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1.
Chin J Physiol ; 64(6): 306-311, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605416

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had caused a worldwide pandemic with public health emergencies since 2020. For the symptomatic patients, high mortality rate was observed if without timely and optimized management. In this study, we aimed to investigate the predictive and prognostic roles of hematologic and biochemical parameters obtained in the emergency department (ED) for COVID-19 patients. We conducted a retrospective study in a dedicated COVID-19 medical center, recruiting a total of 228 COVID-19 patients with 86 severe and 142 non-severe cases. Both the hematologic and biochemical parameters obtained in the ED upon arrival were analyzed to evaluate the association of the biomarkers with disease severity and prognosis among COVID-19 patients. Among these parameters, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ferritin, and D-dimer were significantly higher in the severe group than the non-severe one, whereas the platelet count and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio were significantly lower. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the areas under curve of CRP, PCT, LDH, ferritin, D-dimer, and NLR for differentiating the severity of COVID-19 were 0.713, 0.755, 0.763, 0.741, 0.733, and 0.683, respectively, whereas the areas under curve of CRP, PCT, LDH, ferritin, D-dimer, and NLR for differentiating the mortality of COVID-19 were 0.678, 0.744, 0.680, 0.676, 0.755, and 0.572, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that CRP, PCT, LDH, ferritin, D-dimer, and NLR were independent indicators for prediction of severe COVID-19, and LDH and ferritin were independent factors associated with the mortality in COVID-19. In conclusion, higher CRP, PCT, LDH, ferritin, D-dimer, and NLR were associated with severe COVID-19, whereas higher LDH and ferritin were associated with the mortality in COVID-19. These findings could help early risk stratification in the ED and contribute to optimized patient management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
International Journal of Energy Research ; 46(1):5-5, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1598737

ABSTRACT

We would also like to take this opportunity to thank Prof Dr Ibrahim Dincer and the editorial team of Wiley, all contributing authors, reviewers, and our assistants for their efforts that have made this special issue a true success. All articles in this special issue on "Sustainable Energy Technologies" were subjected to another round of peer-to-peer review processes for further quality improvement prior to publication. The industry, transportation, and building sectors will need to use more sustainable energy. [Extracted from the article] Copyright of International Journal of Energy Research is the property of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(51): e28406, 2021 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595148

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on economic and medical systems is significant, especially in the emergency department (ED). The patterns of ED visits have also changed significantly and may play a crucial role in rearranging medical resources to the most needed departments during the pandemic.This was a retrospective study conducted in hospitals of the Cathay Health System. All patients presented to the EDs between January 21, 2020 to April 30, 2020 (pandemic stage) and January 21, 2019 to April 30, 2019 (before the pandemic stage). Basic demographics, including visit characteristics, disposition, and chief complaints, of the patients visiting the ED between these 2 periods of time will be compared and analyzed.A total of 71,739 patients were included in the study. A reduction in ED visits was noted in 15.1% (32,950 ED visits) during the pandemic stage. ED visiting patients with the chief complaints of upper respiratory infection and social problems increased by 14.23% and 1.86%, respectively, during the pandemic period. Critical chief complaints such as cardiac arrest, chest pain and altered mental status decreased to less than the ED visits difference (-15.1%) between the pandemic and prepandemic stages, for 0%, -7.67%, and -13.8% respectively.Rearrangement of the ED pediatric staff to the COVID-19 special units and recruiting more social workers to the ED should be performed to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic.

4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 753055, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581298

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the performance of a novel deep learning (DL)-based artificial intelligence (AI) system in classifying computed tomography (CT) scans of pneumonia patients into different groups, as well as to present an effective clinically relevant machine learning (ML) system based on medical image identification and clinical feature interpretation to assist radiologists in triage and diagnosis. Methods: The 3,463 CT images of pneumonia used in this multi-center retrospective study were divided into four categories: bacterial pneumonia (n = 507), fungal pneumonia (n = 126), common viral pneumonia (n = 777), and COVID-19 (n = 2,053). We used DL methods based on images to distinguish pulmonary infections. A machine learning (ML) model for risk interpretation was developed using key imaging (learned from the DL methods) and clinical features. The algorithms were evaluated using the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs). Results: The median AUC of DL models for differentiating pulmonary infection was 99.5% (COVID-19), 98.6% (viral pneumonia), 98.4% (bacterial pneumonia), 99.1% (fungal pneumonia), respectively. By combining chest CT results and clinical symptoms, the ML model performed well, with an AUC of 99.7% for SARS-CoV-2, 99.4% for common virus, 98.9% for bacteria, and 99.6% for fungus. Regarding clinical features interpreting, the model revealed distinctive CT characteristics associated with specific pneumonia: in COVID-19, ground-glass opacity (GGO) [92.5%; odds ratio (OR), 1.76; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.71-1.86]; larger lesions in the right upper lung (75.0%; OR, 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03-1.25) with viral pneumonia; older age (57.0 years ± 14.2, OR, 1.84; 95% CI: 1.73-1.99) with bacterial pneumonia; and consolidation (95.8%, OR, 1.29; 95% CI: 1.05-1.40) with fungal pneumonia. Conclusion: For classifying common types of pneumonia and assessing the influential factors for triage, our AI system has shown promising results. Our ultimate goal is to assist clinicians in making quick and accurate diagnoses, resulting in the potential for early therapeutic intervention.

5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580734

ABSTRACT

Service satisfaction with public policies is an important component of public service quality management, which is of great significance to the improvement of public service quality. Based on an online questionnaire survey and in combination with the characteristics of public policies and services, in this study the influencing factors of residents' satisfaction with COVID-19 pandemic prevention services were analyzed with structural equation modeling. The results reveal that the data fit the model well, and all the hypotheses formulated in this study were supported. Among the factors that were found to directly affect residents' satisfaction with pandemic prevention services, perceived quality (PQ) has the greatest impact on satisfaction, followed by the disaster situation (DS) and policy expectation (PE). The observed variables that have significant impacts on the latent variables were also explored. Regarding the main findings, the residents who were seriously affected by the pandemic tended to have lower satisfaction with the policies and services provided by the government. Moreover, the improvement of PQ was found to significantly increase pandemic prevention service satisfaction (SS). Finally, the residents with a good psychological status during the pandemic were found to have higher satisfaction. According to the results, implications for the prevention and control practices of similar public health emergencies are proposed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Personal Satisfaction , China , Humans , Latent Class Analysis , Pandemics , Patient Satisfaction , SARS-CoV-2
7.
NPJ Vaccines ; 6(1): 151, 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569251

ABSTRACT

The emergence of variants of concern, some with reduced susceptibility to COVID-19 vaccines underscores consideration for the understanding of vaccine design that optimizes induction of effective cellular and humoral immune responses. We assessed a SARS-CoV-2 spike-ferritin nanoparticle (SpFN) immunogen paired with two distinct adjuvants, Alhydrogel® or Army Liposome Formulation containing QS-21 (ALFQ) for unique vaccine evoked immune signatures. Recruitment of highly activated multifaceted antigen-presenting cells to the lymph nodes of SpFN+ALFQ vaccinated mice was associated with an increased frequency of polyfunctional spike-specific memory CD4+ T cells and Kb spike-(539-546)-specific long-lived memory CD8+ T cells with effective cytolytic function and distribution to the lungs. The presence of this epitope in SARS-CoV, suggests that generation of cross-reactive T cells may be induced against other coronavirus strains. Our study reveals that a nanoparticle vaccine, combined with a potent adjuvant that effectively engages innate immune cells, enhances SARS-CoV-2-specific durable adaptive immune T cell responses.

8.
Cell Rep ; 37(12): 110143, 2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561098

ABSTRACT

The need for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) next-generation vaccines has been highlighted by the rise of variants of concern (VoCs) and the long-term threat of emerging coronaviruses. Here, we design and characterize four categories of engineered nanoparticle immunogens that recapitulate the structural and antigenic properties of the prefusion SARS-CoV-2 spike (S), S1, and receptor-binding domain (RBD). These immunogens induce robust S binding, ACE2 inhibition, and authentic and pseudovirus neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. A spike-ferritin nanoparticle (SpFN) vaccine elicits neutralizing titers (ID50 > 10,000) following a single immunization, whereas RBD-ferritin nanoparticle (RFN) immunogens elicit similar responses after two immunizations and also show durable and potent neutralization against circulating VoCs. Passive transfer of immunoglobulin G (IgG) purified from SpFN- or RFN-immunized mice protects K18-hACE2 transgenic mice from a lethal SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Furthermore, S-domain nanoparticle immunization elicits ACE2-blocking activity and ID50 neutralizing antibody titers >2,000 against SARS-CoV-1, highlighting the broad response elicited by these immunogens.

9.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 753659, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556286

ABSTRACT

Background: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a life-threatening complication in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs), but risk factors for COVID-19-associated IPA (CAPA) have not been fully characterized. The aim of the current study was to identify factors associated with CAPA, and assess long-term mortality. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of adult COVID-19 patients admitted to ICUs from six hospitals was conducted in Hubei, China. CAPA was diagnosed via composite clinical criteria. Demographic information, clinical variables, and 180-day outcomes after the diagnosis of CAPA were analyzed. Results: Of 335 critically ill patients with COVID-19, 78 (23.3%) developed CAPA within a median of 20.5 days (range 13.0-42.0 days) after symptom onset. Compared to those without CAPA, CAPA patients were more likely to have thrombocytopenia (50 vs. 19.5%, p < 0.001) and secondary bacterial infection prior to being diagnosed with CAPA (15.4 vs. 6.2%, p = 0.013), and to receive vasopressors (37.2 vs. 8.6%, p < 0.001), higher steroid dosages (53.9 vs. 34.2%, p = 0.002), renal replacement therapy (37.2 vs. 13.6%, p < 0.001), and invasive mechanical ventilation (57.7 vs. 35.8%, p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis incorporating hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs), thrombocytopenia (HR 1.98, 95% CI 1.16-3.37, p = 0.012), vasopressor use (HR 3.57, 95% CI 1.80-7.06, p < 0.001), and methylprednisolone use at a daily dose ≥ 40 mg (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.02-2.79, p = 1.02-2.79) before CAPA diagnosis were independently associated with CAPA. Patients with CAPA had longer median ICU stays (17 days vs. 12 days, p = 0.007), and higher 180-day mortality (65.4 vs. 33.5%, p < 0.001) than those without CAPA. Conclusions: Thrombocytopenia, vasopressor use, and corticosteroid treatment were significantly associated with increased risk of incident IPA in COVID-19 patients admitted to ICUs. The occurrence of CAPA may increase the likelihood of long-term COVID-19 mortality.

10.
Public Health Nurs ; 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550848

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe how the prevention and controlling strategies have been experienced by COVID-19 patients in China, especially those who had passed through the suspected, diagnosed, hospitalized, and recovery stages of the disease. DESIGN: A descriptive qualitative study followed the Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research guidelines. SAMPLES: COVID-19 patients were recruited from a COVID-19-designated facility in Shanghai, China, from April to June 2020, by the purposive sampling method. METHODS: Semi-structured, in-depth interviews by cell phone were used and transcriptions were analyzed using inductive qualitative content analysis method. RESULTS: We recruited 26 COVID-19 patients. Three theme categories emerged from the data analysis. The first was "Consciously adhere to COVID-19-related controlling strategies." The second category was "Positive experiences of the COVID-19-related controlling strategies." These patients experienced a quick and adequate medical response, confident in the medical system, or received help from community workers. The third category was "Negative experiences of the COVID-19-related controlling strategies." These patients experienced psychological distress, stigma, privacy exposures, and inconveniences from the controlling strategies. CONCLUSIONS: It is urgent to develop a culturally sensitive intervention to eliminate the psychological distress and stigma of patients with COVID-19 and to protect their privacy during and after the pandemic.

11.
Healthc Technol Lett ; 8(6): 148-158, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550366

ABSTRACT

During COVID-19, awareness of proper hand washing has increased significantly. It is critical that people learn the correct hand washing techniques and adopt good hand washing habits. Hence, this study proposes using wearable devices to detect hand washing activity among other daily living activities (ADLs) and classify steps proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Two experiments were conducted with 16 participants, aged from 20 to 31. The first experiment was hand washing following WHO regulation (ten participants), and the second experiment was performing eight ADLs (eight participants). All participants wore two wearable devices equipped with accelerometers and gyroscopes; one on each wrist. Four machine learning classifiers were compared in classifying hand washing steps in the leave-one-subject-out (LOSO) mode. The SVM model with Gaussian kernel achieved the best performance in classifying 11 washing hands steps, with an average F1-score of 0.8501. When detected among the other ADLs, hand washing following WHO regulation obtained the F1-score of 0.9871. The study demonstrates that wearable devices are feasible to detect hand washing activity and the hand washing techniques as well. The classification results of getting the soap and rubbing thumbs are low, which will be the main focus in the future study.

12.
Food Funct ; 12(22): 11241-11249, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545659

ABSTRACT

The discovery of psychobiotics has improved the therapeutic choices available for clinical mental disorders and shows promise for regulating mental health in people by combining the properties of food and medicine. A Pediococcus acidilactici strain CCFM6432 was previously isolated and its mood-regulating effect was investigated in this study. Viable bacteria were given to chronically stressed mice for five weeks, and then the behavioral, neurobiological, and gut microbial changes were determined. CCFM6432 significantly reduced stress-induced anxiety-like behaviors, mitigated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity, and reversed the abnormal expression of hippocampal phosphorylated CREB and the c-Fos protein. In particular, CCFM6432 improved the gut microbial composition by inhibiting the over-proliferated pathogenic bacteria (e.g., Escherichia-shigella) and promoting beneficial bacteria growth (e.g., Bifidobacterium). Lactic acid, rather than bacteriocin, was further confirmed as the key compound that determined the antimicrobial activity of CCFM6432. Collectively, these results first proved the psychobiotic potential of the Pediococcus acidilactici strain. Ingestion of CCFM6432, or fermented food containing it, may facilitate mental health management in daily life, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.

13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23127, 2021 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545642

ABSTRACT

A high-performing interpretable model is proposed to predict the risk of deterioration in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. The model was developed using a cohort of 3028 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and exhibiting common clinical symptoms that were internally verified (AUC 0.8517, 95% CI 0.8433, 0.8601). A total of 15 high risk factors for deterioration and their approximate warning ranges were identified. This included prothrombin time (PT), prothrombin activity, lactate dehydrogenase, international normalized ratio, heart rate, body-mass index (BMI), D-dimer, creatine kinase, hematocrit, urine specific gravity, magnesium, globulin, activated partial thromboplastin time, lymphocyte count (L%), and platelet count. Four of these indicators (PT, heart rate, BMI, HCT) and comorbidities were selected for a streamlined combination of indicators to produce faster results. The resulting model showed good predictive performance (AUC 0.7941 95% CI 0.7926, 0.8151). A website for quick pre-screening online was also developed as part of the study.

14.
J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv ; : 1-9, 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542854

ABSTRACT

The current study aimed to investigate the effects of school resumption on college students' mental health during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We used the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) to assess stress, depression, and anxiety, respectively, between same-age college students returning to school and those not returning to school. Of 1,598 students who completed the baseline survey (S1), 836 students completed a follow-up survey 10 months after school resumption (S2). There were statistically significant differences in stress and mild anxiety between male and female students (p < 0.01). Comparison of PSS-10, PHQ-9, and SAS scores by perceived impact of COVID-19 showed significant differences (Welch test, p < 0.01). The correlation between PHQ-9 and SAS scores in school resumption and non-school resumption groups was relatively strong (adjusted R2 = 0.49 vs. 0.5). Multivariate linear regression showed that only PSS-10 (p < 0.01) and SAS (p < 0.05) scores significantly differed between returning and non-returning students. School resumption was an independent risk factor for PSS-10 and SAS scores. PSS-10, PHQ-9, and SAS scores were significantly higher in S1 than in S2 (p < 0.01). During the COVID-19 pandemic, stress, anxiety, and depression were prevalent among college students; however, stress and anxiety were generally lower among college students returning to school than among non-returning students. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, xx(xx), xx-xx.].

15.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292947

ABSTRACT

In this research, we have constructed and optimized the colloidal gold labeled lateral flow strip (LFS) for rapid detection of antigen of SARS-CoV-2 and rapid screening of COVID-19. Based on the constructed and optimized colloidal gold lateral flow strip, the parameters of the LFS have been well evaluated with the clinical samples in the professional labs. The screening performance have also been evaluated from the aspects including the CT values, age distribution and onset of symptoms. Finally, based on the detection results of 420 clinical samples, the LFS can achieve the screening of COVID-19 with the positive percentage agreement (PPA, sensitivity), negative percent agreement (NPA, specificity), the positive predictive value (PPV) and the negative predictive value (NPV) of 96.8%, 100%, 100% and 96.6%, respectively, indicating the powerful potential for practical screening applications in pandemic control. Of great significance, this developed SARS-CoV-2 antigen detection method has also been successfully utilized for screening of delta-variant of SARS-CoV-2.

16.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 197: 113771, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536447

ABSTRACT

Due to the similar clinical symptoms of influenza (Flu) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there is a looming infection threat of concurrent Flu viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In this work, we introduce a customized isothermal amplification integrated lateral flow strip (LFS) that is capable performing duplex reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) and colorimetric LFS in a sequential manner. With customized amplification primer sets targeted to SARS-CoV-2 (opening reading frame 1a/b and nucleoprotein genes) and Flu viruses (Flu A and Flu B), the platform allows the rapid and simultaneous visual screening of SARS-CoV-2 and Flu viruses (Flu A and Flu B) without cross reactivity, false positives, and false negatives. Moreover, it maximally eases the detection, reduces the detection time (1 h), and improves the assay performance to detect as low as 10 copies of the viral RNA. Its clinical application is powerfully demonstrated with 100% accuracy for evaluating 15 SARS-CoV-2-positive clinical samples, 10 Flu viruses-positive clinical samples, and 5 negative clinical samples, which were pre-confirmed by standard qRT-PCR. We envision this portable device can meet the increasing need of online monitoring the serious infectious diseases that substantially affects health care systems worldwide.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534068

ABSTRACT

After COVID-19 appeared in China in December 2019, the mental health of adolescents, as a vulnerable group in public health emergencies, was negatively affected by the epidemic and the unprecedented prevention and control measures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist (PCL) among Chinese adolescents. A total of 915 participants completed the PTSD. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) and multi-group CFAs were used to test the factor structure and psychometric properties of PTSD. The CFA results showed that five-factor PCL was the optimal fitting model with satisfactory reliability and validity; moreover, it was suggested that the properties of PCL were invariant across gender, PTSD and asymptomatic groups, early and late adolescents, as well as over time. In summary, PCL is applicable among Chinese adolescents and can be used for effective measurement of PTSD caused by epidemics and to conduct cross-group studies.

18.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(12): 1654-1664, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531911

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 has caused millions of deaths, and, since Aug 11, 2020, 20 intramuscular COVID-19 vaccines have been approved for use. We aimed to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of an aerosolised adenovirus type-5 vector-based COVID-19 vaccine (Ad5-nCoV) in adults without COVID-19 from China. METHOD: This was a randomised, single-centre, open-label, phase 1 trial done in Zhongnan Hospital (Wuhan, China), to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the Ad5-nCoV vaccine by aerosol inhalation in adults (≥18 years) seronegative for SARS-CoV-2. Breastfeeding or pregnant women and people with major chronic illnesses or history of allergies were excluded. Participants were enrolled and randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1) into five groups to be vaccinated via intramuscular injection, aerosol inhalation, or both. Randomisation was stratified by sex and age (18-55 years or ≥56 years) using computer-generated randomisation sequences (block sizes of five). Only laboratory staff were masked to group assignment. The participants in the two aerosol groups received an initial high dose (2 × 1010 viral particles; HDmu group) or low dose (1 × 1010 viral particles; LDmu group) of Ad5-nCoV vaccine on day 0, followed by a booster on day 28. The mixed vaccination group received an initial intramuscular (5 × 1010 viral particles) vaccine on day 0, followed by an aerosolised booster (2 × 1010 viral particles) vaccine on day 28 (MIX group). The intramuscular groups received one dose (5 × 1010 viral particles; 1Dim group) or two doses (10 × 1010 viral particles; 2Dim group) of Ad5-nCoV on day 0. The primary safety outcome was adverse events 7 days after each vaccination, and the primary immunogenicity outcome was anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor IgG antibody and SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibody geometric mean titres at day 28 after last vaccination. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT04552366. FINDINGS: Between Sept 28, 2020, and Sept 30, 2020, 230 individuals were screened for inclusion, of whom 130 (56%) participants were enrolled into the trial and randomly assigned into one of the five groups (26 participants per group). Within 7 days after vaccination, adverse events occurred in 18 (69%) in the HDmu group, 19 (73%) in the LDmu group, 19 (73%) in the MIX group, 19 (73%) in the 1Dim group, and 15 (58%) in the 2Dim group. The most common adverse events reported 7 days after the first or booster vaccine were fever (62 [48%] of 130 participants), fatigue (40 [31%] participants), and headache (46 [35%] participants). More adverse events were reported in participants who received intramuscular vaccination, including participants in the MIX group (49 [63%] of 78 participants), than those who received aerosol vaccine (13 [25%] of 52 participants) after the first vaccine vaccination. No serious adverse events were noted within 56 days after the first vaccine. At days 28 after last vaccination, geometric mean titres of SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibody was 107 (95% CI 47-245) in the HDmu group, 105 (47-232) in the LDmu group, 396 (207-758) in the MIX group, 95 (61-147) in the 1Dim group, and 180 (113-288) in the 2Dim group. The geometric mean concentrations of receptor binding domain-binding IgG was 261 EU/mL (95% CI 121-563) in the HDmu group, 289 EU/mL (138-606) in the LDmu group, 2013 EU/mL (1180-3435) in the MIX group, 915 EU/mL (588-1423) in the 1Dim group, and 1190 EU/mL (776-1824) in the 2Dim group. INTERPRETATION: Aerosolised Ad5-nCoV is well tolerated, and two doses of aerosolised Ad5-nCoV elicited neutralising antibody responses, similar to one dose of intramuscular injection. An aerosolised booster vaccination at 28 days after first intramuscular injection induced strong IgG and neutralising antibody responses. The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of aerosol vaccination should be evaluated in future studies. FUNDING: National Key Research and Development Programme of China and National Science and Technology Major Project. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the Summary see Supplementary Material.

19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523999

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Job burnout (JB) has become a prevalent emotional and psychological syndrome across diverse contexts, especially in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to examine the relationship between perceived organizational support (POS), job satisfaction (JS), self-efficacy (SE), and JB, alongside their mechanism of interplay. METHODS: We took 210 Chinese academic journal editors as the research participants and designed a moderated mediation model to examine the posited construct. All the data were gathered online and analyzed with the statistical software SPSS and SmartPLS. RESULTS: The participants comprised 117 women (55.71%) and 93 men (44.29%). There were significant differences among observed variables in age, experience, and title. POS had a significant negative predictive effect on JB (95% CI = -0.43; -0.06). JS mediated the relationship between POS and JB (95% CI = -0.48; -0.11). SE moderated the association between JS and JB (95% CI = 0.04; 0.75) but did not function as a moderator in the relationship between POS and JS (95% CI = -0.01; 0.24). CONCLUSIONS: POS, JS, and SE were crucial determinants of JB among Chinese academic journal editors. Targeted interventions should be initiated to diminish editors' feelings of being unappreciated, inefficient, dissatisfied, and unaccomplished at work.

20.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source], Grey literature | ID: grc-750470

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The U.S. has experienced an unprecedented number of shelter-in-place orders throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. There is limited empirical research that examines the impact of these orders. We aimed to rapidly ascertain whether social distancing;difficulty with daily activities (obtaining food, essential medications and childcare);and levels of concern regarding COVID-19 changed after the March 16, 2020 announcement of shelter-in-place orders for seven counties in the San Francisco Bay Area. METHODS: We conducted an online, cross-sectional social media survey from March 14 - April 1, 2020. We measured changes in social distancing behavior;experienced difficulties with daily activities (i.e., access to healthcare, childcare, obtaining essential food and medications);and level of concern regarding COVID-19 after the March 16 shelter-in-place announcement in the San Francisco Bay Area and elsewhere in the U.S. RESULTS: The percentage of respondents social distancing all of the time increased following the shelter-in-place announcement in the Bay Area (9.2%, 95% CI: 6.6, 11.9) and elsewhere in the U.S. (3.4%, 95% CI: 2.0, 5.0). Respondents also reported increased difficulty with obtaining food, hand sanitizer, and medications, particularly with obtaining food for both respondents from the Bay Area (13.3%, 95% CI: 10.4, 16.3) and elsewhere (8.2%, 95% CI: 6.6, 9.7). We found limited evidence that level of concern regarding the COVID-19 crisis changed following the shelter-in-place announcement. CONCLUSION: These results capture early changes in attitudes, behaviors, and difficulties. Further research that specifically examines social, economic, and health impacts of COVID-19, especially among vulnerable populations, is urgently needed. =.

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