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1.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199526

ABSTRACT

BackgroundIn May 2021, the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant led to the first local outbreak in China in Guangzhou City. We explored the epidemiological characteristics and spatial-temporal clustering of this outbreak. MethodsBased on the 153 cases in the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant outbreak, the Knox test was used to analyze the spatial-temporal clustering of the outbreak. We further explored the spatial-temporal clustering by gender and age groups, as well as compared the changes of clustering strength (S) value between the two outbreaks in Guangzhou. ResultsThe result of the Knox analysis showed that the areas at short distances and brief periods presented a relatively high risk. The strength of clustering of male-male pairs was higher. Age groups showed that clustering was concentrated in cases aged <= 18 years matched to 18-59 years and cases aged 60+ years. The strength of clustering of the outbreak declined after the implementation of public health measures. The change of strength of clustering at time intervals of 1-5 days decreased greater in 2021 (S = 129.19, change rate 38.87%) than that in 2020 (S = 83.81, change rate 30.02%). ConclusionsThe outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 Delta VOC in Guangzhou has obvious spatial-temporal clustering. The timely intervention measures are essential role to contain this outbreak of high transmission.

2.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199485

ABSTRACT

The etiology of severe acute hepatitis (SAH) in children is various. We describe the first Chinese case of severe acute hepatitis in a 22-month-old boy with the mild illness of Omicron sub-variant BA.2.38. With the application of Compound Glycyrrhizin Injection (CGI), the patient gradually recovered from acute liver injury (ALI). This case highlights the possibility of severe ALI in children with the non-critical illness of SARS-CoV-2. The management of SAH associated with the pandemic presents challenges for clinicians, and follow-up is in need. The method of differential diagnosis using limited laboratory results is of great value to the clinicians.

3.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2197302

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe a high-sensitivity SARS-CoV-2 antigen test that is based on the fully automated light-initiated chemiluminescent immunoassay (LiCA(®)), and to validate its analytical characteristics and clinical agreement on detecting SARS-CoV-2 infection against the reference molecular test. METHODS: Analytical performance was validated and detection limits were determined using different types of nucleocapsid protein samples. 798-pair anterior nasal swab specimens were collected from hospitalized patients and asymptomatic screening individuals. Agreement between LiCA(®) antigen and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) was evaluated. RESULTS: Repeatability and within-lab precision were 1.6-2.3%. The C(5)∼C(95) interval was -5.1-4.6% away from C(50). Detection limits in average (SD) were 325 (±141) U/mL on the national reference panel, 0.07 (±0.04) TCID(50)/mL on active viral cultures, 0.27 (±0.09) pg/mL on recombinant nucleocapsid proteins and 1.07 (±1.01) TCID(50)/mL on inactivated viral suspensions, respectively. LiCA detected a median of 374-fold (IQR 137-643) lower levels of the viral antigen than comparative rapid tests. As reference to the rRT-PCR method, overall sensitivity and specificity were determined to be 97.5% (91.4-99.7%) and 99.9% (99.2-100%), respectively. Total agreement between both methods was 99.6% (98.7-99.9%) with Cohen's kappa 0.98 (0.96-1). A positive detection rate of 100% (95.4-100%) was obtained as Ct≤37.8. CONCLUSIONS: The LiCA(®) system provides an exceptionally high-sensitivity and fully automated platform for the detection of the SARS-CoV-2 antigen in nasal swabs. The assay may have high potential use for large-scale population screening and surveillance of COVID-19 as an alternative to the rRT-PCR test.

4.
AAPS Open ; 8(1) (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2196524

ABSTRACT

The American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS) Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls (CMC) Community hosted two virtual panel discussions focusing on several novel regulatory review pathways for innovative oncology products: Real-Time Oncology Review (RTOR), Project Orbis, and the Product Quality Assessment Aid (PQAAid). The panel sessions were held on August 27, 2021, for the discussion of RTOR, and January 21, 2022, for the discussion of Project Orbis and the PQAAid. Both panel sessions included representatives from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and subject matter experts from the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, with the aim of facilitating knowledge sharing on CMC-specific advantages, challenges, eligibility criteria for participation, and operational modifications instituted through the utilization of these acceleration initiatives. Key topics included managing cross-regional regulatory CMC requirements, adapting to expedited development timelines, coordinating interactions between health authorities and industry, and potential opportunities for future improvement and expansion of these programs. As RTOR, Project Orbis, and PQAAid are relatively new initiatives, the experiences shared by the panel experts are valuable for providing deeper insight into these new regulatory pathways and processes. Copyright © 2022, The Author(s).

5.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 12(1):1, 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2196466

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Omicron variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spreads rapidly and insidiously. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) screening is an important means of blocking community transmission in China, but the costs associated with testing are high. Quarantine capacity and medical resources are also threatened. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate different screening strategies to balance outbreak control and consumption of resources. METHODS: A community network of 2000 people, considering the heterogeneities of household size and age structure, was generated to reflect real contact networks, and a stochastic individual-based dynamic model was used to simulate SARS-CoV-2 transmission and assess different whole-area nucleic acid screening strategies. We designed a total of 87 screening strategies with different sampling methods, frequencies of screening, and timings of screening. The performance of these strategies was comprehensively evaluated by comparing the cumulative infection rates, the number of tests, and the quarantine capacity and consumption of medical resource, which were expressed as medians (95% uncertainty intervals, 95% UIs). RESULTS: To implement COVID-19 nucleic acid testing for all people (Full Screening), if the screening frequency was four times/week, the cumulative infection rate could be reduced to 13% (95% UI: 1%, 51%), the miss rate decreased to 2% (95% UI: 0%, 22%), and the quarantine and medical resource consumption was lower than higher-frequency Full Screening or sampling screening. When the frequency of Full Screening increased from five to seven times/week (which resulted in a 2581 increase in the number of tests per positive case), the cumulative infection rate was only reduced by 2%. Screening all people weekly by splitting them equally into seven batches could reduce infection rates by 73% compared to once per week, which was similar to Full Screening four times/week. Full Screening had the highest number of tests per positive case, while the miss rate, number of tests per positive case, and hotel quarantine resource consumption in Household-based Sampling Screening scenarios were lower than Random Sampling Screening. The cumulative infection rate of Household-based Sampling Screening or Random Sampling Screening seven times/week was similar to that of Full Screening four times/week. CONCLUSIONS: If hotel quarantine, hospital and shelter hospital capacity are seriously insufficient, to stop the spread of the virus as early as possible, high-frequency Full Screening would be necessary, but intermediate testing frequency may be more cost-effective in non-extreme situations. Screening in batches is recommended if the testing capacity is low. Household-based Sampling Screening is potentially a promising strategy to implement.

6.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 20(1):142, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2196329

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many countries have an inefficient vaccination system, which hinders global exit from the COVID-19 pandemic. It is vital to summarize COVID-19 vaccination practices in countries with high vaccination coverage and provide implications for other countries. This study aimed to investigate China's COVID-19 vaccination system and to summarize its implementation experience from a health system perspective. METHODS: We conducted key informant interviews in five representative cities of China in late 2021. Guided by the health systems framework proposed by WHO, we developed our interview guidelines which included seven building blocks-leadership and governance, health workforce, vaccination service delivery, vaccination mobilization and communication, financing, access to vaccines, and information systems. Semi-structured interviews and COVID-19 vaccination policy documents were collected and coded using a thematic analysis approach. RESULTS: A total of 61 participants (nine vaccination programme directors of the local Center for Disease Control and Prevention, four government staff and 48 vaccination service workers) were interviewed. We found that China adopted a whole-of-society approach with adequate government engagement and linked health and non-health sectors to promote COVID-19 vaccination. Key measures included the collaboration of multiple systems and departments from a governance perspective, allocating sufficient health workers and resources, large-scale vaccination mobilization and communication, expansion of vaccine financing channels, localized production and digital information systems. With the vaccination system strengthening, the two-doses vaccination coverage reached 89.5% for the total population but relatively lower coverage for older adults as of July 2022. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the importance of a government-led whole-of-society approach to promote mass vaccination. The low vaccination coverage among older adults should be paid the greatest attention to. The experiences and lessons from China may serve as a reference for other countries.

7.
2022 Ieee International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (Icassp) ; : 561-565, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2191814

ABSTRACT

A rapid-accurate detection method for COVID-19 is rather important for avoiding its pandemic. In this work, we propose a bi-directional long short-term memory (BiLSTM) network based COVID-19 detection method using breath/speech/cough signals. Three kinds of acoustic signals are taken to train the network and individual models for three tasks are built, respectively, whose parameters are averaged to obtain an average model, which is then used as the initialization for the BiLSTM model training of each task. It is shown that such an initialization method can significantly improve the detection performance on three tasks. This is called supervised pre-training based detection. Besides, we utilize an existing pre-trained wav2vec2.0 model and pre-train it using the DiCOVA dataset, which is utilized to extract a high-level representation as the model input to replace conventional mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) features. This is called self-supervised pre-training based detection. To reduce the information redundancy contained in the recorded sounds, silent segment removal, amplitude normalization and time-frequency masking are also considered. The proposed detection model is evaluated on the DiCOVA dataset and results show that our method achieves an area under curve (AUC) score of 88.44% on blind test in the fusion track. It is shown that using high-level features together with MFCC features is helpful for diagnosing accuracy.

8.
Critical Care Medicine ; 51(1 Supplement):551, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2190666

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Tocilizumab has been shown to decrease mortality when used concomitantly with steroids in COVID-19. Tocilizumab dose of 8 mg/kg (max: 800 mg), stemmed from the RECOVERY trial, has been the standard dose for COVID. Due to a drug shortage of tocilizumab, our study seeks to assess whether low dose (400 mg) shows similar benefit compared to high dose for COVID patients concurrently on same median dose of steroids. METHOD(S): This was a retrospective observational study of COVID-19 patients who received tocilizumab in conjunction with steroids. Between March 2020 and August 2021, adult patients with positive COVID-19 PCR, hypoxic respiratory failure defined as FiO2>70%, and received a dose of tocilizumab in conjunction with steroids were included. Patients were excluded if they have died within 24 hours of treatment initiation. Primary outcome was 28-day mortality and secondary outcomes included biomarker improvement and relative risk of infection. Propensity matched analysis between groups was performed. RESULT(S): A total of 407 patients met the study criteria and were analyzed. The low dose and high dose tocilizumab group had 222 and 185 patients respectively. Gender and age were similar between groups and all patients received steroids. The low dose group was significantly more ill at baseline as a higher percentage of patients received vasopressors, were admitted to the ICU and on mechanical ventilation. In the propensity-matched analysis of 56 patients in each group, with a median dose of steroid of 10 mg in both groups showed no difference in 28 day mortality (HR 0.82 [95% CI: 0.41-1.67];p=0.6138). A greater decrease to normalization of CRP (p< 0.0001) and downtrend of ferritin (p=0.503) was observed in the high dose group at day 14. The high dose group trended a higher rate of fungal and viral infections. CONCLUSION(S): Compared to low dose tocilizumab, high dose did not provide additional efficacy and mortality benefit but resulted in uptrend of fungal and viral infections. While a greater decrease in CRP was seen in the high dose group, it did not translate into lower mortality. This study illustrates that low dose tocilizumab can be an alternative to high dose during a drug shortage of tocilizumab without compensating for efficacy and safety, conserving resources for more patients.

9.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 9(Supplement 2):S924, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2190038

ABSTRACT

Background. Vaccination strategies that provide enhanced immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants are needed. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a bivalent omicron containing vaccine, mRNA-1273.214 (50 mug), administered as a second booster dose in adult participants. Methods. In this ongoing phase 2/3 trial, 50 mug of the bivalent vaccine mRNA-1273.214 (25 mug each ancestral Wuhan-Hu-1 and omicron BA.1 spike mRNAs) or 50 mug of the authorized mRNA-1273 were administered as second boosters in adults who previously received a 2 dose (100 mug) primary series and a first booster (50 mug) dose of mRNA-1273 (>= 3 months prior). Primary objectives were safety and reactogenicity and immunogenicity 28 days post-booster dose. Results. In participants with no prior SARS-CoV-2 infection who received booster doses of mRNA-1273.214 (n=334) or mRNA-1273 (n=260), neutralizing antibody (nAb) geometric mean titers (GMTs [95% confidence interval (CI)]) against omicron BA.1 were 2372.4 (2070.6-2718.2) and 1473.5 (1270.8-1708.4), respectively. The model-based GMT ratio (GMR [97.5% CI]) of mRNA-1273.214 compared to mRNA-1273 was 1.75 (1.49-2.04), meeting the pre-specified superiority criterion against omicron BA.1. The pre-specified criterion for non-inferiority against the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strain was also met. Additionally, mRNA-1273.214 elicited higher GMTs (727.4 [632.8-836.1]) than mRNA-1273 (492.1 [431.1-561.9]) against omicron subvariants BA.4/BA.5 [GMR (95% CI) 1.69 [1.51-1.90])]. Binding antibody responses against alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and omicron were numerically higher in the mRNA-1273.214 group compared to mRNA-1273. mRNA-1273.214 GMTs were consistently higher across age (18-< 65 and >= 65 years) and pre-booster SARS-CoV-2 infection subgroups (Figure). Safety and reactogenicity were similar for both vaccine groups. Conclusion. The bivalent omicron containing mRNA-1273.214 elicited superior nAb responses against omicron 28 days post-immunization compared to mRNA-1273 regardless of age and prior SARS-CoV-2 infection;no new safety concerns were identified. (Figure Presented).

10.
2nd International Conference on New Energy Technology and Industrial Development, NETID 2021 ; 292, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2186203

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 was first reported in Wuhan city of Hubei Province of China in December 2019, becoming a pandemic declared by the world health organization. This article is a review of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). It typically informs the genome structure of the SARS-CoV-2 and its pathogenic mechanisms, concludes a series of non-pharmaceutical control methods, and focuses on several testing measures. The inventions of the disease treatments remain an important challenge to all medical institutions while a series ofmedications have been brought to the public. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences.

11.
Bioscience Reports ; 18:18, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2186166

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19 by SARS-CoV-2 is still underway. Due to the growing development of severe symptoms, it is necessary to promote effective therapies. Ambroxol [2 - amino - 3,5 - dibromo - N - (trans - 4 - hydroxycyclohexyl) benzylamine] has long been used as one of the over-the-counter mucolytic agents to treat various respiratory diseases. Therefore, we focused on the mechanism of action of ambroxol in COVID-19 treatment. In vitro and in silico screening revealed that ambroxol may impede cell entry of SARS-CoV-2 by binding to neuropilin-1. Ambroxol could also interact with multiple inflammatory factors and signaling pathways, especially NF-kappaB, to interfere cytokines cascade activated by SARS-CoV-2 internalization. Furthermore, multi-pathways and proteins, such as the Cell cycle and matrix metalloproteinases, were identified as significant ambroxol-targeting pathways or molecules in PBMC and lung of severe COVID-19 patients by bioinformatics analysis. Collectively, these results suggested that ambroxol may serve as a promising therapeutic candidate for the treatment of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection.

12.
Nature ; 19:19, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185937

ABSTRACT

Continuous evolution of Omicron has led to a rapid and simultaneous emergence of numerous variants that display growth advantages over BA.5 1. Despite their divergent evolutionary courses, mutations on their receptor-binding domain (RBD) converge on several hotspots. The driving force and destination of such sudden convergent evolution and its impact on humoral immunity remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that these convergent mutations can cause striking evasion of neutralizing antibody (NAb) drugs and convalescent plasma, including those from BA.5 breakthrough infection, while maintaining sufficient ACE2 binding capability. BQ.1.1.10 (BQ.1.1+Y144del), BA.4.6.3, XBB, and CH.1.1 are the most antibody-evasive strains tested. To delineate the origin of the convergent evolution, we determined the escape mutation profiles and neutralization activity of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) isolated from BA.2 and BA.5 breakthrough-infection convalescents 2,3. Due to humoral immune imprinting, BA.2 and especially BA.5 breakthrough infection reduced the diversity of the NAb binding sites and increased proportions of non-neutralizing antibody clones, which in turn focused humoral immune pressure and promoted convergent evolution in the RBD. Moreover, we showed that the convergent RBD mutations could be accurately inferred by deep mutational scanning (DMS) profiles 4,5, and the evolution trends of BA.2.75/BA.5 subvariants could be well-foreseen through constructed convergent pseudovirus mutants. These results suggest current herd immunity and BA.5 vaccine boosters may not efficiently prevent the infection of Omicron convergent variants.

13.
Nat Commun ; 14(1):311, 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2185849

ABSTRACT

Antibody-mediated immunity plays a crucial role in protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection. We isolated a panel of neutralizing anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibodies elicited upon natural infection and vaccination and showed that they recognize an immunogenic patch on the internal surface of the core RBD, which faces inwards and is hidden in the "down" state. These antibodies broadly neutralize wild type (Wuhan-Hu-1) SARS-CoV-2, Beta and Delta variants and some are effective against other sarbecoviruses. We observed a continuum of partially overlapping antibody epitopes from lower to upper part of the inner face of the RBD and some antibodies extend towards the receptor-binding motif. The majority of antibodies are substantially compromised by three mutational hotspots (S371L/F, S373P and S375F) in the lower part of the Omicron BA.1, BA.2 and BA.4/5 RBD. By contrast, antibody IY-2A induces a partial unfolding of this variable region and interacts with a conserved conformational epitope to tolerate all antigenic variations and neutralize diverse sarbecoviruses as well. This finding establishes that antibody recognition is not limited to the normal surface structures on the RBD. In conclusion, the delineation of functionally and structurally conserved RBD epitopes highlights potential vaccine and therapeutic candidates for COVID-19.

14.
ACS Omega ; 7(51):48416-48426, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2185529

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global pandemic of COVID-19, posing a huge threat to public health. The SARS-CoV-2 papain-like cysteine protease (PLpro) plays a significant role in virus replication and host immune regulation, which is a promising antiviral drug target. Several potential inhibitors have been identified in vitro. However, the detailed mechanism of action and structure-activity relationship require further studies. Here, we investigated the structure-activity relationships of the series of derivatives of tanshinone IIA sulfonate sodium (TSS) and chloroxine based on biochemical analysis and molecular dynamics simulation. We found that compound 7, a derivative of chloroxine, can disrupt PLpro-ISG15 interaction and exhibits an antiviral effect for SARS-CoV-2 variants (wild type, delta, and omicron) at the low micromolar level. These studies confirmed that inhibiting PLpro-ISG15 interaction and, thus, restoring the host's innate immunity are effective methods for fighting against viral infection.

15.
Energy & Fuels ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2185447

ABSTRACT

With the prevalence of COVID-19, wearing medical surgical masks has become a requisite measure to protect against the invasion of the virus. Therefore, a huge amount of discarded medical surgical masks will be produced, which will become a potential hazard to pollute the environment and endanger the health of organisms without our awareness. Herein, a green and cost-effective way for the reasonable disposal of waste masks becomes necessary. In this work, we realized the transformation from waste medical surgical masks into high-quality carbon-nickel composite nanowires, which not only benefit the protection of the environment and ecosystem but also contribute to the realization of economic value. The obtained composite carbon-based materials demonstrate 70 S m-1 conductivity, 5.2 nm average pore diameters, 234 m2 g-1 surface areas, and proper graphitization degree. As an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the prepared carbon composite materials demonstrate a specific capacity of 420 mA h g-1 after 800 cycles at a current density of 0.2 A g-1. It also displays good rate performance and decent cycling stability. Therefore, this study provides an approach to converting the discarded medical surgical masks into high-quality carbon nanowire anode materials to turn waste into treasure.

16.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 115:109706, 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2179732

ABSTRACT

Influenza A viruses (IAV), significant respiratory pathogenic agents, cause seasonal epidemics and global pandemics in intra- and interannual cycles. Despite effective therapies targeting viral proteins, the continuous generation of drug-resistant IAV strains is challenging. Therefore, exploring novel host-specific antiviral treatment strategies is urgently needed. Here, we found that lidocaine, widely used for local anesthesia and sedation, significantly inhibited H1N1(PR8) replication in macrophages. Interestingly, its antiviral effect did not depend on the inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC), the main target of lidocaine for anesthesia. Lidocaine significantly upregulated early IFN-I, interferon α4 (IFNα4) mRNA, and protein levels, but not those of early IFNβ in mouse RAW 264.7 cell line and human THP-1 derived macrophages. Knocking out IFNα4 by CRISPR-Cas9 partly reversed lidocaine's inhibition of PR8 replication in macrophages. Mechanistically, lidocaine upregulated IFNα4 by activating TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1)-IRF7 and JNK-AP1 signaling pathways. These findings indicate that lidocaine has an incredible antiviral potential by enhancing IFN-I signaling in macrophages. In conclusion, our results indicate the potential auxiliary role of lidocaine for anti-influenza A virus therapy and even for anti-SARS-CoV-2 virus therapy, especially in the absence of a specific medicine.

17.
Frontiers of Engineering Management ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2175599

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the current operating environment of pharmaceutical supply chain (PSC) has rapidly changed and faced increasing risks of disruption. The Internet of Things (IoT) and blockchain not only help enhance the efficiency of PSC operations in the information technology domain but also address complex related issues and improve the visibility, flexibility, and transparency of these operations. Although IoT and blockchain have been widely examined in the areas of supply chain and logistics management, further work on PSC is expected by the public to enhance its resilience. To respond to this call, this paper combines a literature review with semi-structured interviews to investigate the characteristics of PSC, the key aspects affecting PSC, and the challenges faced by PSC in the post-pandemic era. An IoT-blockchain-integrated hospital-side oriented PSC management model is also developed. This paper highlights how IoT and blockchain technology can enhance supply chain resilience and provides a reference on how PSC members can cope with the associated risks.

18.
Arch Virol ; 168(2):64, 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2174219

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Stringent nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have been implemented worldwide to combat the COVID-19 pandemic, and the circulation and seasonality of common respiratory viruses have subsequently changed. There have been few multicentre studies or comparisons of the prevalence of respiratory viruses accounting for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in hospitalized children between the pre-COVID period and the period after community and school reopening in the setting of the zero-COVID policy. METHODS: We included 1543 children with CAP who required hospitalization from November 1, 2020 to April 30, 2021 (period 1), and 629 children with the same conditions from November 1, 2018, to April 30, 2019 (period 2), in our study. All respiratory samples from these patients were screened for six respiratory viruses (respiratory syncytial virus [RSV], adenovirus [ADV], influenza A virus [Flu A], influenza B virus [Flu B], parainfluenza virus type 1 [PIV1], and parainfluenza virus type 3 [PIV3]) using a multiplex real-time PCR assay. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The median ages of the enrolled patients at the time of diagnosis were 1.5 years and 1.0 years for period 1 and period 2, respectively. In period 1, viral pathogens were detected in 50.3% (776/1543) of the enrolled patients. The most frequently identified viral pathogen was RSV (35.9%, 554/1543), followed by PIV3 (9.6%, 148/1543), PIV1 (3.6%, 56/1543), ADV (3.4%, 52/1543), Flu A (1.0%, 16/1543), and Flu B (0.8%, 13/1543). The total detection rates of these six viruses in the peak season of CAP were at the pre-COVID level. The prevalence of Flu A decreased dramatically, and circulation activity was low compared to pre-COVID levels, while the incidence of PIV3 increased significantly. There were no significant differences in the detection rates of RSV, ADV, Flu B, and PIV1 between the two periods. Our results showed that respiratory viruses accounted for CAP in hospitalized children at pre-COVID levels as communities and schools reopened within the zero-COVID policy, although the prevalence aetiology spectrum varied.

19.
Journal of Medical Virology ; 19:19, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2173252

ABSTRACT

To investigate the clinical characteristics of skin disorders among hospitalized patients before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, a retrospective study was conducted based on hospitalized patients with skin diseases from Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, the largest hospital in the south-central region of China, between 1 January 2018 and 31 December 2021. A total of 3039 hospitalized patients were enrolled in the study, including 1681 patients in the pre-pandemic group and 1358 patients in the pandemic group. The total number of hospitalized patients in the pandemic group decreased by 19.2%, with an increased proportion of patients over 60 years of age (39.8% vs. 35.8%). Moreover, compared with the pre-pandemic group, there were decreases in the occurrence of most skin diseases in the pandemic group, but the proportions of keratinolytic carcinoma (6.6% vs. 5.2%), dermatitis (24.0% vs. 18.9%), and psoriasis (18.0% vs. 14.8%) were higher in the pandemic group. In addition, longer hospital stays (beta= 0.07, SE = 0.02, P=1.35x10-3 ) and higher hospital costs (beta= 0.06, SE = 0.03, P=0.031) were found in the pandemic group through general linear models, even after the corresponding adjustment. In summary, the COVID-19 pandemic has had a lasting impact on patients with skin diseases, with fewer hospitalized patients, increased proportions of older patients, longer hospital stays, and increased hospital costs. These findings will facilitate better preparation for the most effective response to future pandemics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

20.
Journal of Medical Virology ; 06:06, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2173234

ABSTRACT

Global COVID-19 pandemics highlight the need of developing vaccines with universal and durable protection against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. Here we developed an extended-release vaccine delivery system (GP-diABZI-RBD), consisting the original SARS-CoV-2 WA1 strain receptor-binding domain (RBD) as the antigen and diABZI STING agonist in conjunction with yeast beta-glucan particles (GP-diABZI) as the platform. GP-diABZI-RBD could activate STING pathway and inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication. Compared to diABZI-RBD, intraperitoneal injection of GP-diABZI-RBD elicited robust cellular and humoral immune responses in mice. Using SARS-CoV-2 GFP/DELTAN transcription and replication-competent virus-like particle system (trVLP), we demonstrated that GP-diABZI-RBD-prototype vaccine exhibited the strongest and durable humoral immune responses and antiviral protection;whereas GP-diABZI-RBD-Omicron displayed minimum neutralization responses against trVLP. By using pseudotype virus (PsVs) neutralization assay, we found that GP-diABZI-RBD-Prototype, GP-diABZI-RBD-Delta, and GP-diABZI-RBD-Gamma immunized mice sera could efficiently neutralize Delta and Gamma PsVs, but had weak protection against Omicron PsVs. In contrast, GP-diABZI-RBD-Omicron immunized mice sera displayed the strongest neutralization response to Omicron PsVs. Taken Together, the results suggest that GP-diABZI can serve as a promising vaccine delivery system for enhancing durable humoral and cellular immunity against broad SARS-CoV-2 variants. Our study provides important scientific basis for developing SARS-COV-2 VOC-specific vaccines. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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