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1.
Axioms ; 11(12):713, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2154880

ABSTRACT

Copper in the international market has been priced by copper futures contracts from the London Metal Exchange (LME) and the New York Commodity Exchange (COMEX). Copper prices initially showed a downward trend until March 2020, but after the outbreak of COVID-19, they continued to rise and reached a record high in May 2021. The rise in copper demand also stimulated the continuous growth of copper production. However, a significant amount of smelting flue gas is produced in the copper smelting process. The main component of the flue gas is SO2 and other acid gases, which pollute the environmental atmosphere. At the same time, due to the Chinese government's effective control of the pandemic, China's economy continued to grow. Therefore, as one of the world's largest copper consumers and producers, China's futures market has attracted attention for its influence on copper pricing and the pollution caused by copper smelting. In this paper, we used the grey entropy method to compare the influence of copper prices on the three futures markets and changes in China's air pollution in recent years. Our results show that before the pandemic, the influence of the LME futures copper price was the same as the COMEX but greater than the Shanghai Futures Exchange (SHFE). After the outbreak of the pandemic, the influence of the SHFE copper futures price significantly improved and slightly exceeded the LME and COMEX. This result echoes our finding that SO2 has caused serious air pollution in recent years.

2.
Process Saf Environ Prot ; 167: 695-707, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042096

ABSTRACT

Particulate matter (PMs) from combustion emissions (traffic, power plant, and industries) and the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic have recently enhanced the development of personal protective equipment against airborne pathogens to protect humans' respiratory system. However, most commercial face masks still cannot simultaneously achieve breathability and high filtration of PMs, bacteria, and viruses. This study used the electrospinning method with polyimide (PI) and polyethersulfone (PES) solutions to form a nanofiber membrane with low-pressure loss and high biocompatibility for high-efficiency bacteria, viruses, and nano-aerosol removal. Conclusively, the optimized nano-sized PI/PES membrane (0.1625 m2/g basis weight) exhibited conspicuous performance for the highest filtration efficiency towards PM from 50 to 500 nm (99.74 %), good filter quality of nano-aerosol (3.27 Pa-1), exceptional interception ratio against 100-nm airborne COVID-19 (over 99 %), and non-toxic effect on the human body (107 % cell viability). The PI/PES nanofiber membrane required potential advantage to form a medical face mask because of its averaged 97 % BEF on Staphylococcus aureus filiation and ultra-low pressure loss of 0.98 Pa by referring ASTM F2101-01. The non-toxic PI/PES filters provide a new perspective on designing excellent performance for nano-aerosols from air pollution and airborne COVID-19 with easy and comfortable breathing under ultra-low air flow resistance.

4.
J Telemed Telecare ; : 1357633X221124175, 2022 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020652

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Isolated spaces impair communication and teamwork during tracheal intubation (TI) in suspected coronavirus disease 2019 patients. We thus aimed to evaluate the telemedicine-assisted airway model (TAM) to improve communication and teamwork during the pandemic. METHODS: This two-stage prospective study included adult patients intubated in the emergency department of the National Taiwan University Hospital between 1 August 2020 and 31 July 2021. First, we randomised patients receiving TI in the standard setting into the conventional group (Con-G) and the isolation area into the isolation group (Iso-G). We evaluated the obstacles to communication and teamwork in an isolation scenario. Second, we developed the TAM to facilitate communication and teamwork between staff in separate spaces during TI and assigned patients to the TAM group (TAM-G). Communication and teamwork were evaluated using the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM). Subjective evaluations were conducted using a questionnaire administered to medical staff. RESULTS: Eighty-nine patients were enrolled: 17, 34, and 38 in the Con-G, Iso-G, and TAM-G, respectively. The communication frequency (CF) of the Con-G and Iso-G was the highest and lowest, respectively. The CF of the TAM-G increased and approached that of the Con-G. The overall TEAM score was the highest in the Con-G and the lowest in the Iso-G, while the overall score in the TAM-G was comparable to that of the Con-G. DISCUSSION: The TAM may improve communication and teamwork for TIs without compromising efficacy during the pandemic. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov; registration numbers: NCT04479332 and NCT04591873.

5.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 117(9): 1437-1443, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994584

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Adequate bowel preparation is key to a successful colonoscopy, which is necessary for detecting adenomas and preventing colorectal cancer. We developed an artificial intelligence (AI) platform using a convolutional neural network (CNN) model (AI-CNN model) to evaluate the quality of bowel preparation before colonoscopy. METHODS: This was a colonoscopist-blinded, randomized study. Enrolled patients were randomized into an experimental group, in which our AI-CNN model was used to evaluate the quality of bowel preparation (AI-CNN group), or a control group, which performed self-evaluation per routine practice (control group). The primary outcome was the consistency (homogeneity) between the results of the 2 methods. The secondary outcomes included the quality of bowel preparation according to the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS), polyp detection rate, and adenoma detection rate. RESULTS: A total of 1,434 patients were enrolled (AI-CNN, n = 730; control, n = 704). No significant difference was observed between the evaluation results ("pass" or "not pass") of the groups in the adequacy of bowel preparation as represented by BBPS scores. The mean BBPS scores, polyp detection rate, and adenoma detection rate were similar between the groups. These results indicated that the AI-CNN model and routine practice were generally consistent in the evaluation of bowel preparation quality. However, the mean BBPS score of patients with "pass" results were significantly higher in the AI-CNN group than in the control group, indicating that the AI-CNN model may further improve the quality of bowel preparation in patients exhibiting adequate bowel preparation. DISCUSSION: The novel AI-CNN model, which demonstrated comparable outcomes to the routine practice, may serve as an alternative approach for evaluating bowel preparation quality before colonoscopy.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , COVID-19 , Colonic Polyps , Adenoma/diagnosis , Artificial Intelligence , Cathartics , Colonic Polyps/diagnostic imaging , Colonoscopy/methods , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , Prospective Studies
6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 854343, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924173

ABSTRACT

Background: Carceral facilities are high-risk settings for COVID-19 transmission. Little is known about the hidden burden of infection or practical barriers to infection control in these settings, especially in jails. There is also limited research on the mental health impacts of the pandemic among people living and working in carceral facilities. Methods: Between July 8, 2020 and April 30, 2021, we performed SARS-CoV-2 rapid antibody testing and administered a questionnaire among residents and staff of four Northern California jails. We utilized multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for demographic and carceral characteristics, to analyze factors associated with prior infection, including perceived likelihood of prior infection and access to new masks. We additionally assessed the implementation of, perceptions toward, and impacts of COVID-19 policies in practice. We engaged stakeholder representatives, including incarcerated individuals, to guide study design, procedures, and results interpretation. Results: We enrolled 788 jail residents and 380 jail staff. Nearly half of residents and two-thirds of staff who were antibody-positive had not previously tested positive for COVID-19. Among residents without a prior COVID-19 diagnosis, antibody positivity was significantly associated with perceived likelihood of prior infection (adjusted OR = 8.9; 95% CI, 3.6-22.0). Residents who had flu-like illness in jail cited inadequate responses to reported illness and deterrents to symptom reporting, including fears of medical isolation and perceptions of medical neglect. Residents also disclosed deficient access to face masks, which was associated with antibody positivity (adjusted OR = 13.8, 95% CI, 1.8-107.0). Worsened mental health was pervasive among residents, attributed not only to fear of COVID-19 and unsanitary jail conditions but also to intensified isolation and deprivation due to pandemic restrictions on in-person visitation, programs, and recreation time. Conclusion: Carceral settings present significant challenges to maintaining infection control and human rights. Custody officials should work diligently to transform the conditions of medical isolation, which could mitigate deterrents to symptom reporting. Furthermore, they should minimize use of restrictive measures like lockdowns and suspension of visitation that exacerbate the mental health harms of incarceration. Instead, custody officials should ensure comprehensive implementation of other preventive strategies like masking, testing, and vaccination, in conjunction with multisector efforts to advance decarceration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Infection Control , Jails , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Behav Med ; 2022 Jan 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653610

ABSTRACT

Lack of trust in biomedical research, government, and health care systems, especially among racial/ethnic minorities and under-resourced communities, is a longstanding issue rooted in social injustice. The COVID-19 pandemic has further highlighted existing health and socioeconomic inequities and increased the urgency for solutions to provide access to timely, culturally, and linguistically appropriate evidence-based information about COVID-19; and ultimately to promote vaccine uptake. California's statewide alliance STOP COVID-19 CA (comprising eleven sites), leverages long standing community partnerships to better understand concerns, misinformation, and address racial/ethnic inequities in vaccine hesitancy and uptake. Using data from the California CEAL Communication Working Group, we demonstrate the wide range of strategies, communication methods, languages, and trusted messengers that have been effective in reaching diverse communities across the state. We also showcase challenges and lessons learned, such as the importance of including trusted community partners to share information or provide vaccines. These approaches, rooted in community engagement, are crucial for addressing inequities and responding to future public health emergencies.

9.
[Unspecified Source]; 2020.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source] | ID: grc-750470

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The U.S. has experienced an unprecedented number of shelter-in-place orders throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. There is limited empirical research that examines the impact of these orders. We aimed to rapidly ascertain whether social distancing;difficulty with daily activities (obtaining food, essential medications and childcare);and levels of concern regarding COVID-19 changed after the March 16, 2020 announcement of shelter-in-place orders for seven counties in the San Francisco Bay Area. METHODS: We conducted an online, cross-sectional social media survey from March 14 - April 1, 2020. We measured changes in social distancing behavior;experienced difficulties with daily activities (i.e., access to healthcare, childcare, obtaining essential food and medications);and level of concern regarding COVID-19 after the March 16 shelter-in-place announcement in the San Francisco Bay Area and elsewhere in the U.S. RESULTS: The percentage of respondents social distancing all of the time increased following the shelter-in-place announcement in the Bay Area (9.2%, 95% CI: 6.6, 11.9) and elsewhere in the U.S. (3.4%, 95% CI: 2.0, 5.0). Respondents also reported increased difficulty with obtaining food, hand sanitizer, and medications, particularly with obtaining food for both respondents from the Bay Area (13.3%, 95% CI: 10.4, 16.3) and elsewhere (8.2%, 95% CI: 6.6, 9.7). We found limited evidence that level of concern regarding the COVID-19 crisis changed following the shelter-in-place announcement. CONCLUSION: These results capture early changes in attitudes, behaviors, and difficulties. Further research that specifically examines social, economic, and health impacts of COVID-19, especially among vulnerable populations, is urgently needed. =.

10.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244819, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067402

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The U.S. has experienced an unprecedented number of orders to shelter in place throughout the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to ascertain whether social distancing; difficulty with daily activities; and levels of concern regarding COVID-19 changed after the March 16, 2020 announcement of the nation's first shelter-in-place orders (SIPO) among individuals living in the seven affected counties in the San Francisco Bay Area. METHODS: We conducted an online, cross-sectional social media survey from March 14 -April 1, 2020. We measured changes in social distancing behavior; experienced difficulties with daily activities (i.e., access to healthcare, childcare, obtaining essential food and medications); and level of concern regarding COVID-19 after the March 16 shelter-in-place announcement in the San Francisco Bay Area versus elsewhere in the U.S. RESULTS: In this non-representative sample, the percentage of respondents social distancing all of the time increased following the shelter-in-place announcement in the Bay Area (9.2%, 95% CI: 6.6, 11.9) and elsewhere in the U.S. (3.4%, 95% CI: 2.0, 5.0). Respondents also reported increased difficulty obtaining hand sanitizer, medications, and in particular respondents reported increased difficulty obtaining food in the Bay Area (13.3%, 95% CI: 10.4, 16.3) and elsewhere (8.2%, 95% CI: 6.6, 9.7). We found limited evidence that level of concern regarding the COVID-19 crisis changed following the announcement. CONCLUSION: This study characterizes early changes in attitudes, behaviors, and difficulties. As states and localities implement, rollback, and reinstate shelter-in-place orders, ongoing efforts to more fully examine the social, economic, and health impacts of COVID-19, especially among vulnerable populations, are urgently needed.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Patient Isolation/psychology , Physical Distancing , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Isolation/trends , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , San Francisco/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
11.
medRxiv ; 2020 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-637075

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The U.S. has experienced an unprecedented number of shelter-in-place orders throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. There is limited empirical research that examines the impact of these orders. We aimed to rapidly ascertain whether social distancing; difficulty with daily activities (obtaining food, essential medications and childcare); and levels of concern regarding COVID-19 changed after the March 16, 2020 announcement of shelter-in-place orders for seven counties in the San Francisco Bay Area. METHODS: We conducted an online, cross-sectional social media survey from March 14 - April 1, 2020. We measured changes in social distancing behavior; experienced difficulties with daily activities (i.e., access to healthcare, childcare, obtaining essential food and medications); and level of concern regarding COVID-19 after the March 16 shelter-in-place announcement in the San Francisco Bay Area and elsewhere in the U.S. RESULTS: The percentage of respondents social distancing all of the time increased following the shelter-in-place announcement in the Bay Area (9.2%, 95% CI: 6.6, 11.9) and elsewhere in the U.S. (3.4%, 95% CI: 2.0, 5.0). Respondents also reported increased difficulty with obtaining food, hand sanitizer, and medications, particularly with obtaining food for both respondents from the Bay Area (13.3%, 95% CI: 10.4, 16.3) and elsewhere (8.2%, 95% CI: 6.6, 9.7). We found limited evidence that level of concern regarding the COVID-19 crisis changed following the shelter-in-place announcement. CONCLUSION: These results capture early changes in attitudes, behaviors, and difficulties. Further research that specifically examines social, economic, and health impacts of COVID-19, especially among vulnerable populations, is urgently needed. =.

12.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611185

ABSTRACT

The federal government shutdown from 22 December 2018 to 25 January 2019 created an unprecedented disruption in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits. We conducted a cross-sectional qualitative study to begin to capture how the disruption affected food security and wellbeing among a small sample of California SNAP participants. We collected data from 26 low-income adults in four focus groups in four diverse California counties. We found that participants routinely struggle to secure an adequate and healthy diet in the context of high costs of living, the shutdown and benefit disruption added to participants' stress and uncertainty and exacerbated food insecurity, and it diminished some participants' faith in government. Participants reported that, while having additional benefits in January felt like a relief from typical end-of-month deprivation, the subsequent extended gap between benefit distributions and a lack of clarity about future benefits caused cascading effects as participants later had to divert money from other expenses to buy food and faced added uncertainty about future economic stability. Additionally, the shutdown highlighted challenges related to the availability, timing, and tone of communications between participants and SNAP agencies. Participants recommended that SNAP adjust benefit and eligibility levels to better address costs of living, improve customer service, and avoid future disruptions.


Subject(s)
Food Assistance , Food Insecurity , Poverty/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , California , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Focus Groups , Government , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Qualitative Research , Young Adult
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