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1.
J Affect Disord ; 297: 269-275, 2022 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720181

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to adapt and modify the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument-Patient to develop the COVID-19 Stigma Instrument-Patient (CSI-P) and validate its psychometric characteristics, as well as explore how affected individuals in China experienced COVID-related stigma and its associated variables, including depressive symptomology and quality of life (QOL). METHODS: From September to October 2020, 151 COVID-19 survivors recruited in Shanghai, China, completed a set of measures of demographic characteristics, depression, stigma, and QOL. RESULTS: The 15-item CSI-P-2 achieved a Cronbach's α of 0.67 to 0.91. The six-factor structure was obtained by exploratory factor analysis. The mean score for the CSI-P-2 in Chinese COVID survivors was 8.14 ± 9.98. Regression analysis showed that survivors' age, comorbid diseases, education levels, and loneliness level were the factors influencing their COVID-19 stigma, explaining 37.80% of the total variance (F = 19.25, p < 0.001). Also, stigma's effect on QOL was significant in direct and indirect paths mediated by depressive symptomology. LIMITATIONS: First, this sample might limit the generalization of the findings to other Chinese-speaking regions. Second, future longitudinal or experimental studies are warranted for checking and further refinement of the scale. Finally, future studies are needed on the changing dynamics of stigma in different stages of the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The 29-item CSI-P-2 with six domains is an instrument with sound psychometric properties that can be used to measure COVID-19 stigma during the COVID-19 outbreak and, later, for COVID-19 survivors. Future studies should explore how to integrate the significant demographic and psychological characteristics influencing the experience of stigma work on this study into the development of stigma-reducing interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , China , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Public Health Nurs ; 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550848

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe how the prevention and controlling strategies have been experienced by COVID-19 patients in China, especially those who had passed through the suspected, diagnosed, hospitalized, and recovery stages of the disease. DESIGN: A descriptive qualitative study followed the Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research guidelines. SAMPLES: COVID-19 patients were recruited from a COVID-19-designated facility in Shanghai, China, from April to June 2020, by the purposive sampling method. METHODS: Semi-structured, in-depth interviews by cell phone were used and transcriptions were analyzed using inductive qualitative content analysis method. RESULTS: We recruited 26 COVID-19 patients. Three theme categories emerged from the data analysis. The first was "Consciously adhere to COVID-19-related controlling strategies." The second category was "Positive experiences of the COVID-19-related controlling strategies." These patients experienced a quick and adequate medical response, confident in the medical system, or received help from community workers. The third category was "Negative experiences of the COVID-19-related controlling strategies." These patients experienced psychological distress, stigma, privacy exposures, and inconveniences from the controlling strategies. CONCLUSIONS: It is urgent to develop a culturally sensitive intervention to eliminate the psychological distress and stigma of patients with COVID-19 and to protect their privacy during and after the pandemic.

3.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 2021 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458811

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: During pandemics like SARS-CoV-2, healthcare providers' well-being and morale are in particular at stake. Burnout may substantially hinder the well-being and morale of healthcare providers, challenging our efforts at disease containment. This study investigated the relationship between perceived COVID-19 stigma and burnout symptoms among physicians and nurses. We further aimed to identify potential factors that may moderate this relationship, including profession, clinical contact with COVID-19 patients, and prior experience with 2003 SARS-CoV-1. METHODS: We used a web-based, structured survey from March 12th to 29th, 2020 to collect cross-sectional, self-reported data. Participants were provided with a link to the survey which took them on average 5-8 minutes. Survey consisted of demographic characteristics, clinical experiences, perceived COVID-19 related stigma, and burnout symptoms. Linear regression with bootstrapping techniques was adopted to test the relations between stigma and burnout, as well as other potential moderators, while adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. RESULTS: Of the 1421 consented respondents, 357 identified as physicians while 1064 identified as nurses. Participants reported some levels of stigma, and noticeable burnout symptoms. Burnout symptoms were positively correlated with COVID-19 stigma, profession, and currently care for confirmed/suspected COVID-19 patients. The interaction between stigma and profession (Stigma × Nurses) but no other interaction terms reached the significance level, suggesting that the slope for nurses was flatter than the slope for physicians. CONCLUSION: The study results suggest that COVID-19 stigma may contribute to burnout among physicians and nurses, and this relation may not vary across clinical roles and experiences but profession.

4.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(8): 1107-1116, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405476

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: National strategies to control COVID-19 pandemic consisted mostly of social distancing measures such as lockdowns, curfews, and stay-home guidelines, personal protection such as hand hygiene and mask wearing, as well as contact tracing, isolation and quarantine. Whilst policy interventions were broadly similar across the globe, there were some differences in individual and community responses. This study explored community responses to COVID-19 containment measures in different countries and synthesized a model. This exaplains the community response to pandemic containment measures in the local context, so as to be suitably prepared for future interventions and research. METHODOLOGY: A mutlinational study was conducted from April-June 2020 involving researchers from 12 countries (Japan, Austria, U.S., Taiwan, India, Sudan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Myanmar, Vietnam and Thailand). Steps in this research consisted of carrying out open-ended questionnaires, qualitative analyses in NVivo, and a multinational meeting to reflect, exchange, and validate results. Lastly, a commuinty response model was synthesized from multinational experiences. RESULTS: Effective communication is key in promoting collective action for preventing virus transmission. Health literacy, habits and social norms in different populations are core components of public health interventions. To enable people to stay home while sustaining livelihoods, economic and social support are essential. Countries could benefit from previous pandemic experience in their community response. Whilst contact tracing and isolation are crucial intervention components, issues of privacy and human rights need to be considered. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding community responses to containment policies will help in ending current and future pandemics in the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Internationality , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Contact Tracing , Health Risk Behaviors , Humans , Public Health/methods , Quarantine
5.
Nurs Health Sci ; 23(3): 639-645, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263855

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to describe the resilience of nurses who cared for patients with a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis, as well as factors that potentially contributed to that resilience. A total of 23 frontline nurses who cared for patients with COVID-19 were recruited from a COVID-19-designated facility in Shanghai, China, using purposive sampling strategies. In-depth interviews were conducted from March to May 2020. Qualitative data were transcribed verbatim and content analysis was used. Nurses exhibited psychological resilience while caring for patients with COVID-19. They displayed an ability to bounce back from negative mental experiences and transform to a positive mindset to cope with the stress they faced. Factors that enhanced the nurses' resilience during the pandemic were their becoming familiar with infectious disease protocols, having a sense of professional achievement, receiving social support, having trust in the infection-control response team in the hospital, and using self-regulation strategies. This study could guide the design of future resilience-enhancing interventions that provide positive coping strategies for nurses caring for individuals with infectious diseases during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Nurses/psychology , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
6.
Clin Nurs Res ; 30(7): 1079-1087, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238686

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection can cause psychological distress and profoundly impact patients' lives, but it can also lead to positive changes and post-traumatic growth (PTG), or positive psychological change in response to challenging life circumstances. Current research on the influence of COVID-19 infection has mainly focused on its negative effects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether patients with COVID-19 in China experienced PTG and, if so, what changed for them during the process of PTG. We used a qualitative descriptive approach to conduct this study. Using the purposive sampling recruitment method, patients with a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis were recruited from a COVID-19 designated hospital in Shanghai, China, from April to July 2020. Data were collected using semi-structured, in-depth interviews conducted via cell phone or in person while social distancing to prevent the spread of COVID-19. Forty confirmed COVID-19 patients (19-68 years old) were recruited. Several prominent themes and subthemes were extracted from the interview responses regarding participants' experiences of PTG. The following are among the positive changesthat occurred for these participants after their diagnosis of COVID-19: (1) Reevaluation of their life priorities, which included a greater appreciation of being alive and re-evaluating their values and goals, (2) Improved relationships within their social circles, which included establishing or maintaining closer relationships with family and friends and a greater willingness to help others, and (3) Perceived changes regarding themselves, which included personal growth and increased awareness of the importance of their health. The study identified potential positive impacts of COVID-19 on patients, which could be helpful in the implementation of interventions to facilitate PTG among COVID-19 survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Posttraumatic Growth, Psychological , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Testing , China , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
7.
J Clin Nurs ; 30(5-6): 783-792, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-991571

ABSTRACT

AIM: To understand COVID patients' experiences of and perspectives on disclosure of their illness and to explore and describe the factors affecting disclosure decisions among COVID patients in China. BACKGROUND: Disease disclosure is a critical component of prevention and control of a virus outbreak, and this is especially true during the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding COVID patients' experiences and perspectives on disclosure could play a vital role in COVID management. DESIGN: A qualitative study. METHODS: A semi-structured interview guide was used to conduct qualitative in-depth interviews from April to June 2020. All the interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed, and then, a thematic analysis was conducted. The Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research (SRQR) were applied to this study. RESULTS: A total of 26 COVID-confirmed patients were recruited for the in-depth interviews. Four themes emerged from the thematic analysis on disclosure: persons disclosed to, reasons for disclosure, reasons for nondisclosure and impact of disclosure. The participants disclosed their COVID diagnosis to different groups, including family, close friends, community members and workplace contacts. The main reasons for disclosure included the following: government policy, social responsibility, gaining support and fear of being blamed for nondisclosure. However, some participants decided not to disclose to some groups for fear of facing stigma and discrimination or to protect family members from discrimination. Despite the potential benefits of obtaining support after disclosure, many participants did experience stigma and discrimination, privacy exposure, psychological distress and social isolation. CONCLUSIONS: An individual's decision as to whether to disclose their COVID-positive status is affected by many factors. To prevent the spread of COVID-19 and reduce the potential risks of disclosure, such as discrimination and privacy exposure, a balanced intervention should be designed to protect COVID patients and to secure any contact tracing. Therefore, the chances of discrimination could be decreased and patients' confidentiality could be protected. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: As the number of COVID patients increases, disclosure of an individual's infectious status is encouraged by health departments. Despite the potential benefits of disclosure, discrimination and privacy exposure should not be ignored. A disclosure protocol is necessary to ensure patients' privacy regarding their COVID status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disclosure , Patients , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , China/epidemiology , Confidentiality , Decision Making , Fear , Humans , Patients/psychology , Psychological Distress , Qualitative Research , Social Discrimination/psychology , Social Isolation , Social Stigma
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