appropriate dose of the candidate vaccine for an efficacy study. METHODS: This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial of the Ad5-vectored COVID-19 vaccine was done in a single centre in Wuhan, China. Healthy adults aged 18 years or older, who were HIV-negative and previous severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection-free, were eligible to participate and were randomly assigned to receive the vaccine at a dose of 1 × 1011 viral particles per mL or 5 × 1010 viral particles per mL, or placebo. Investigators allocated participants at a ratio of 2:1:1 to receive a single injection intramuscularly in the arm. The randomisation list (block size 4) was generated by an independent statistician. Participants, investigators, and staff undertaking laboratory analyses were masked to group allocation. The primary endpoints for immunogenicity were the geometric mean titres (GMTs) of specific ELISA antibody responses to the receptor binding domain (RBD) and neutralising antibody responses at day 28. The primary endpoint for safety evaluation was the incidence of adverse reactions within 14 days. All recruited participants who received at least one dose were included in the primary and safety analyses. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04341389. FINDINGS: 603 volunteers were recruited and screened for eligibility between April 11 and 16, 2020. 508 eligible participants (50% male; mean age 39·7 years, SD 12·5) consented to participate in the trial and were randomly assigned to receive the vaccine (1 × 1011 viral particles n=253; 5 × 1010 viral particles n=129) or placebo (n=126). In the 1 × 1011 and 5 × 1010 viral particles dose groups, the RBD-specific ELISA antibodies peaked at 656·5 (95% CI 575·2-749·2) and 571·0 (467·6-697·3), with seroconversion rates at 96% (95% CI 93-98) and 97% (92-99), respectively, at day 28. Both doses of the vaccine induced significant neutralising antibody responses to live SARS-CoV-2, with GMTs of 19·5 (95% CI 16·8-22·7) and 18·3 (14·4-23·3) in participants receiving 1 × 1011 and 5 × 1010 viral particles, respectively. Specific interferon γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay responses post vaccination were observed in 227 (90%, 95% CI 85-93) of 253 and 113 (88%, 81-92) of 129 participants in the 1 × 1011 and 5 × 1010 viral particles dose groups, respectively. Solicited adverse reactions were reported by 183 (72%) of 253 and 96 (74%) of 129 participants in the 1 × 1011 and 5 × 1010 viral particles dose groups, respectively. Severe adverse reactions were reported by 24 (9%) participants in the 1 × 1011 viral particles dose group and one (1%) participant in the 5 × 1010 viral particles dose group. No serious adverse reactions were documented. INTERPRETATION: The Ad5-vectored COVID-19 vaccine at 5 × 1010 viral particles is safe, and induced significant immune responses in the majority of recipients after a single immunisation. FUNDING: National Key R&D Programme of China, National Science and Technology Major Project, and CanSino Biologics.

6.
Open Access (OA) Online-First Publ. Res. Pap. COVID-19 ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-658653

ABSTRACT

A review The disease caused by the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) so that people take home exercise as an important means to improve immunity and maintain health in China The relationship between exercise and immunity has once again received attention It is generally believed that regular moderate to high-intensity exercise under the premise of full recovery can improve immune function, and acute exercise may suppress immune function and increase the risk of infection The decreased peripheral blood lymphocyte count and function, reduced secretory IgA level after acute exercise are considered to be the theor basis of exercise induced immunosuppression However, the current understanding that this exercise is independent of other factors affecting immune function increases the risk of infection has been challenged Therefore, acute exercise can quickly mobilize lymphocyte subpopulations into the circulation through the stress response After exercise, these lymphocyte subpopulations can quickly migrate to peripheral tissues Acute exercise-induced lymphocyte redeployment may be an evolutionarily conserved immune mechanism This process strengthens the immune surveillance and regulatory function of peripheral tissues and helps improve the body ability to resist infection This article reviews the current situation of the impact of acute exercise on the risk of opportunistic infections and immune system function from this perspective, providing a correct understanding of the relationship between acute exercise and immune function, providing a theor reference for optimizing various exercise prescriptions, and further improving the mechanism of exercise immunol

7.
Geriatrics and Gerontology International ; 20(7):734-735, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-657121
8.
Virus Res ; 287: 198098, 2020 Jul 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-653575

ABSTRACT

To investigate the evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics of the current COVID-19 outbreak, a total of 112 genomes of SARS-CoV-2 strains sampled from China and 12 other countries with sampling dates between 24 December 2019 and 9 February 2020 were analyzed. We performed phylogenetic, split network, likelihood-mapping, model comparison, and phylodynamic analyses of the genomes. Based on Bayesian time-scaled phylogenetic analysis with the best-fitting combination models, we estimated the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) and evolutionary rate of SARS-CoV-2 to be 12 November 2019 (95 % BCI: 11 October 2019 and 09 December 2019) and 9.90 × 10-4 substitutions per site per year (95 % BCI: 6.29 × 10-4-1.35 × 10-3), respectively. Notably, the very low Re estimates of SARS-CoV-2 during the recent sampling period may be the result of the successful control of the pandemic in China due to extreme societal lockdown efforts. Our results emphasize the importance of using phylodynamic analyses to provide insights into the roles of various interventions to limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in China and beyond.

9.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 223(2): 240.e1-240.e9, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-648507

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On January 20, 2020, a new coronavirus epidemic with human-to-human transmission was officially declared by the Chinese government, which caused significant public panic in China. In light of the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak, pregnant women may be particularly vulnerable and in special need for preventive mental health strategies. Thus far, no reports exist to investigate the mental health response of pregnant women to the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak on the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms and the corresponding risk factors among pregnant women across China. STUDY DESIGN: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was initiated in early December 2019 to identify mental health concerns in pregnancy using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. This study provided a unique opportunity to compare the mental status of pregnant women before and after the declaration of the coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic. A total of 4124 pregnant women during their third trimester from 25 hospitals in 10 provinces across China were examined in this cross-sectional study from January 1, 2020, to February 9, 2020. Of these women, 1285 were assessed after January 20, 2020, when the coronavirus epidemic was publicly declared and 2839 were assessed before this pivotal time point. The internationally recommended Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used to assess maternal depression and anxiety symptoms. Prevalence rates and risk factors were compared between the pre- and poststudy groups. RESULTS: Pregnant women assessed after the declaration of coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic had significantly higher rates of depressive symptoms (26.0% vs 29.6%, P=.02) than women assessed before the epidemic declaration. These women were also more likely to have thoughts of self-harm (P=.005). The depressive rates were positively associated with the number of newly confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (P=.003), suspected infections (P=.004), and deaths per day (P=.001). Pregnant women who were underweight before pregnancy, primiparous, younger than 35 years, employed full time, in middle income category, and had appropriate living space were at increased risk for developing depressive and anxiety symptoms during the outbreak. CONCLUSION: Major life-threatening public health events such as the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak may increase the risk for mental illness among pregnant women, including thoughts of self-harm. Strategies targeting maternal stress and isolation such as effective risk communication and the provision of psychological first aid may be particularly useful to prevent negative outcomes for women and their fetuses.

10.
BMJ Open ; 10(7): e039771, 2020 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647148

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The recent viral pneumonia caused by the COVID-19 has gained the attention of the people all over the world. We aim to investigate the effects of respiratory rehabilitation therapy on patients infected with the novel coronavirus by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This systematic review and meta-analysis have been registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO). The PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data and Viper information databases will be searched from inception time to date without restricting research types to find relevant studies. We will also look into reference lists of relevant trials and reviews, and manually search grey literature, such as trial registries. Two reviewers will independently extract data and perform quality assessment of included studies. Review Manager V.5.3 (Cochrane Collaboration) and Stata V.16.0 software will be used to conduct this meta-analysis. The mean difference or standardised mean difference with 95% CIs is used in the computation of continuous variables to synthesise data. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required due to the nature of this meta-analysis, which is based on published papers. The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis will be published in a peer-reviewed journal once we finish this study. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020180214.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/rehabilitation , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/rehabilitation , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications
11.
Non-conventional | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-637075

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The U S has experienced an unprecedented number of shelter-in-place orders throughout the COVID-19 pandemic There is limited empirical research that examines the impact of these orders We aimed to rapidly ascertain whether social distancing;difficulty with daily activities (obtaining food, essential medications and childcare);and levels of concern regarding COVID-19 changed after the March 16, 2020 announcement of shelter-in-place orders for seven counties in the San Francisco Bay Area METHODS: We conducted an online, cross-sectional social media survey from March 14 - April 1, 2020 We measured changes in social distancing behavior;experienced difficulties with daily activities (i e , access to healthcare, childcare, obtaining essential food and medications);and level of concern regarding COVID-19 after the March 16 shelter-in-place announcement in the San Francisco Bay Area and elsewhere in the U S RESULTS: The percentage of respondents social distancing all of the time increased following the shelter-in-place announcement in the Bay Area (9 2%, 95% CI: 6 6, 11 9) and elsewhere in the U S (3 4%, 95% CI: 2 0, 5 0) Respondents also reported increased difficulty with obtaining food, hand sanitizer, and medications, particularly with obtaining food for both respondents from the Bay Area (13 3%, 95% CI: 10 4, 16 3) and elsewhere (8 2%, 95% CI: 6 6, 9 7) We found limited evidence that level of concern regarding the COVID-19 crisis changed following the shelter-in-place announcement CONCLUSION: These results capture early changes in attitudes, behaviors, and difficulties Further research that specifically examines social, economic, and health impacts of COVID-19, especially among vulnerable populations, is urgently needed =

12.
Clinical Infection in Practice ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-628667

ABSTRACT

Background In December 2019, a novel communicable disease, novel coronavirus infected pneumonia (NCIP) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) broke out We aimed to analyze the characteristics and severity of patients with myocardial damage in NCIP Methods We enrolled 215 adult patients with NCIP from January 2020 to February 2020 Outcomes were followed up until March 1st, 2020 Results 28 37% of the total patients showed increased level of TnI (>0 040 ng/ml) Patients were older and had more cardiovascular complications in increased TnI group Higher CRP, NT-proBNP, lower immune CD3, CD4 and CD8 cell account and more involved lobes detected by CT scan in the lung were observed in increased TnI group Patients with elevated TnI had higher CRUB-65 scores and were more likely given glucocorticoid therapy and mechanical ventilation than patients in normal TnI group Conclusions Markers of cardiomyocyte injury were elevated not least in elderly males with pre-existing cardiovascular disease Patients with elevated TnI presented more severe situation, leading to multiple organ dysfunctions, which appeared as a pivotal feature of patients with NCIP that requires attention by clinicians in order to provide necessary treatment as soon as possible and improve patients' outcomes

13.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 54: 102270, 2020 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622314

ABSTRACT

Psychiatric hospitals play an important role in supporting patients with mental illness to relieve symptoms and improve functioning in a physically and psychologically safe environment. However, these hospitals are also vulnerable to emerging infectious diseases. In early 2020, a psychiatric hospital and a psychiatric unit were reported to have nosocomial coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. A large number of patients and staff were severely impacted. This type of nosocomial infection threatens patient safety and quality of care. By learning from previous experiences of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and previous studies, psychiatric hospitals can provide safeguards to prevent nosocomial infection among patients and staff during an epidemic or biological disaster. These strategies include a series of actions such as following national guidelines for infection control, reserving adequate support for disinfection equipment, providing relevant and sufficient pro-service and in-service education and training, establishing regular surveillance of hand hygiene habits, proper communication and health education, and providing opportunities for vaccination if possible. Based on the harm reduction concept, staff division of office breaks and ward classification and shunting are recommended and should be further implemented.

14.
Annals of translational medicine ; 8(9):576-576, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-612194

ABSTRACT

Background: 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has posed significant threats to public health To identify and treat the severe and critical patients with COVID-19 is the key clinical problem to be solved The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of severe and non-severe patients with COVID-19 Methods: We searched independently studies and retrieved the data that involved the clinical characteristics of severe and non-severe patients with COVID-19 through database searching Two authors independently retrieved the data from the individual studies, assessed the study quality with Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and analyzed publication bias by Begg's test We calculated the odds ratio (OR) of groups using fixed or random-effect models Results: Five studies with 5,328 patients confirmed with COVID-19 met the inclusion criteria Severe patents were older and more common in dyspnea, vomiting or diarrhea, creatinine >104 micromol/L, procalcitonin >/=0 05 ng/mL, lymphocyte count <1 5x10(9)/L and bilateral involvement of chest CT Severe patents had higher risk on complications including acute cardiac injury (OR 13 48;95% CI, 3 60 to 50 47, P<0 001) or acute kidney injury (AKI) (OR 11 55;95% CI, 3 44 to 38 77, P<0 001), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (OR 26 12;95% CI, 11 14 to 61 25, P<0 001), shock (OR 53 17;95% CI, 12 54 to 225 4, P<0 001) and in-hospital death (OR 45 24;95% CI, 19 43 to 105 35, P<0 001) Severe group required more main interventions such as received antiviral therapy (OR 1 69;95% CI, 1 23 to 2 32, P=0 001), corticosteroids (OR 5 07;95% CI, 3 69 to 6 98, P<0 001), CRRT (OR 37 95;95% CI, 7 26 to 198 41, P<0 001) and invasive mechanical ventilation (OR 129 35;95% CI, 25 83 to 647 68, P<0 001) Conclusions: Severe patients with COVID-19 had more risk of clinical characteristics and multiple system organ complications Even received more main interventions, severe patients had higher risk of mortality

15.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611185

ABSTRACT

The federal government shutdown from 22 December 2018 to 25 January 2019 created an unprecedented disruption in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits. We conducted a cross-sectional qualitative study to begin to capture how the disruption affected food security and wellbeing among a small sample of California SNAP participants. We collected data from 26 low-income adults in four focus groups in four diverse California counties. We found that participants routinely struggle to secure an adequate and healthy diet in the context of high costs of living, the shutdown and benefit disruption added to participants' stress and uncertainty and exacerbated food insecurity, and it diminished some participants' faith in government. Participants reported that, while having additional benefits in January felt like a relief from typical end-of-month deprivation, the subsequent extended gap between benefit distributions and a lack of clarity about future benefits caused cascading effects as participants later had to divert money from other expenses to buy food and faced added uncertainty about future economic stability. Additionally, the shutdown highlighted challenges related to the availability, timing, and tone of communications between participants and SNAP agencies. Participants recommended that SNAP adjust benefit and eligibility levels to better address costs of living, improve customer service, and avoid future disruptions.

16.
Science ; 2020 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610891

ABSTRACT

Developing therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 could be guided by the distribution of epitopes, not only on the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the Spike (S) protein, but also across the full Spike (S) protein. We isolated and characterized monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from ten convalescent COVID-19 patients. Three mAbs showed neutralizing activities against authentic SARS-CoV-2. An mAb, named 4A8, exhibits high neutralization potency against both authentic and pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2, but does not bind the RBD. We defined the epitope of 4A8 as the N terminal domain (NTD) of the S protein by determining its cryo-EM structure in complex with the S protein to an overall resolution of 3.1 Angstrom and local resolution of 3.3 Angstrom for the 4A8-NTD interface. This points to the NTD as a promising target for therapeutic mAbs against COVID-19.

17.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12: 11259-11262, 2020 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610789

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) began spreading in China. At present, there are no special protocols for treating lumbar burst fracture (LBF) patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Here, we present our lessons and experiences with a patient presenting with a severe LBF complicated by an occult SARS-CoV-2 infection. The clinical data for a 52-year-old male LBF patient were collected during the incubation period of COVID-19. The patient exhibited no obvious COVID-19-related symptoms prior to his surgery, and his vital signs were stable on the first day after the operation. By postoperative day 3, however, the patient was exhibiting chills and high fever. A chest CT showed a patchy high-density shadow surrounded by ground-glass opacity in the lower portion of his right lung. A nucleic acid test for SARS-CoV-2 was positive, and the patient was then transferred to the Department of Infectious Disease for further special treatment. This case taught that when treating patients with severe trauma within an epicenter of this pandemic, it is crucial for healthcare workers to be vigilant so as to avoid potential widespread outbreaks of COVID-19 within hospitals.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Fractures, Bone/complications , Fractures, Bone/surgery , Lumbar Vertebrae/surgery , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Postoperative Complications/virology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Lumbar Vertebrae/injuries , Lumbar Vertebrae/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology
18.
Biomed J ; 2020 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-609828

ABSTRACT

Aggressive tracing of contacts of confirmed cases is crucial to Taiwan's successful control of the early spread of COVID-19. As the pandemic lingers, an epidemiological investigation that can be conducted efficiently in a timely manner can help decrease the burden on the health personnel and increase the usefulness of such information in decision making. To develop a new tool that can improve the current practice of epidemiological investigation by incorporating new technologies in digital platform and knowledge graphs. To meet the various needs of the epidemiological investigation, we decided to develop an e-Outbreak Platform that provides a semi-structured, multifaceted, computer-aided questionnaire for outbreak investigation. There are three major parts of the platform: (1) a graphic portal that allows users to have an at-glance grasp of the functions provided by the platform and then choose the one they need; (2) disease-specific questionnaires that can accommodate different formats of the information, including text typing, button selection, and pull-down menu; and (3) functions to utilize the stored information, including report generation, statistical analyses, and knowledge graphs displaying contact tracing. When the number of outbreak investigation increases, the knowledge graphs can be extended to encompass other persons appearing in the same location at the same time, i.e., constituting a potential contact cluster. The information extracted can also be used to display the tracing on a map in animation. Overall, this system can provide a basis for further refinement that can be generalized to a variety of outbreak investigations.

20.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1467-1469, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-603757

ABSTRACT

A maternal woman was positive for SARS-CoV-2 tested in throat swabs but negative tested in other body fluids, and she had IgG and IgA detected in breast milk. Her infant negative for SARS-CoV-2 at birth had elevated IgG in serum but quickly decayed. These findings suggest that breastfeeding might have the potential benefit to the neonates.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Milk, Human/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , China , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Infant, Newborn , Milk, Human/virology , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology
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