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1.
BMC Emerg Med ; 23(1): 63, 2023 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234136

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a catastrophic event worldwide. Since then, people's way of living has changed in terms of personal behavior, social interaction, and medical-seeking behavior, including change of the emergency department (ED) visiting patterns. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the ED visiting patterns of the older people to explore its variable expression with the intention of ameliorating an effective and suitable response to public health emergencies. METHODS: This was a retrospective study conducted in three hospitals of the Cathay Health System in Taiwan. Patients aged ≥ 65 years who presented to the ED between January 21, 2020, and April 30, 2020 (pandemic stage), and between January 21, 2019, and April 30, 2019 (pre-pandemic stage) were enrolled in the study. Basic demographics, including visit characteristics, disposition, and chief complaints of the patients visiting the ED between these two periods of time, were compared and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 16,655 older people were included in this study. A 20.91% reduction in ED older adult patient visits was noted during the pandemic period. During the pandemic, there was a decrease in ambulance use among elderly patients visiting the ED, with the proportion decreasing from 16.90 to 16.58%. Chief complaints of fever, upper respiratory infections, psychological and social problems increased, with incidence risk ratios (IRRs) of 1.12, 1.23, 1.25, and 5.2, respectively. Meanwhile, the incidence of both non-life-threatening and life-threatening complaints decreased, with IRRs of 0.72 and 0.83, respectively. CONCLUSION: Health education regarding life-threatening symptom signs among older adult patients and avocation of the proper timing to seek medical attention via ambulance were crucial issues during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital
2.
AIDS Behav ; 2023 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234078

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has uniquely impacted people living with HIV (PLWH) worldwide. The negative impacts on PLWH's mental health from fear of COVID-19 are labeled as "a double stress." The association between fear of COVID-19 and HIV (internalized) stigma has been found among PLWH. Studies that explore the relationships between fear of COVID-19 and physical health outcomes are few, especially among PLWH. In this study, we explored the relationship between fear of COVID-19 and physical health among PLWH and the mediated effects of HIV stigma, social support, and substance use. A cross-sectional online survey of PLWH (n = 201) from November 2021 to May 2022 was carried out in Shanghai, China. The data on socio-demographics, fear of COVID-19, physical health, HIV-related perceived stigma, social support, and substance use were gathered and analyzed by structure equation modeling (SEM). In SEM analysis, fear of COVID-19 showed a significant and indirect effect on physical health (ß=-0.085) which was primarily mediated by HIV stigma. In SEM analysis, the final model had a good fit. Fear of COVID-19 showed a significant effect on HIV stigma (ß = 0.223) with the majority being direct effects (ß = 0.262) and a small indirect effect via substance use (ß=-0.039). Furthermore, HIV stigma showed a significant effect on physical health (ß=-0.382), the majority of which was direct (ß=-0.340), and a small indirect effect via social support (ß=-0.042). This is one of the first studies to explore how fear of contracting COVID-19 can affect PLWH's coping behaviors (e.g., using substances and obtaining social support) used to combat HIV stigma as well as to achieve better physical health in China.

3.
Clin Chem ; 68(1): 143-152, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243230

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The urgent need for massively scaled clinical testing for SARS-CoV-2, along with global shortages of critical reagents and supplies, has necessitated development of streamlined laboratory testing protocols. Conventional nucleic acid testing for SARS-CoV-2 involves collection of a clinical specimen with a nasopharyngeal swab in transport medium, nucleic acid extraction, and quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). As testing has scaled across the world, the global supply chain has buckled, rendering testing reagents and materials scarce. To address shortages, we developed SwabExpress, an end-to-end protocol developed to employ mass produced anterior nares swabs and bypass the requirement for transport media and nucleic acid extraction. METHODS: We evaluated anterior nares swabs, transported dry and eluted in low-TE buffer as a direct-to-RT-qPCR alternative to extraction-dependent viral transport media. We validated our protocol of using heat treatment for viral inactivation and added a proteinase K digestion step to reduce amplification interference. We tested this protocol across archived and prospectively collected swab specimens to fine-tune test performance. RESULTS: After optimization, SwabExpress has a low limit of detection at 2-4 molecules/µL, 100% sensitivity, and 99.4% specificity when compared side by side with a traditional RT-qPCR protocol employing extraction. On real-world specimens, SwabExpress outperforms an automated extraction system while simultaneously reducing cost and hands-on time. CONCLUSION: SwabExpress is a simplified workflow that facilitates scaled testing for COVID-19 without sacrificing test performance. It may serve as a template for the simplification of PCR-based clinical laboratory tests, particularly in times of critical shortages during pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Humans , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling
4.
Clin Chim Acta ; 547: 117415, 2023 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20230697

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Great concerns have been raised on SARS-CoV-2 impact on men's andrological well-being, and many studies have attempted to determine whether SARS-CoV-2 is present in the semen and till now the data are unclear and somehow ambiguous. However, these studies used quantitative real-time (qRT) PCR, which is not sufficiently sensitive to detect nucleic acids in clinical samples with a low viral load. METHODS: The clinical performance of various nucleic acid detection methods (qRT-PCR, OSN-qRT-PCR, cd-PCR, and CBPH) was assessed for SARS-CoV-2 using 236 clinical samples from laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases. Then, the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the semen of 12 recovering patients was investigated using qRT-PCR, OSN-qRT-PCR, cd-PCR, and CBPH in parallel using 24 paired semen, blood, throat swab, and urine samples. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity along with AUC of CBPH was markedly higher than the other 3methods. Although qRT-PCR, OSN-qRT-PCR and cdPCR detected no SARS-CoV-2 RNA in throat swab, blood, urine, and semen samples of the 12 patients, CBPH detected the presence of SARS-CoV-2 genome fragments in semen samples, but not in paired urine samples, of 3 of 12 patients. The existing SARS-CoV-2 genome fragments were metabolized over time. CONCLUSIONS: Both OSN-qRT-PCR and cdPCR had better performance than qRT-PCR, and CBPH had the highest diagnostic performance in detecting SARS-CoV-2, which contributed the most improvement to the determination of the critical value in gray area samples with low vrial load, which then provides a rational screening strategy for studying the clearance of coronavirus in the semen over time in patients recovering from COVID-19. Although the presence of SARS-CoV-2 fragments in the semen was demonstrated by CBPH, COVID-19 is unlikely to be sexually transmitted from male partners for at least 3 months after hospital discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Semen/chemistry , COVID-19 Testing , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , RNA, Viral/genetics
5.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-14, 2023 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231301

ABSTRACT

College freshmen are special populations facing great challenges in adapting to the brand new environment, and their lifestyle and emotional states are worthy of attention. Especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, their screen time and prevalence of negative emotions were significantly increased, but few studies have focused on such situation of college freshmen and illustrated relevant mechanisms. Thus, based on a sample of Chinese college freshmen during the COVID-19 pandemic, the current study aimed to investigate the association between their screen time and negative emotions (depression, anxiety and stress), and further explore the mediating effects of sleep quality. Data from 2,014 college freshmen was analyzed. The screen time was self-reported by participants using predesigned questionnaires. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Chinese Version of Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) were used to assess sleep quality and emotional states, respectively. The mediation analysis was conducted to examine the meditation effect. Results indicated that participants with negative emotions tended to have longer daily screen time and worse sleep quality, sleep quality partially mediated the association between screen time and negative emotions.The critical role of sleep quality and related intervention measures should be recognized and implemented.

6.
Innovation (Camb) ; 4(4): 100451, 2023 Jul 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328376

ABSTRACT

Aluminum (alum) adjuvant is the most extensively used protein subunit vaccine adjuvant, and its effectiveness and safety have been widely recognized. The surface charge of the antigen determines its electrostatic adsorption to alum adjuvant, which directly affects the immune efficacy of the protein vaccine. In our study, we precisely modified its surface charge by inserting charged amino acids into the flexible region of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD), achieving electrostatic adsorption and a site-specific anchor between the immunogen and alum adjuvant. This innovative strategy extended the bioavailability of the RBD and directionally displayed the neutralizing epitopes, thereby significantly enhancing humoral and cellular immunity. Furthermore, the required dose of antigen and alum adjuvant was greatly reduced, which improved the safety and accessibility of the protein subunit vaccine. On this basis, the wide applicability of this novel strategy to a series of representative pathogen antigens such as SARS-RBD, MERS-RBD, Mpox-M1, MenB-fHbp, and Tularemia-Tul4 was further confirmed. Charge modification of antigens provides a straightforward approach for antigenicity optimization of alum-adjuvanted vaccines, which has great potential to be adopted as a global defense against infectious diseases.

7.
Pediatr Neonatol ; 2023 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327237

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate Pfizer-BioNTech 162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (BNT162b2) immunization-related myocarditis and describe the risk factors for consequent hospitalization in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in children between 12 and 18 years. METHODS: Children and adolescents 12 years of age and older who presented with discomfort after BNT162b2 immunization (BNTI) and visited pediatric emergency room (PER) at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from September 22, 2021 to March 21, 2022, were included for analysis. RESULTS: 681 children presented with discomfort after BNTI and visited our PER. The mean age was 15.1 ± 1.7 years. Three hundred and ninety-four (57.9%) and 287 (42.1%) events were after 1st and 2nd dose, respectively. 58.4% (n = 398) were male. The most common complaints were chest pain (46.7%) and chest tightness (27.0%). The median (interquartile range [IQR]) interval of discomfort after BNTI was 3.0 (1.0-12.0) days. BNTI-related pericarditis, myocarditis and myopericarditis were diagnosed in 15 (2.2%), 12 (1.8%) and 2 (0.3%) patients, respectively. Eleven (1.6%) needed hospitalization in PICU. The median (IQR) hospital stay was 4.0 (3.0-6.0) days. There was no mortality. More patients were diagnosed myocarditis (p = 0.004) after 2nd dose BNTI. PICU admission occurred more commonly after 2nd dose BNTI (p = 0.007). Risk factors associated with hospitalization in PICU were abnormal EKG findings (p = 0.047) and abnormal serum troponin levels (p = 0.003) at PER. CONCLUSION: Myocarditis in children aged 12-18 years occurred more commonly following 2nd dose BNTI. Most cases were of mild or intermediate severity without death. Factors predicting BNTI-related myocarditis and consequent hospitalization in PICU were abnormal EKG findings and abnormal serum troponin levels at PER in this study.

8.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 15: 1138418, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327140

ABSTRACT

Background: Clinical manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD) after Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection are poorly investigated. Objective: We aimed to explore the clinical features and outcomes of hospitalized PD patients with COVID-19. Methods: A total of 48 PD patients and 96 age-and sex-matched non-PD patients were included. Demographics, clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared between two groups. Results: PD patients with COVID-19 were elderly (76.69 ± 9.21 years) with advanced stage (H-Y stage 3-5 as 65.3%). They had less clinical symptoms (nasal obstruction, etc.), more proportions of severe/critical COVID-19 clinical classification (22.9 vs. 1.0%, p < 0.001), receiving oxygen (29.2 vs. 11.5%, p = 0.011), antibiotics (39.6 vs. 21.9%, p = 0.031) therapies, as well as longer hospitalization duration (11.39 vs. 8.32, p = 0.001) and higher mortality (8.3% vs. 1.0%, p = 0.001) relative to those without PD. Laboratory results showed that the PD group had higher white blood cell counts (6.29 vs. 5.16*109, p = 0.001), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (3.14 vs. 2.11, p < 0.001) and C-reactive protein level (12.34 vs. 3.19, p < 0.001). Conclusion: PD patients with COVID-19 have insidious clinical manifestation, elevated proinflammatory markers and are prone to the development of severe/critical condition, contributing to a relatively poor prognosis. Early identification and active treatment of COVID-19 are pivotal to advanced PD patients during the pandemic.

9.
J Autoimmun ; 138: 103054, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320287

ABSTRACT

Severe allergic reactions following SARS-COV-2 vaccination are generally rare, but the reactions are increasingly reported. Some patients may develop prolonged urticarial reactions following SARS-COV-2 vaccination. Herein, we investigated the risk factors and immune mechanisms for patients with SARS-COV-2 vaccines-induced immediate allergy and chronic urticaria (CU). We prospectively recruited and analyzed 129 patients with SARS-COV-2 vaccine-induced immediate allergic and urticarial reactions as well as 115 SARS-COV-2 vaccines-tolerant individuals from multiple medical centers during 2021-2022. The clinical manifestations included acute urticaria, anaphylaxis, and delayed to chronic urticaria developed after SARS-COV-2 vaccinations. The serum levels of histamine, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17 A, TARC, and PARC were significantly elevated in allergic patients comparing to tolerant subjects (P-values = 4.5 × 10-5-0.039). Ex vivo basophil revealed that basophils from allergic patients could be significantly activated by SARS-COV-2 vaccine excipients (polyethylene glycol 2000 and polysorbate 80) or spike protein (P-values from 3.5 × 10-4 to 0.043). Further BAT study stimulated by patients' autoserum showed positive in 81.3% of patients with CU induced by SARS-COV-2 vaccination (P = 4.2 × 10-13), and the reactions could be attenuated by anti-IgE antibody. Autoantibodies screening also identified the significantly increased of IgE-anti-IL-24, IgG-anti-FcεRI, IgG-anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and IgG-anti-thyroid-related proteins in SARS-COV-2 vaccines-induced CU patients comparing to SARS-COV-2 vaccines-tolerant controls (P-values = 4.6 × 10-10-0.048). Some patients with SARS-COV-2 vaccines-induced recalcitrant CU patients could be successfully treated with anti-IgE therapy. In conclusion, our results revealed that multiple vaccine components, inflammatory cytokines, and autoreactive IgG/IgE antibodies contribute to SARS-COV-2 vaccine-induced immediate allergic and autoimmune urticarial reactions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chronic Urticaria , Urticaria , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Urticaria/diagnosis , Chronic Urticaria/metabolism , Immunoglobulin G , Vaccination , Immunity
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(9)2023 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315346

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may impair immune modulating host microRNAs, causing severe disease. Our objectives were to determine the salivary miRNA profile in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection at presentation and compare the expression in those with and without severe outcomes. Children <18 years with SARS-CoV-2 infection evaluated at two hospitals between March 2021 and February 2022 were prospectively enrolled. Severe outcomes included respiratory failure, shock or death. Saliva microRNAs were quantified with RNA sequencing. Data on 197 infected children (severe = 45) were analyzed. Of the known human miRNAs, 1606 (60%) were measured and compared across saliva samples. There were 43 miRNAs with ≥2-fold difference between severe and non-severe cases (adjusted p-value < 0.05). The majority (31/43) were downregulated in severe cases. The largest between-group differences involved miR-4495, miR-296-5p, miR-548ao-3p and miR-1273c. These microRNAs displayed enrichment for 32 gene ontology pathways including viral processing and transforming growth factor beta and Fc-gamma receptor signaling. In conclusion, salivary miRNA levels are perturbed in children with severe COVID-19, with the majority of miRNAs being down regulated. Further studies are required to validate and determine the utility of salivary miRNAs as biomarkers of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Humans , Child , Saliva/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Signal Transduction
11.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310983

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Taiwan, there were only 799 confirmed COVID-19 cases in 2020. The unique backdrop amidst a pandemic and promotion of nonpharmaceutical interventions generated some distinct changes in the epidemiology of common respiratory pathogens. In this study, we aimed to investigate the dynamic changes in respiratory pathogens in children during 2020. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study at a tertiary hospital in southern Taiwan during 2020. Patients aged 0-18 years who visited the pediatric emergency department were enrolled. Children who presented with clinical symptoms (fever or respiratory illness) and received nasopharyngeal swabs for multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were included in our analysis. We also compared respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) trends from previous years by PCR and lateral flow immunochromatographic assays from 2017 to 2020. RESULTS: A total of 120 children were tested. The overall detection rate was 55%. With strengthened restrictions, the detection rate dropped from 70% to 30%. However, non-enveloped viruses (rhinovirus/enterovirus and adenovirus) were in constant circulation. Upon easing prevention measures, the detection rate remained above 60%, and an outbreak of an enveloped virus (RSV and parainfluenza virus) was noted. Compared with 2017-2019, the cyclical RSV epidemic was delayed, with a large surge in late 2020. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a constant circulation of non-enveloped viruses when strict nonpharmaceutical interventions were employed and a delayed surge of enveloped viruses during the easing of restrictions. Continuous surveillance and monitoring of the evolutionary dynamics of respiratory viruses is important, while easing restrictions requires balanced judgment.

12.
Vaccine ; 41(21): 3337-3346, 2023 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293136

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreaks have constituted a public health issue with drastic mortality higher than 34%, necessitating the development of an effective vaccine. During MERS-CoV infection, the trimeric spike protein on the viral envelope is primarily responsible for attachment to host cellular receptor, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4). With the goal of generating a protein-based prophylactic, we designed a subunit vaccine comprising the recombinant S1 protein with a trimerization motif (S1-Fd) and examined its immunogenicity and protective immune responses in combination with various adjuvants. We found that sera from immunized wild-type and human DPP4 transgenic mice contained S1-specific antibodies that can neutralize MERS-CoV infection in susceptible cells. Vaccination with S1-Fd protein in combination with a saponin-based QS-21 adjuvant provided long-term humoral as well as cellular immunity in mice. Our findings highlight the significance of the trimeric S1 protein in the development of MERS-CoV vaccines and offer a suitable adjuvant, QS-21, to induce robust and prolonged memory T cell response.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Mice , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 , Immunity, Cellular , Mice, Transgenic , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Recombinant Proteins , Vaccines, Subunit , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
13.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 298(4): 823-836, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297231

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) is a complex disease that affects billions of people worldwide. Currently, effective etiological treatment of COVID-19 is still lacking; COVID-19 also causes damages to various organs that affects therapeutics and mortality of the patients. Surveillance of the treatment responses and organ injury assessment of COVID-19 patients are of high clinical value. In this study, we investigated the characteristic fragmentation patterns and explored the potential in tissue injury assessment of plasma cell-free DNA in COVID-19 patients. Through recruitment of 37 COVID-19 patients, 32 controls and analysis of 208 blood samples upon diagnosis and during treatment, we report gross abnormalities in cfDNA of COVID-19 patients, including elevated GC content, altered molecule size and end motif patterns. More importantly, such cfDNA fragmentation characteristics reflect patient-specific physiological changes during treatment. Further analysis on cfDNA tissue-of-origin tracing reveals frequent tissue injuries in COVID-19 patients, which is supported by clinical diagnoses. Hence, our work demonstrates and extends the translational merit of cfDNA fragmentation pattern as valuable analyte for effective treatment monitoring, as well as tissue injury assessment in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/genetics
14.
Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research ; 47(4):NP18-NP32, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2298601

ABSTRACT

Since COVID-19, people appreciate fully immersing themselves in nature. Bringing elements of nature into service spaces has been an important concern for marketers. Yet, there have been only a few studies addressing the impact of natural and biophilic aspects within servicescapes. This study investigated the effect of biophilic design on experiential values such as esthetics, escapism, economic value, and attitude toward hotels and the role of the hotel segment and its environmental beliefs regarding green behavior on the relationships. The results indicated that in a luxury hotel setting, the biophilic design engendered better esthetic perceptions, escapism, economic value, and attitude toward the hotel. At a midscale hotel, a non-biophilic design induced higher experiential values. In addition, customers' environmental beliefs had significant effects on experiential values. Results provided practical suggestions for hotel managers, marketers, and interior designers on how biophilic servicescapes can enhance a hotel's marketing effectiveness.

15.
Front Digit Health ; 3: 643042, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306471

ABSTRACT

Telework has become a universal working style under the background of COVID-19. With the increased time of working at home, problems, such as lack of physical activities and prolonged sedentary behavior become more prominent. In this situation, a self-managing working pattern regulation may be the most practical way to maintain worker's well-being. To this end, this paper validated the idea of using an Internet of Things (IoT) system (a smartphone and the accompanying smartwatch) to monitor the working status in real-time so as to record the working pattern and nudge the user to have a behavior change. By using the accelerometer and gyroscope enclosed in the smartwatch worn on the right wrist, nine-channel data streams of the two sensors were sent to the paired smartphone for data preprocessing, and action recognition in real time. By considering the cooperativity and orthogonality of the data streams, a shallow convolutional neural network (CNN) model was constructed to recognize the working status from a common working routine. As preliminary research, the results of the CNN model show accurate performance [5-fold cross-validation: 0.97 recall and 0.98 precision; leave-one-out validation: 0.95 recall and 0.94 precision; (support vector machine (SVM): 0.89 recall and 0.90 precision; random forest: 0.95 recall and 0.93 precision)] for the recognition of working status, suggesting the feasibility of this fully online method. Although further validation in a more realistic working scenario should be conducted for this method, this proof-of-concept study clarifies the prospect of a user-friendly online working tracking system. With a tailored working pattern guidance, this method is expected to contribute to the workers' wellness not only during the COVID-19 pandemic but also take effect in the post-COVID-19 era.

16.
J Affect Disord ; 333: 1-9, 2023 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294385

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported that the prevalence of depression and depressive symptoms was significantly higher than that before the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of depressive symptoms and evaluate the importance of influencing factors through Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN). METHODS: Data were sourced from the psychology and behavior investigation of Chinese residents (PBICR). A total of 21,916 individuals in China were included in the current study. Multiple logistic regression was applied to preliminarily identify potential risk factors for depressive symptoms. BPNN was used to explore the order of contributing factors of depressive symptoms. RESULTS: The prevalence of depressive symptoms among the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic was 57.57 %. The top five important variables were determined based on the BPNN rank of importance: subjective sleep quality (100.00 %), loneliness (77.30 %), subjective well-being (67.90 %), stress (65.00 %), problematic internet use (51.20 %). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of depressive symptoms in the general population was high during the COVID-19 pandemic. The BPNN model established has significant preventive and clinical meaning to identify depressive symptoms lay theoretical foundation for individualized and targeted psychological intervention in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Neural Networks, Computer , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Prevalence , China/epidemiology , Sleep Quality , Loneliness , Internet Use/statistics & numerical data , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Risk Factors , Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged
17.
Cancer Commun (Lond) ; 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288457

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are considered significant contributors to cancer progression, especially metastasis. However, it is still unclear whether NETs are involved in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocarcinogenesis and have potential clinical significance during evaluation and management for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we aimed to investigate the functional mechanism of NETs in HBV-related hepatocarcinogenesis and their clinical significance. METHODS: A total of 175 HCC patients with and without HBV infection and 58 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. NETs were measured in tissue specimens, freshly isolated neutrophils and blood serum from these patients, and the correlation of circulating serum NETs levels with malignancy was evaluated. The mechanism by which HBV modulates NETs formation was explored using cell-based studies. In addition, in vitro and in vivo experiments were further performed to clarify the functional mechanism of NETs on the growth and metastasis of HCC. RESULTS: We observed an elevated level of NETs in blood serum and tissue specimens from HCC patients, especially those infected with HBV. NETs facilitated the growth and metastasis of HCC both in vitro and in vivo, which were mainly dominated by increased angiogenesis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related cell migration, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-induced extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and NETs-mediated cell trapping. Inhibition of NETs generation by DNase 1 effectively abrogated the NETs-aroused HCC growth and metastasis. In addition, HBV-induced S100A9 accelerated the generation of NETs, which was mediated by activation of toll-like receptor (TLR4)/receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)-reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling. Further, circulatory NETs were found to correlate with viral load, TNM stage and metastasis status in HBV-related HCC, and the identified NETs could predict extrahepatic metastasis, with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.83 and 90.3% sensitivity and 62.8% specificity at a cutoff value of 0.32. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicated that activation of RAGE/TLR4-ROS signaling by HBV-induced S100A9 resulted in abundant NETs formation, which subsequently facilitated the growth and metastasis of HCC cells. More importantly, the identified circulatory NETs exhibited potential as an alternative biomarker for predicting extrahepatic metastasis in HBV-related HCC.

18.
Aging Cell ; : e13729, 2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264783

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is known to disproportionately affect older individuals. How aging processes affect SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease progression remains largely unknown. Here, we found that DNA damage, one of the hallmarks of aging, promoted SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro and in vivo. SARS-CoV-2 entry was facilitated by DNA damage caused by extrinsic genotoxic stress or telomere dysfunction and hampered by inhibition of the DNA damage response (DDR). Mechanistic analysis revealed that DDR increased expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the primary receptor of SARS-CoV-2, by activation of transcription factor c-Jun. Importantly, in vivo experiment using a mouse-adapted viral strain also verified the significant roles of DNA damage in viral entry and severity of infection. Expression of ACE2 was elevated in the older human and mice tissues and positively correlated with γH2AX, a DNA damage biomarker, and phosphorylated c-Jun (p-c-Jun). Finally, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) and MDL-800, which promote DNA repair, alleviated SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease severity in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our data provide insights into the age-associated differences in SARS-CoV-2 infection and a novel approach for antiviral intervention.

19.
Asian J Pharm Sci ; 2022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262541

ABSTRACT

The liposome is the first nanomedicine transformed into the market and applied to human patients. Since then, such phospholipid bilayer vesicles have undergone technological advancements in delivering small molecular-weight compounds and biological drugs. Numerous investigations about liposome uses were conducted in different treatment fields, including anti-tumor, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, and clinical analgesia, owing to liposome's ability to reduce drug cytotoxicity and improve the therapeutic efficacy and combinatorial delivery. In particular, two liposomal vaccines were approved in 2021 to combat COVID-19. Herein, the clinically used liposomes are reviewed by introducing various liposomal preparations in detail that are currently proceeding in the clinic or on the market. Finally, we will discuss the challenges of developing liposomes and cutting-edge liposomal delivery for biological drugs and combination therapy.

20.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 32: 28-35, 2023 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288491

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has generated tremendous concern and poses a serious threat to international public health. Phosphorylation is a common post-translational modification affecting many essential cellular processes and is inextricably linked to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Hence, accurate identification of phosphorylation sites will be helpful to understand the mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection and mitigate the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. In the present study, an attention-based bidirectional gated recurrent unit network, called IPs-GRUAtt, was proposed to identify phosphorylation sites in SARS-CoV-2-infected host cells. Comparative results demonstrated that IPs-GRUAtt surpassed both state-of-the-art machine-learning methods and existing models for identifying phosphorylation sites. Moreover, the attention mechanism made IPs-GRUAtt able to extract the key features from protein sequences. These results demonstrated that the IPs-GRUAtt is a powerful tool for identifying phosphorylation sites. For facilitating its academic use, a freely available online web server for IPs-GRUAtt is provided at http://cbcb.cdutcm.edu.cn/phosphory/.

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