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1.
IEEE Internet of Things Journal ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1621793

ABSTRACT

In a post-pandemic era with personal precautions and vaccination, the emergence of COVID-19 variants with higher transmissibility and the socio-economic reopening have raised new challenges to existing human-to-human digital contact tracing systems, where privacy, efficiency and energy consumption issues are major concerns. In this paper, we propose a novel blockchain based human-to-infrastructure contact tracing framework for the post-pandemic era. Specifically, our approach collects and records the interaction information between persons and pre-deployed anchor nodes to trace the possible contacts with confirmed patients, so as to capture the indirect contacts and reduces the energy consumption of users. To address the privacy leakage and reliability issues in contact tracing, we introduce a Self-Sovereign Identity (SSI) model-based blockchain which enables users to gain full control of their own identities and eliminate the linkage between the identity and location information in interaction records. To further preserve the privacy of confirmed patients, we introduce the Private Set Intersection Cardinality (PSI-CA) protocol to estimate the risk of infection by only counting the number of encounters between users and confirmed patients. Two self-executed smart contracts are deployed on the SSI blockchain to perform contact tracing, which guarantees the robustness of the system. The performance analysis validates the effectiveness of our approach. IEEE

2.
Natural Gas Industry ; 41(12):81-89, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1614051

ABSTRACT

In order to ensure the large-scale efficient development of shale gas and the high-quality rapid development of shale gas industry in China, this paper comprehensively analyzes the USA's shale gas development process by using the analogy analysis method, based on the industrial life cycle theory and the experience in the innovation of shale gas development technologies and the development of shale gas industry in the United States. Then, the life cycle of American shale gas industry is divided and the characteristics of each stage are analyzed. Finally, the experience and lessons in the development of American shale gas industry are summarized. And the following research results are obtained. First, the success of American shale gas revolution is the result of continuous technological research of more than four decades, the achievement of policy stimulation and regulation of more than 100 years, and a process of game playing between resource environmental protection and benefit resource development. Even the mature shale gas industry in the USA suffers turbulence caused by COVID-19. Second, China's shale gas industry shall take technological breakthroughs as the premise, timely formulate supporting policies in terms of property rights and pipe network construction according to the characteristics of the industrial cycle, and continuously face up to and timely solve the environment protection problems in the process of shale gas development. Third, it is recommended to strengthen the risk resistance capacity of shale gas industry from the aspects of industrial investment and financing risk identification and control, exploration and development technological innovation, and dynamic adaptation of supply side and demand side. In conclusion, American experience, enlightenment and even lessons in shale gas development and industrial development are conducive for China to prepare reasonable strategies of each stage based on its own situations, so as to promote the high-quality development of its shale gas industry. © 2021, Natural Gas Industry Journal Agency. All right reserved.

3.
22nd International Conference on Web Information Systems Engineering, WISE 2021 ; 13081 LNCS:122-136, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1604256

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been spreading rapidly around the world and caused a significant impact on public health and economy. However, there is still lack of studies on effectively quantifying the different lung infection areas caused by COVID-19. As a basic but challenging task of the diagnostic framework, distinguish infection areas in computed tomography (CT) images and help radiologists to determine the severity of the infection rapidly. To this end, we proposed a novel deep learning algorithm for automated infection diagnosis of multiple COVID-19 Pneumonia. Specifically, we use the aggregated residual network to learn a robust and expressive feature representation and apply the soft attention mechanism to improve the capability of the model to distinguish a variety of symptoms of the COVID-19. With a public CT image dataset, the proposed method achieves 0.91 DSC which is 14.6% higher than selected baselines. Experimental results demonstrate the outstanding performance of our proposed model for the automated segmentation of COVID-19 Chest CT images. Our study provides a promising deep learning-based segmentation tool to lay a foundation to facilitate the quantitative diagnosis of COVID-19 lung infection in CT images. © 2021, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

4.
Medical Journal of Wuhan University ; 43(1):19-23, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1600040

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics and laboratory indices of 25 SARS‑CoV‑2 nucleic acid re⁃positive patients who reached the discharge standard after quarantined at hotels after 2 or 4 weeks. Methods: The clinical data of 25 re‑positive COVID⁃19 patients admitted to Dongfeng Hospital of Hubei University of Medicine from January to April 2020 were retrospectively analyzed at different time points (the first diagnosis, hospital discharge, and re⁃test positive after treatment). Results: Lymphocyte counts (LYM) were significantly different among each periods (all P<0.05). Compared with that at the first diagnosis, hsCRP level at re‑positive and discharge time was significantly reduced (both P<0.05), the Ct value of the SARS‑CoV‑2 nucleic acid test and WBC count were significantly increased (all P<0.05). The NEU%, LYM%, and PCT showed no statistical changes among all time points (all P>0.05). Compared with that at hospital discharge, better or none changes in lung CT images were found in the patients when they were found re⁃positives in nucleic acid test. Conclusion: In SARS‑CoV‑2 nucleic acid re‑positive patients, progressive increases of LYM and WBC counts, and progressive decrease of hs‑CRP were found. The clinical symptoms and laboratory examination indicators were better than before, we speculated that the re⁃occurrence of SARS‑CoV‑2 infection may have no pathogenic effect on patients, although its infectivity needs to be further investigated. Therefore, the disease control department need to continue to strengthen the follow‑up and prevention management of COVID‑19 discharged patients. © 2022, Editorial Board of Medical Journal of Wuhan University. All right reserved.

5.
Infectious Microbes & Diseases ; 3(1):14-21, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1584002

ABSTRACT

A recent outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the single-stranded enveloped RNA virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has developed into a global pandemic, after it was first reported in Wuhan in December 2019. SARS-CoV-2 is an emerging virus, and little is known about the basic characteristics of this pathogen, the underlying mechanism of infection, and the potential treatments. The immune system has been known to be actively involved in viral infections. To facilitate the development of COVID-19 treatments, the understanding of immune regulation by this viral infection is urgently needed. This review describes the mechanisms of immune system involvement in viral infections and provides an overview of the dysregulation of immune responses in COVID-19 patients in recent studies. Furthermore, we emphasize the role of gut microbiota in regulating immunity and summarized the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the composition of the microbiome. Overall, this review provides insights for understanding and developing preventive and therapeutic strategies by regulating the immune system and microbiota.

6.
Ieee Internet of Things Journal ; 8(21):15929-15938, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1570215

ABSTRACT

During the outbreak of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), while bringing various serious threats to the world, it reminds us that we need to take precautions to control the transmission of the virus. The rise of the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) has made related data collection and processing, including healthcare monitoring systems, more convenient on the one hand, and requirements of public health prevention are also changing and more challengeable on the other hand. One of the most effective nonpharmaceutical medical intervention measures is mask wearing. Therefore, there is an urgent need for an automatic real-time mask detection method to help prevent the public epidemic. In this article, we put forward an edge computing-based mask (ECMask) identification framework to help public health precautions, which can ensure real-time performance on the low-power camera devices of buses. Our ECMask consists of three main stages: 1) video restoration;2) face detection;and 3) mask identification. The related models are trained and evaluated on our bus drive monitoring data set and public data set. We construct extensive experiments to validate the good performance based on real video data, in consideration of detection accuracy and execution time efficiency of the whole video analysis, which have valuable application in COVID-19 prevention.

7.
Ieee Internet of Things Journal ; 8(21):15939-15952, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1570214

ABSTRACT

Communication between nanomachines is still an important topic in the construction of the Internet of Bio-Nano Things (IoBNT). Currently, molecular communication (MC) is expected to be a promising technology to realize IoBNT. To effectively serve the IoBNT composed of multiple nanomachine clusters, it is imperative to study multiple-access MC. In this article, based on the molecular division multiple access technology, we propose a novel multiuser MC system, where information molecules with different diffusion coefficients are first employed. Aiming at the user fairness in the considered system, we investigate the optimization of molecular resource allocation, including the assignment of the types of molecules and the number of molecules of a type. Specifically, three performance metrics are considered, namely, min-max fairness for error probability, max-min fairness for achievable rate, and weighted sum-rate maximization. Moreover, we propose two assignment strategies for types of molecules, i.e., best-to-best (BTB) and best-to-worst (BTW). Subsequently, for a two-user scenario, we analytically derive the optimal allocation for the number of molecules when types of molecules are fixed for all users. In contrast, for a three-user scenario, we prove that the BTB and BTW schemes with the optimal allocation for the number of molecules can provide the lower and upper bounds on system performance, respectively. Finally, numerical results show that the combination of BTW and the optimal allocation for the number of molecules yields better performance than the benchmarks.

9.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 59(8): 605-609, 2020 Aug 01.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556260

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) and arbidol in treating patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the real world. Methods: The clinical data of 178 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 admitted to Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital from January 20 to February 10, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. According to patient's antiviral treatment regimens, 178 patients were divided into 4 groups including LPV/r group (59 patients), arbidol group (36 patients), LPV/r plus arbidol combination group (25 patients) and the supportive care group without any antiviral treatment (58 patients). The primary end point was the negative conversion time of nucleic acid of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by pharyngeal swab. Results: The baseline parameters of 4 groups before treatment was comparable. The negative conversion time of viral nucleic acid was (10.20±3.49), (10.11±4.68), (10.86±4.74), (8.44±3.51) days in LPV/r group, arbidol group, combination group, and supportive care group respectively (F=2.556, P=0.058). There was also no significant difference in negative conversion rate of 2019-nCoV nucleic acid, the improvement of clinical symptoms, and the improvement of pulmonary infections by CT scan (P>0.05). However, a statistically significant difference was found in the changing rates from mild/moderate to severe/critical type at day 7 (χ(2)=9.311, P=0.017), which were 24%(6/25) in combination group, 16.7%(6/36) in arbidol group, 5.4%(3/56) in LPV/r group and 5.2%(3/58) in supportive care group. Moreover, the incidence of adverse reactions in three antiviral groups was significantly higher than that in supportive care group (χ(2)=14.875, P=0.002). Conclusions: Antiviral treatment including LPV/r or arbidol or combination does not shorten the negative conversion time of 2019-nCoV nucleic acid nor improve clinical symptoms. Moreover, these antiviral drugs cause more adverse reactions which should be paid careful attention during the treatment.

10.
Asian Journal of Communication ; 31(6):485-501, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1550439

ABSTRACT

This article combines automated scraping of Weibo data and a critical discourse analysis to examine the ways in which online anti-African sentiments produce and amplify the interrelations of racial stigma, sexism and homophobia, as well as misinformation about infectious disease on Chinese social media. The paper finds that three nodal points strongly unite the online anti-African discourse: one, 'unrestrained and promiscuous' African men are carrying the viruses (such as AIDS and/or COVID-19);two, 'unchaste' Chinese women (and occasionally gay men) are receiving the virus;three, there is unidirectional transmission of these viruses from Africans to Chinese. Further, our research findings point to complicated and ambiguous relations between online racist sentiments, state censorship, and China-Africa relations.

11.
2nd International Conference on Public Health and Data Science, ICPHDS 2021 ; : 116-120, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1537744

ABSTRACT

In responding to Covid-19 pandemic, countries around the world implemented various policies to impede the virus. But the effect of these polices among East Asian and European countries are Utterly different. This paper chose South Korea and the United Kingdom to conduct a case study to explore whether and to what extent did digital track and trace policies make an effect in curbing the virus. This paper mainly utilizes government websites data and peer-reviewed research articles from PubMed and Google Scholar to support the research. This paper illustrates three critical factors why digital contact tracing systems perfrom better in South Korea than the UK, which are cultural notion, movements from government and collaboration with testing respectively. © 2021 IEEE.

12.
30th ACM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management, CIKM 2021 ; : 2738-2748, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1528572

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has caused lasting damage to almost every domain in public health, society, and economy. To monitor the pandemic trend, existing studies rely on the aggregation of traditional statistical models and epidemic spread theory. In other words, historical statistics of COVID-19, as well as the population mobility data, become the essential knowledge for monitoring the pandemic trend. However, these solutions can barely provide precise prediction and satisfactory explanations on the long-term disease surveillance while the ubiquitous social media resources can be the key enabler for solving this problem. For example, serious discussions may occur on social media before and after some breaking events take place. To take advantage of the social media data, we propose a novel framework, Social Media enhAnced pandemic suRveillance Technique (SMART), which is composed of two modules: (i) information extraction module to construct heterogeneous knowledge graphs based on the extracted events and relationships among them;(ii) time series prediction module to provide both short-term and long-term forecasts of the confirmed cases and fatality at the state-level in the United States and to discover risk factors for COVID-19 interventions. Extensive experiments show that our method largely outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines by 7.3% and 7.4% in confirmed case/fatality prediction, respectively. © 2021 Owner/Author.

13.
New England Journal of Entrepreneurship ; 24(2):105-121, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1515151

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The concept of diaspora philanthropy contains the following two components: diasporas, who are individuals who live outside of their homelands but maintain a sense of identity with their home countries, and charitable giving provided by these diasporas to causes related to their hometowns. Often diaspora philanthropy happens through intermediary organizations such as hometown associations, internet-based philanthropic platforms and faith-based groups. Little research explores immigrant-owned small businesses as intermediary organizations for diaspora philanthropy. In the literature of social entrepreneurship, the theory of opportunity recognition provides insights on how do businesses identify opportunities for fulfilling social missions. However, it is uncertain whether this major theory can be applied to a specific context such as immigrant-owned small businesses. In this research, I aim to understand immigrant-owned small businesses' participation in social entrepreneurship through diaspora philanthropy, especially in responding to natural disasters. Specifically, three research questions were proposed: What role do small businesses play? What mechanisms do they use to partake in diaspora philanthropy? Moreover, what motivates them to participate? Design/methodology/approach: This research uses an in-depth case study that focuses on a specific diaspora philanthropy behavior in responding to a natural disaster in the diaspora's hometown. The subject of this work is a small business owned by an immigrant in New York City, the US. To collect data on this case, the author utilized a mixed-methods design, which involves two types of qualitative data: document analysis and interview. Giving the purpose of this study, the author used thematic coding for both newspaper article data and interview data following a deductive approach. Findings: The result shows that small businesses have an inherent advantage in building close interpersonal relationships with their customers and serve as the connector between their customers and larger philanthropic organizations. Because of their limitations on resources, small businesses collaborate with larger nonprofit organizations to do complicated philanthropic work for improved capacity. When diaspora philanthropy happens due to natural disasters in homelands, diasporas experience some level of guilt since they are not there with the people of their homeland in solidarity facing the difficulties. This guilt, which is related to cultural influences, is one of the motivations that make diasporas give to their homelands. The findings also show that the opportunity recognition theory fits well into explaining the altruistic behaviors of small businesses owned by immigrants. Originality/value: A lot remains unknown about immigrant-owned small businesses, including their altruistic behaviors and participation in social entrepreneurship. This research expands the current knowledge on diaspora philanthropy by identifying the roles of small businesses, the mechanisms used by small businesses and the motivations of giving during natural disasters. This research also validates the opportunity recognition theory of social entrepreneurship in a specific context. © 2021, Ximeng Chen.

14.
2021 IEEE International Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference, ITSC 2021 ; 2021-September:1211-1216, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1511239

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to leverage social media data to understand the public opinion on autonomous driving after extreme events, including the Uber and Tesla crashes and the COVID-19 pandemic. Uber and Tesla crashes that happened consecutively in 2018 have posed uncertainty and the public concern toward the autonomous vehicle (AV) technology. The COVID-19 pandemic has drastically increased people's fear of taking mass transit, while the social distancing policy could easily favor contactless travel experiences provided by AVs. To understand people's attitudinal changes before and after these extreme events, three sources of social media data are leveraged: Facebook, Twitter and Reddit. Sentiment analysis is performed with BERT (Bidirectional Encoder Representation from Transformers) model to study the change in people's attitude toward AVs. Results show that after Uber and Tesla crashes, the proportion of people with a negative attitude increases, while after the pandemic, the proportion of people with a positive attitude increases. These results are quite consistent with our intuition. We then conduct regression analysis using XGBoost to analyze the impact of individual's demographic information on his/her sentiment toward AVs. We find that Age has the most significant effect on people's attitudes toward AVs. Engineers and entrepreneurs are more likely to introduce and discuss the AV technology in social media. © 2021 IEEE.

15.
M&Som-Manufacturing & Service Operations Management ; : 19, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1502040

ABSTRACT

Problem definition: This work focuses on the hotel housekeeping process. In a field study, a possible channel of disease transmission between consecutive guests in hotel rooms is revealed. In order to prevent the transmission, an innovative assembly-line housekeeping method is developed. Academic/practical relevance: The transmission of infectious diseases during hotel stays (e.g., by touching unclean towels or bed linens) has been reported globally. Under the current COVID-19 pandemic, having contact with saliva or mucus left by an infected person could cause infection. The standard housekeeping process used by the majority of hotels leaves a channel for new towels and bed linens in refreshed rooms to be contaminated by bacteria or viruses from used towels and bed linens. Eliminating the contamination channel and preventing disease transmission are crucial for protecting the health and safety of hotel guests, especially under a disease outbreak such as the current COVID-19 pandemic. Methodology: The research was conducted during a field study at a hotel. To design the assembly-line process, the service time distribution of each housekeeping operational step is characterized using data collected from the practice at hundreds of hotel rooms. An optimization model is proposed to optimize the operation. Through a pilot test, the performance of the assembly-line and the traditional housekeeping methods is compared. Results: The pilot test results show that the assembly-line housekeeping method has the potential to improve not only hygienic standards but also, labor efficiency and service quality (error rate). Managerial implications: The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic draws tremendous public attention on disease transmission and public hygiene. The principle of the assembly-line method (i.e., eliminating contamination channels through teamwork operational design) can be applied to not only hotel housekeeping practices but also, many other service settings. It leads to hygienic, efficient, and reliable operations, at no additional cost.

16.
SAGE Open ; 11(4), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1501969

ABSTRACT

Drawing from the Uses and Gratifications Theory (UGT), this study explores the influences of the gratifications derived from the use of the WeChat on Chinese consumers’ purchase intention for South Korean brands. A total of 2,276 respondents from ten cities in China—Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Ji’nan, Nanjing, Zhengzhou, Wuhan, Chengdu, and Xi’an—were part of this study. Structural equation modeling (SEM) and PROCESS analysis was applied to examine the data. Gratifications that Chinese consumers receive from the WeChat, such as functional information, entertaining information, social interaction, brand interaction, and self-concept, positively influence their brand identity. In addition, the identity of South Korean brands positively correlated with consumer’s purchase intention in China. More importantly, by using a moderated mediation model, this research finds that the relationship between SNS (social networking service) content marketing and purchase intention is influenced by consumers’ regulatory focus and CSR performance of South Korean enterprises for COVID-19 in China. This study’s findings could extend the existing theoretical framework on applying the Uses and Gratifications Theory to social media. In addition, results are in line with those authors who suggest that local social media use may positively affect foreign brand promotion. Theoretical and practical implications are also discussed. © The Author(s) 2021.

17.
Journal of Chinese Overseas ; 17(2):293-317, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1501854

ABSTRACT

This article analyses business transitions among Chinese immigrant entrepreneurs in France during the Covid-19 pandemic. Drawing on a historical overview of the development of ethnic Chinese businesses over the last century and an empirical study carried out in five different industrial sectors (import and export, retail, catering, hotel, and tobacco) of the French economy, we examine what challenges these entrepreneurs have faced during the pandemic, what strategies they have adopted in response to these challenges, and what has enabled them to shift business patterns and commercial practices in this unprecedented situation. Our findings show that the Covid-19 pandemic has accelerated the transition of Chinese immigrant entrepreneurship in France, from offline operations to digital business. However, the pandemic may not be the direct cause of this business transition;rather, it has created unique conditions which facilitate the transition. Before the pandemic, some Chinese entrepreneurs had already made or partially made the transition to "integrating online and offline businesses," "hiring beyond Chinese ethnic networks," and "paying attention to the local country's policy directions," which helped them greatly reduce the negative impacts of the pandemic. During the pandemic, two unprecedented business opportunities were opened up: "fostering local production" and "seeking low-risk sectors," which some Chinese entrepreneurs have proactively pursued since April/May 2020. These may be the new trends for Chinese entrepreneurs in France in the future. Theoretically, our study suggests that business transitions among Chinese entrepreneurs in France need to be examined beyond the framework of pure economic rationality, taking into consideration the intersection of new dynamics of Chinese migration into host country and the cross-cultural, cross-institutional, cross-thinking, and cross-border social engagement of the entrepreneurs themselves before, during, and after the pandemic.

18.
Open Archaeology ; 7(1):1192-1215, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1496590

ABSTRACT

This study developed a framework to evaluate, in the context of COVID-19, the performance of an OVRWCHT (online 360° virtual reality world cultural heritage tourism) system created by the authors for the purpose of heritage interpretation and presentation. The research framework was based on the seven main principles of the ICOMOS Charter for the Interpretation and Presentation of Cultural Heritage Sites, and evaluation criteria were established for each. This framework was used to evaluate an OVRWCHT for the Hailongtun Tusi World Heritage Site in Guizhou Province, China. Data were mainly based on 1,062 questionnaires and analyses of the developed system. The findings indicated that, whether in terms of user experience or the interpretation of the UNESCO criterion "outstanding universal value,"Stakeholders agreed that OVRWCHT has played a positive role in heritage interpretation. Yet, more data support is needed to improve both technology and theory - especially the transferability of OVRWCHT to countries other than China. Based on the findings, it is suggested that the International Council on Monuments and Sites should continue to issue charters on how emerging technologies can support heritage site interpretation and presentation. © 2021 Wei Ren and Xianhong Chen, published by De Gruyter.

19.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology ; 32:59, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1489522

ABSTRACT

Background: Host factors such as angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the transmembrane protease, serine subtype 2 (TMPRSS2) are important factors for SARSCoV-2 infection. Clinical and pre-clinical studies demonstrated that RAAS-blocking agents can be safely used during a SARS-CoV-2 infection but it is unknown if DPP-4 inhibitors or SGLT2-inhibitors may promote COVID-19 by increasing the host viral entry enzymes ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Methods: We investigated telmisartan, linagliptin and empagliflozin induced effects on renal and cardiac expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2 and key enzymes involved in RAAS (REN, AGTR2, AGT) under high-salt conditions in a non-diabetic experimental 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx) model. In the present study, the gene expression of Ace2, Tmprss2, Ren, Agtr2 and Agt was assessed with qRT-PCR and the protein expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 with immunohistochemistry in the following experimental groups: Sham+normal diet (ND)+placebo (PBO);5/6Nx+ND+ PBO;5/6Nx+2% salt-diet (HSD)+PBO;5/6Nx+HSD+telmisartan;5/6Nx+HSD+linagliptin;5/6Nx+HSD+empagliflozin. Results: In the kidney the expression of Ace2 was not altered on mRNA level under disease and treatment conditions. The renal TMPRSS2 levels (mRNA and protein) was not affected, whereas the cardiac level was significantly increased in 5/6 Nx rats. Intriguingly, the elevated TMPRSS2 protein expression in the heart was significantly normalized after treatment with telmisartan, linagliptin and empagliflozin. Conclusions: Overall, our study indicated that there is no upregulation regarding host factors potentially promoting SARS CoV-2 virus entry into host cells when the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin, telmisartan and the DPP4 blocker linagliptin are used. The results obtained in a preclinical, experimental non-diabetic kidney failure model need confirmation in ongoing interventional clinical trials.

20.
Open Archaeology ; 7(1):1192-1215, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1484898

ABSTRACT

This study developed a framework to evaluate, in the context of COVID-19, the performance of an OVRWCHT (online 360 degrees virtual reality world cultural heritage tourism) system created by the authors for the purpose of heritage interpretation and presentation. The research framework was based on the seven main principles of the ICOMOS Charter for the Interpretation and Presentation of Cultural Heritage Sites, and evaluation criteria were established for each. This framework was used to evaluate an OVRWCHT for the Hailongtun Tusi World Heritage Site in Guizhou Province, China. Data were mainly based on 1,062 questionnaires and analyses of the developed system. The findings indicated that, whether in terms of user experience or the interpretation of the UNESCO criterion "outstanding universal value," Stakeholders agreed that OVRWCHT has played a positive role in heritage interpretation. Yet, more data support is needed to improve both technology and theory - especially the transferability of OVRWCHT to countries other than China. Based on the findings, it is suggested that the International Council on Monuments and Sites should continue to issue charters on how emerging technologies can support heritage site interpretation and presentation.

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