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1.
Int J Health Geogr ; 22(1): 13, 2023 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244448

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) implemented in one place can affect neighboring regions by influencing people's behavior. However, existing epidemic models for NPIs evaluation rarely consider such spatial spillover effects, which may lead to a biased assessment of policy effects. METHODS: Using the US state-level mobility and policy data from January 6 to August 2, 2020, we develop a quantitative framework that includes both a panel spatial econometric model and an S-SEIR (Spillover-Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered) model to quantify the spatial spillover effects of NPIs on human mobility and COVID-19 transmission. RESULTS: The spatial spillover effects of NPIs explain [Formula: see text] [[Formula: see text] credible interval: 52.8-[Formula: see text]] of national cumulative confirmed cases, suggesting that the presence of the spillover effect significantly enhances the NPI influence. Simulations based on the S-SEIR model further show that increasing interventions in only a few states with larger intrastate human mobility intensity significantly reduce the cases nationwide. These region-based interventions also can carry over to interstate lockdowns. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides a framework for evaluating and comparing the effectiveness of different intervention strategies conditional on NPI spillovers, and calls for collaboration from different regions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control
2.
Gut Microbes ; 15(1): 2223340, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242837

ABSTRACT

The antibiotic resistome is the collection of all antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) present in an individual. Whether an individual's susceptibility to infection and the eventual severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is influenced by their respiratory tract antibiotic resistome is unknown. Additionally, whether a relationship exists between the respiratory tract and gut ARGs composition has not been fully explored. We recruited 66 patients with COVID-19 at three disease stages (admission, progression, and recovery) and conducted a metagenome sequencing analysis of 143 sputum and 97 fecal samples obtained from them. Respiratory tract, gut metagenomes, and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) transcriptomes are analyzed to compare the gut and respiratory tract ARGs of intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU (nICU) patients and determine relationships between ARGs and immune response. Among the respiratory tract ARGs, we found that Aminoglycoside, Multidrug, and Vancomycin are increased in ICU patients compared with nICU patients. In the gut, we found that Multidrug, Vancomycin, and Fosmidomycin were increased in ICU patients. We discovered that the relative abundances of Multidrug were significantly correlated with clinical indices, and there was a significantly positive correlation between ARGs and microbiota in the respiratory tract and gut. We found that immune-related pathways in PBMC were enhanced, and they were correlated with Multidrug, Vancomycin, and Tetracycline ARGs. Based on the ARG types, we built a respiratory tract-gut ARG combined random-forest classifier to distinguish ICU COVID-19 patients from nICU patients with an AUC of 0.969. Cumulatively, our findings provide some of the first insights into the dynamic alterations of respiratory tract and gut antibiotic resistome in the progression of COVID-19 and disease severity. They also provide a better understanding of how this disease affects different cohorts of patients. As such, these findings should contribute to better diagnosis and treatment scenarios.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Vancomycin , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Respiratory System , Patient Acuity
3.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1178662, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234557

ABSTRACT

Gasdermin D (GSDMD)-mediated pyroptosis and downstream inflammation are important self-protection mechanisms against stimuli and infections. Hosts can defend against intracellular bacterial infections by inducing cell pyroptosis, which triggers the clearance of pathogens. However, pyroptosis is a double-edged sword. Numerous studies have revealed the relationship between abnormal GSDMD activation and various inflammatory diseases, including sepsis, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), neurodegenerative diseases, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and malignant tumors. GSDMD, a key pyroptosis-executing protein, is linked to inflammatory signal transduction, activation of various inflammasomes, and the release of downstream inflammatory cytokines. Thus, inhibiting GSDMD activation is considered an effective strategy for treating related inflammatory diseases. The study of the mechanism of GSDMD activation, the formation of GSDMD membrane pores, and the regulatory strategy of GSDMD-mediated pyroptosis is currently a hot topic. Moreover, studies of the structure of caspase-GSDMD complexes and more in-depth molecular mechanisms provide multiple strategies for the development of GSDMD inhibitors. This review will mainly discuss the structures of GSDMD and GSDMD pores, activation pathways, GSDMD-mediated diseases, and the development of GSDMD inhibitors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pyroptosis , Humans , Gasdermins , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism
4.
J Integr Med ; 21(4): 369-376, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245284

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Omicron, a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant, is responsible for numerous infections in China. This study investigates the association between the use of Seven-Flavor Herb Tea (SFHT) and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection to develop precise and differentiated strategies for control of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This case-control study was conducted at shelter hospitals and quarantine hotels in China. A total of 5348 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients were enrolled between April 1 and May 31, 2022, while 2190 uninfected individuals served as healthy controls. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data on demographics, underlying diseases, vaccination status, and use of SFHT. Patients were propensity-score-matched using 1:1 nearest-neighbor matching of the logit of the propensity score. Subsequently, a conditional logistic regression model was used for data analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 7538 eligible subjects were recruited, with an average age of [45.54 ± 16.94] years. The age of COVID-19 patients was significantly higher than that of uninfected individuals ([48.25 ± 17.48] years vs [38.92 ± 13.41] years; t = 22.437, P < 0.001). A total of 2190 COVID-19 cases were matched with uninfected individuals at a 1:1 ratio. The use of SFHT (odds ratio = 0.753, 95% confidence interval: 0.692, 0.820) was associated with a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to untreated individuals. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that taking SFHT reduces the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This is a useful study in the larger picture of COVID-19 management, but data from large-sample multi-center, randomized clinical trial are warranted to confirm the finding. Please cite this article as: Zhang SX, Chen XX, Zheng Y, Cai BH, Shi W, Ru M, Li H, Zhang DD, Tian Y, Chen YL. Reduced SARS-CoV-2 infection risk is associated with the use of Seven-Flavor Herb Tea: A multi-center observational study in Shanghai, China. J Integr Med. 2023; 21(4):369-376.

5.
J Infect Dis ; 2023 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327151

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An orally aerosolised adenovirus type-5 vector-based COVID-19 vaccine (Ad5-nCoV) has recently been authorized for boosting immunization in China. Our study aims to assess the environmental impact of the use of aerosolised Ad5-nCoV. METHODS: We collected air samples from rooms, swabs from the setting desks of the vaccine nebuliser, mask samples from participants and blood samples of nurses who administered the inoculation in the clinical trials. The viral load of adenovirus type-5 vector in the samples and the antibody levels against the wild-type SARS-CoV-2 strain in serum were detected. RESULTS: Only one (4.00%) air samples collected before the initiation of vaccination was positive, which were almost positive during and after the vaccination (97.96%, 100%, respectively). All nurses in the trial A showed at least four-fold increase of the neutralizing antibody against the SARS-CoV-2 after the initiation of the study. In trial B, the positive proportion of the mask samples was 72.97% at 30 minutes after vaccination, 8.11% at day 1, and 0% at days 3, 5, and 7, respectively. CONCLUSION: The vaccination with the orally aerosolised Ad5-nCoV could have some spillage of the vaccine vector viral particles in the environment and cause human exposure.

6.
Journal of food biochemistry ; 45(5):Not Available, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2317683

ABSTRACT

Liupao tea, a drink homologous to medicine and food. It can treat dysentery, relieve heat, remove dampness, and regulate the intestines and stomach. The objective of this study is to explore the material basis and mechanism of Liupao tea intervention in COVID‐19 and to provide a new prevention and treatment programme for COVID‐19. We used high performance liquid chromatography to analyze the extract of Liupao tea and establish its fingerprint. The main index components of the fingerprint were determined using SARS‐COV‐2 3‐chymotrypsin‐like protease (3CLᵖʳᵒ), and an in vitro drug screening model based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer was used to evaluate its inhibitory activity in vitro. The fingerprint results showed that the alcohol extract of Liupao tea contained gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), caffeine, epicatechin gallate, rutin, and ellagic acid. The molecular docking binding energies of the six index components of SARS‐CoV‐2 3Clᵖʳᵒ were all less than −5.0 kJ/mol and showed strong binding affinity. The results of in vitro activity showed that the IC₅₀ of EGCG was 8.84 μmol/L, which could inhibit SARS‐CoV‐2 3Clᵖʳᵒ to a certain extent. This study unleashed that EGCG has a certain inhibitory effect on SARS‐CoV‐2 3CLᵖʳᵒ, and Liupao tea has a certain significance as a tea drink for the prevention of COVID‐19. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The objective of this study was to explore the material basis and mechanism of Liupao tea intervention in COVID‐19 and to provide a new prevention and treatment programme for COVID‐19. The molecular docking binding energies of the six index components of Liupao tea with SARS‐CoV‐2 3CLᵖʳᵒ were all less than −5.0 kJ/mol, among them, the enzyme activity experiment shows that EGCG has a certain inhibitory effect on SARS‐CoV‐2 3CLᵖʳᵒ, it can be used as a potential SARS‐CoV‐2 3CLᵖʳᵒ inhibitor. We predicted that the understandings gained in the current research may evidence that Liupao tea has a certain significance as a tea drink for the prevention of COVID‐19.

7.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 1018748, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320543

ABSTRACT

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) of sows is critically important for assessing piglets' protective capacity against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). Here, we report a therapeutic chimeric anti-PEDV IgG/IgA expressed by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells for oral treatment of PED. The chimeric anti-PEDV IgG/IgA was produced by the CHO cell lines, in which the heavy chain was constructed by combining the VH, Cγ1 and hinge regions of PEDV IgG mAb 8A3, and the Cα2 and Cα3 domains of a Mus musculus immunoglobulin alpha chain. The chimeric anti-PEDV IgG/IgA could neutralize the strains of CV777 (G1), P014 (G2) and HN1303 (G2) in vitro effectively, showing broad-spectrum neutralization activity. The in vivo challenge experiments demonstrated that chimeric anti-PEDV IgG/IgA (9C4) produced in the CHO cell supernatant could alleviate clinical diarrhea symptoms of the PEDV infection in piglets. In general, our study showed that chimeric anti-PEDV IgG/IgA produced from CHO cell line supernatants effectively alleviates PEDV infection in piglets, which also gives the foundation for the construction of fully functional secretory IgA by the J chain introduction to maximize the antibody therapeutic effect.

8.
Lancet Respir Med ; 11(7): 613-623, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283524

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Aerosolised Ad5-nCoV is the first approved mucosal respiratory COVID-19 vaccine to be used as a booster after the primary immunisation with COVID-19 vaccines. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of aerosolised Ad5-nCoV, intramuscular Ad5-nCoV, or inactivated COVID-19 vaccine CoronaVac given as the second booster. METHODS: This is an open-label, parallel-controlled, phase 4 randomised trial enrolling healthy adult participants (≥18 years) who had completed a two-dose primary immunisation and a booster immunisation with inactivated COVID-19 vaccines (CoronaVac only) at least 6 months before, in Lianshui and Donghai counties, Jiangsu Province, China. We recruited eligible participants from previous trials in China (NCT04892459, NCT04952727, and NCT05043259) as cohort 1 (with the serum before and after the first booster dose available), and from eligible volunteers in Lianshui and Donghai counties, Jiangsu Province, as cohort 2. Participants were randomly assigned at a ratio of 1:1:1, using a web-based interactive response randomisation system, to receive the fourth dose (second booster) of aerosolised Ad5-nCoV (0·1 mL of 1·0 × 1011 viral particles per mL), intramuscular Ad5-nCoV (0·5 mL of 1·0 × 1011 viral particles per mL), or inactivated COVID-19 vaccine CoronaVac (0·5 mL), respectively. The co-primary outcomes were safety and immunogenicity of geometric mean titres (GMTs) of serum neutralising antibodies against prototype live SARS-CoV-2 virus 28 days after the vaccination, assessed on a per-protocol basis. Non-inferiority or superiority was achieved when the lower limit of the 95% CI of the GMT ratio (heterologous group vs homologous group) exceeded 0·67 or 1·0, respectively. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05303584 and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between April 23 and May 23, 2022, from 367 volunteers screened for eligibility, 356 participants met eligibility criteria and received a dose of aerosolised Ad5-nCoV (n=117), intramuscular Ad5-nCoV (n=120), or CoronaVac (n=119). Within 28 days of booster vaccination, participants in the intramuscular Ad5-nCoV group reported a significantly higher frequency of adverse reactions than those in the aerosolised Ad5-nCoV and intramuscular CoronaVac groups (30% vs 9% and 14%, respectively; p<0·0001). No serious adverse events related to the vaccination were reported. The heterologous boosting with aerosolised Ad5-nCoV triggered a GMT of 672·4 (95% CI 539·7-837·7) and intramuscular Ad5-nCoV triggered a serum neutralising antibody GMT of 582·6 (505·0-672·2) 28 days after the booster dose, both of which were significantly higher than the GMT in the CoronaVac group (58·5 [48·0-71·4]; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: A heterologous fourth dose (second booster) with either aerosolised Ad5-nCoV or intramuscular Ad5-nCoV was safe and highly immunogenic in healthy adults who had been immunised with three doses of CoronaVac. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China, Jiangsu Provincial Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars, and Jiangsu Provincial Key Project of Science and Technology Plan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated
9.
Cell Chem Biol ; 30(3): 261-277.e8, 2023 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288731

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary fibrosis is a typical sequela of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is linked with a poor prognosis for COVID-19 patients. However, the underlying mechanism of pulmonary fibrosis induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that the nucleocapsid (N) protein of SARS-CoV-2 induced pulmonary fibrosis by activating pulmonary fibroblasts. N protein interacted with the transforming growth factor ß receptor I (TßRI), to disrupt the interaction of TßRI-FK506 Binding Protein12 (FKBP12), which led to activation of TßRI to phosphorylate Smad3 and boost expression of pro-fibrotic genes and secretion of cytokines to promote pulmonary fibrosis. Furthermore, we identified a compound, RMY-205, that bound to Smad3 to disrupt TßRI-induced Smad3 activation. The therapeutic potential of RMY-205 was strengthened in mouse models of N protein-induced pulmonary fibrosis. This study highlights a signaling pathway of pulmonary fibrosis induced by N protein and demonstrates a novel therapeutic strategy for treating pulmonary fibrosis by a compound targeting Smad3.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Animals , Mice , COVID-19/complications , Fibrosis , Nucleocapsid Proteins/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Fibrosis/complications , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
10.
The Lancet Respiratory medicine ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2283523

ABSTRACT

Background Aerosolised Ad5-nCoV is the first approved mucosal respiratory COVID-19 vaccine to be used as a booster after the primary immunisation with COVID-19 vaccines. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of aerosolised Ad5-nCoV, intramuscular Ad5-nCoV, or inactivated COVID-19 vaccine CoronaVac given as the second booster. Methods This is an open-label, parallel-controlled, phase 4 randomised trial enrolling healthy adult participants (≥18 years) who had completed a two-dose primary immunisation and a booster immunisation with inactivated COVID-19 vaccines (CoronaVac only) at least 6 months before, in Lianshui and Donghai counties, Jiangsu Province, China. We recruited eligible participants from previous trials in China (NCT04892459, NCT04952727, and NCT05043259) as cohort 1 (with the serum before and after the first booster dose available), and from eligible volunteers in Lianshui and Donghai counties, Jiangsu Province, as cohort 2. Participants were randomly assigned at a ratio of 1:1:1, using a web-based interactive response randomisation system, to receive the fourth dose (second booster) of aerosolised Ad5-nCoV (0·1 mL of 1·0 × 1011 viral particles per mL), intramuscular Ad5-nCoV (0·5 mL of 1·0 × 1011 viral particles per mL), or inactivated COVID-19 vaccine CoronaVac (0·5 mL), respectively. The co-primary outcomes were safety and immunogenicity of geometric mean titres (GMTs) of serum neutralising antibodies against prototype live SARS-CoV-2 virus 28 days after the vaccination, assessed on a per-protocol basis. Non-inferiority or superiority was achieved when the lower limit of the 95% CI of the GMT ratio (heterologous group vs homologous group) exceeded 0·67 or 1·0, respectively. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05303584 and is ongoing. Findings Between April 23 and May 23, 2022, from 367 volunteers screened for eligibility, 356 participants met eligibility criteria and received a dose of aerosolised Ad5-nCoV (n=117), intramuscular Ad5-nCoV (n=120), or CoronaVac (n=119). Within 28 days of booster vaccination, participants in the intramuscular Ad5-nCoV group reported a significantly higher frequency of adverse reactions than those in the aerosolised Ad5-nCoV and intramuscular CoronaVac groups (30% vs 9% and 14%, respectively;p<0·0001). No serious adverse events related to the vaccination were reported. The heterologous boosting with aerosolised Ad5-nCoV triggered a GMT of 672·4 (95% CI 539·7–837·7) and intramuscular Ad5-nCoV triggered a serum neutralising antibody GMT of 582·6 (505·0–672·2) 28 days after the booster dose, both of which were significantly higher than the GMT in the CoronaVac group (58·5 [48·0–71·4];p<0·0001). Interpretation A heterologous fourth dose (second booster) with either aerosolised Ad5-nCoV or intramuscular Ad5-nCoV was safe and highly immunogenic in healthy adults who had been immunised with three doses of CoronaVac. Funding National Natural Science Foundation of China, Jiangsu Provincial Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars, and Jiangsu Provincial Key Project of Science and Technology Plan.

11.
Trans GIS ; 26(1): 297-316, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263460

ABSTRACT

The second COVID-19 outbreak in Beijing was controlled by non-pharmaceutical interventions, which avoided a second pandemic. Until mass vaccination achieves herd immunity, cities are at risk of similar outbreaks. It is vital to quantify and simulate Beijing's non-pharmaceutical interventions to find effective intervention policies for the second outbreak. Few models have achieved accurate intra-city spatio-temporal epidemic spread simulation, and most modeling studies focused on the initial pandemic. We built a dynamic module of infected case movement within the city, and established an urban spatially epidemic simulation model (USESM), using mobile phone signaling data to create scenarios to assess the impact of interventions. We found that: (1) USESM simulated the transmission process of the epidemic within Beijing; (2) USESM showed the epidemic curve and presented the spatial distribution of epidemic spread on a map; and (3) to balance resources, interventions, and economic development, nucleic acid testing intensity could be increased and restrictions on human mobility in non-epidemic areas eased.

12.
Aesthetic Plast Surg ; 2022 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254650

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The positive benefits of immediate prosthesis breast reconstruction (IPBR) are incontrovertible. During the COVID-19 pandemic, health care resources became scarce. The implementation of outpatient immediate prosthesis breast reconstruction (OIPBR) can improve the efficiency of medical care and reduce viral exposure. Very few studies have focused on OIPBR and this study aimed to fill this gap by evaluating outcomes of OIPBR compared with traditional hospitalization IPBR (THIPBR) in terms of complications and quality of life. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study enrolled patients undergoing IPBR at Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital between January 1, 2020, and September 30, 2021. Outcomes were defined as postoperative complications and quality of life before reconstruction and at 3-month follow-up. Quality of life was assessed by BREAST-Q questionnaire. Inverse probability of treatment weighting and propensity score matching (PSM) were applied to adjust for confounders. RESULTS: A total of 135 patients were enrolled, including 110 with THIPBR and 25 with OIPBR. After matching, baseline characteristics were well balanced. Patients with OIPBR had lower rates of lymphedema on the surgery side (p = 0.041) and readmission (p = 0.040) than patients with THIPBR. No statistically significant differences in the quality of life metrics of psychosocial well-being, sexual well-being, satisfaction with breast and physical well-being of the chest were found between the two groups. CONCLUSION: OIPBR is a safe and efficient alternative to THIBPR during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is recommended when medical conditions allow to conserve medical resources. Accelerated technical training for the performance of OIPBR at the hospital level should be expedited. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE III: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

13.
BMC Nurs ; 22(1): 42, 2023 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242653

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To examine the mediating effect of resilience between social support and compassion fatigue among intern nursing and midwifery students during COVID-19. BACKGROUND: Compassion fatigue has become exceedingly common among intern nursing and midwifery students, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Social support and resilience can help intern nursing and midwifery students control their negative emotions, reduce compassion fatigue, and increase their well-being. However, the mediating effect of resilience between social support and compassion fatigue remains unclear. DESIGN: A multicentre cross-sectional survey. METHODS: A total of 307 intern nursing and midwifery students were recruited from November 2020 to February 2021 in tertiary grade A hospitals in China. Structural equation modelling was applied to analyse the mediating effects of resilience between social support and compassion fatigue. The Social Support Rating Scale, the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and the Chinese version of the Compassion Fatigue Short Scale were used to collect data. The hypothetical path model was tested by using IBM SPSS version 26.0 and AMOS version 26.0 software. RESULTS: Intern nursing and midwifery students had moderate compassion fatigue. Social support positively affected resilience (ß = 0.514, p < 0.01). Social support negatively affected compassion fatigue (ß = - 0.310, p < 0.01), while resilience negatively affected compassion fatigue (ß = - 0.283, p < 0.01). Resilience played a mediating role between social support and compassion fatigue. CONCLUSION: Social support can directly affect the compassion fatigue of intern nursing and midwifery students during COVID-19 and indirectly through resilience. Stronger resilience can reduce compassion fatigue. Accordingly, resilience-based interventions should be developed to reduce compassion fatigue.

14.
CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol ; 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246809

ABSTRACT

The pharmacokinetics (PKs) and safety of medications in particular groups can be predicted using the physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. Using the PBPK model may enable safe pediatric clinical trials and speed up the process of new drug research and development, especially for children, a population in which it is relatively difficult to conduct clinical trials. This review summarizes the role of pediatric PBPK (P-PBPK) modeling software in dose prediction over the past 6 years and briefly introduces the process of general P-PBPK modeling. We summarized the theories and applications of this software and discussed the application trends and future perspectives in the area. The modeling software's extensive use will undoubtedly make it easier to predict dose prediction for young patients.

15.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 2022 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246789

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Secukinumab, the first interleukin 17A inhibitor, is widely used to treat immune diseases, including plaque psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. Recently, many studies have reported adverse events associated with secukinumab, including gastrointestinal disorders, infections and infestations, and hypersensitive and nervous system disorders. OBJECTIVE: Here, we aimed to explore the clinical characteristics, outcomes and time to onset of the four main toxicities of secukinumab using post-marketing data. METHODS: Our study utilized data from the United States Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database from 2015 to 2021, using disproportionality analysis. Toxicities were defined based on the standardized Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities queries. Two disproportionality methods were used to detect potential signals: information component (IC) and reporting odds ratio (ROR). The signals were defined as ROR025 > 1 and IC025 > 0. RESULTS: A total of 73 945 398 records were included in this study, of which 300 665 records were related to secukinumab. Diarrhoea (N = 3538), nasopharyngitis (N = 3458), pruritus (N = 4277) and rash (N = 3270) were the most common adverse events. Inflammatory bowel disease (IC025 /ROR025 = 3.25/9.69), genital candidiasis (IC025 /ROR025 = 3.46/11.54), dermatitis psoriasiform (IC025 /ROR025 = 1.94/4.04) and anosmia (IC025 /ROR025 = 1.62/3.17) had the highest IC025 values of all toxicities. The time to onset of the four toxicities was mainly concentrated in the first month. Some patients simultaneously presented with two or more toxicities. CONCLUSION: This pharmacovigilance study systematically explored the four main toxicities of secukinumab and provided new safety signals based on past safety information. Some high-risk signals need to be given attention.

16.
Allergy ; 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237479

ABSTRACT

There has been an important change in the clinical characteristics and immune profile of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients during the pandemic thanks to the extensive vaccination programs. Here, we highlight recent studies on COVID-19, from the clinical and immunological characteristics to the protective and risk factors for severity and mortality of COVID-19. The efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccines and potential allergic reactions after administration are also discussed. The occurrence of new variants of concerns such as Omicron BA.2, BA.4, and BA.5 and the global administration of COVID-19 vaccines have changed the clinical scenario of COVID-19. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) may cause severe and heterogeneous disease but with a lower mortality rate. Perturbations in immunity of T cells, B cells, and mast cells, as well as autoantibodies and metabolic reprogramming may contribute to the long-term symptoms of COVID-19. There is conflicting evidence about whether atopic diseases, such as allergic asthma and rhinitis, are associated with a lower susceptibility and better outcomes of COVID-19. At the beginning of pandemic, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) developed guidelines that provided timely information for the management of allergic diseases and preventive measures to reduce transmission in the allergic clinics. The global distribution of COVID-19 vaccines and emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants with reduced pathogenic potential dramatically decreased the morbidity, severity, and mortality of COVID-19. Nevertheless, breakthrough infection remains a challenge for disease control. Hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) to COVID-19 vaccines are low compared to other vaccines, and these were addressed in EAACI statements that provided indications for the management of allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis to COVID-19 vaccines. We have gained a depth knowledge and experience in the over 2 years since the start of the pandemic, and yet a full eradication of SARS-CoV-2 is not on the horizon. Novel strategies are warranted to prevent severe disease in high-risk groups, the development of MIS-C and long COVID-19.

17.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 8(1): 46, 2023 01 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2221795

ABSTRACT

Meplazumab, a humanized CD147 antibody, has shown favourable safety and efficacy in our previous clinical studies. In DEFLECT (NCT04586153), 167 patients with severe COVID-19 were enroled and randomized to receive three dosages of meplazumab and a placebo. Meplazumab at 0.12 mg/kg, compared to the placebo group, showed clinical benefits in significantly reducing mortality by 83.6% (2.4% vs. 14.6%, p = 0.0150), increasing the proportion of patients alive and discharged without supplemental oxygen (82.9% vs. 70.7%, p = 0.0337) and increasing the proportion of patients who achieved sustained clinical improvement (41.5% vs. 31.7%). The response rate in the 0.2 mg/kg group was relatively increased by 16.0% compared with the placebo group (53.7% vs. 46.3%). Meplazumab also reduced the viral loads and multiple cytokine levels. Compare with the placebo group, the 0.3 mg/kg significantly increased the virus negative rate by 40.6% (p = 0.0363) and reduced IL-8 level (p = 0.0460); the 0.2 mg/kg increased the negative conversion rate by 36.9%, and reduced IL-4 (p = 0.0365) and IL-8 levels (p = 0.0484). In this study, the adverse events occurred at a comparable rate across the four groups, with no unexpected safety findings observed. In conclusion, meplazumab promoted COVID-19 convalescence and reduced mortality, viral load, and cytokine levels in severe COVID-19 population with good safety profile.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Adult , SARS-CoV-2 , Interleukin-8 , Cytokines
18.
Clin Chem ; 68(7): 953-962, 2022 07 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2188630

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA detection in the nasopharynx is considered a biomarker for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We evaluated its performance as a reflex test to triage EBV seropositives within an NPC screening program in China. METHODS: The study population was embedded within an ongoing NPC screening trial and included 1111 participants who screened positive for anti-EBV VCA (antibodies against EBV capsid antigens)/EBNA1 (EBV nuclear antigen1)-IgA antibodies (of 18 237 screened). Nasopharynx swabs were collected/tested for EBNA1 gene EBV DNA load. We evaluated performance of EBV DNA in the nasopharynx swab as a reflex test to triage EBV serological high-risk (those referred to endoscopy/MRI) and medium-risk (those referred to accelerated screening) individuals. RESULTS: By the end of 2019, we detected 20 NPC cases from 317 serological high-risk individuals and 4 NPC cases from 794 medium-risk individuals. When used to triage serological high-risk individuals, nasopharynx swab EBV DNA was detected in 19/20 cases (positivity rate among cases: 95.0%; 95% CI, 75.1%-99.9%), with a referral rate of 63.4% (201/317, 95% CI, 57.8%-68.7%) and NPC detection rate among positives of 9.5% (19/201, 95% CI, 5.8%-14.4%). The performance of an algorithm that combined serology with triage of serology high-risk individuals using EBV DNA testing yielded a sensitivity of 72.4% (95% CI, 3.0%-81.4%) and specificity of 97.6% (95% CI, 97.2%-97.9%). When used to triage EBV serological medium-risk individuals, the positivity rate among cases was 75.0% (95% CI, 19.4%-99.4%), with a referral rate of 61.8% (95% CI, 58.4%-65.2%) and NPC detection rate among positives of 0.6% (95% CI, 0.1%-1.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Nasopharynx swab EBV DNA showed promise as a reflex test to triage serology high-risk individuals, reducing referral by ca. 40% with little reduction in sensitivity compared to a serology-only screening program.


Subject(s)
Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Antibodies, Viral , DNA , DNA, Viral , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/diagnosis , Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma/diagnosis , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Nasopharynx , Reflex , Triage
19.
AAPS Open ; 8(1): 19, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196524

ABSTRACT

The American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS) Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls (CMC) Community hosted two virtual panel discussions focusing on several novel regulatory review pathways for innovative oncology products: Real-Time Oncology Review (RTOR), Project Orbis, and the Product Quality Assessment Aid (PQAAid). The panel sessions were held on August 27, 2021, for the discussion of RTOR, and January 21, 2022, for the discussion of Project Orbis and the PQAAid. Both panel sessions included representatives from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and subject matter experts from the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, with the aim of facilitating knowledge sharing on CMC-specific advantages, challenges, eligibility criteria for participation, and operational modifications instituted through the utilization of these acceleration initiatives. Key topics included managing cross-regional regulatory CMC requirements, adapting to expedited development timelines, coordinating interactions between health authorities and industry, and potential opportunities for future improvement and expansion of these programs. As RTOR, Project Orbis, and PQAAid are relatively new initiatives, the experiences shared by the panel experts are valuable for providing deeper insight into these new regulatory pathways and processes.

20.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-7, 2022 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2166098

ABSTRACT

China has implemented a strict isolation system in hospitals since the COVID-19 pandemic, that adversely affected the psychology of inpatients and their caregivers. Face-to-face, semi-structured interviews with 22 stroke inpatients from two municipal hospitals were conducted to explore the psychological, emotional and related support needs of stroke inpatients and their family caregivers under this environment. Results which showed that external support for stroke inpatients and their family caregivers was insufficient highlight the necessity for developing specific nursing interventions that meet the psychological and emotional needs of inpatients and the caregivers.

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