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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330164

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it has caused serious casualties worldwide. In recent months, the virus has mutated into an increasingly infectious form (Delta variant) and spread rapidly. Methods In the current study, we analyzed the clinical, epidemiological and viral genetic characteristics of the first four imported Delta cases in Anhui Province, China. Results The four imported Delta cases developed chest inflammation, tissue damage and recovered after admission, the serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and CRP levels showed a first increasing and then decreasing trend. The changes of hs-CRP /CRP and serum neutralizing antibodies (Nab) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) levels were associated with the regression of chest lesions. The combination of genetic sequencing and epidemiological analysis suggested that the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant infection of these four patients may originate from Russia. Conclusions Our study found the certain correlations of serum hs-CRP/CRP and Nab levels with the occurrence, development and outcome of COVID-19 delta variant, suggesting that monitoring hs-CRP/CRP and Nab levels of COVID-19 delta variant patients at hospital admission may be useful for understanding the severity of patients’ current conditions.

2.
Computers & Industrial Engineering ; : 108043, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1707224

ABSTRACT

The supply and demand shocks brought on by the Covid-19 crisis are forcing manufacturers everywhere to reassess or even reorganise their supply chains. This paper proposes a general framework that can achieve fast compositional modelling with stochastic performance evaluation process algebra (PEPA) for supply chain systems. The key feature of such a framework is the PEPA-based quantitative analysis approach which includes a new method for calculating response time based on compositional PEPA models. The framework aims to provide an efficient modelling prototype for supply chain systems while supporting accurate response time-based quantitative analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first work using process algebra-based compositional modelling to quantitatively analyse supply chain systems.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324429

ABSTRACT

Objecive: This study aimed to evaluate whether the coronavirus can be detected in the tears in the eyes of 2019- novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected patients and compa re the detection consistency of two simultaneously collected samples, from the tears and throat swabs, of these patients. Methods: : A total of 35 diagnosis confirmed patients with 2019-nCoV infection disease,from January 26 to February 19, 2020, at central theater Wuhan general hospital of PLA, were included in this cross-sectional case series study. The diagnosis was confirmed by both clinical and laboratory ways. Throat samples from all enrolled patients were collected with sampling swab, and simultaneously ,tear samples were collected w ith sampling swab from 9 patients (No.1-9) and with Schirmer's strip from the remaining patients (No.10-35) (bilateral eyes for all patients). Sample collecting and testing were performed in three separate time points: first from patients No.1-9,second from p atients No.10-29,and third from patients No.30-35. Reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chai n-reaction (RT-PCR) assay was performed by the same technician(Researcher Zhang), who was blind to the patients profile, within 4 hours after each collection. Results: : Among enrolled patients, 29 (No.1-29) had mild or moderate clinical symptoms and 6 (No.30-35) had severe symptoms. The mean time interval from the sample collection day to diagnosis confirmation day was 9.71±6.50 days (ranged from 3 to 29 days). None of the patients had conjunctivitis. Nineteen out of 35 (54.3%) throat samples presented positive Rt-PCR results. Three (no.13,21,31) out of 35 (8.6%) tear samples presented positive RT-PCR results. Two(no.21, 31) of these three patients were throat swab positive and one (No. 13) was negative. The consistency analysis indicated that tears and throat samples showed poor consistency ( Kappa=-0.009, P=0.9 ).The cycle threshold value (Ct-value) of tears samples collected by sampling swab was significantly higher than that by Schirmer's strip(t=2.288, P=0.03). Conclusion: In spite of the low 2019-nCoV positive detection rate of tear samples from 2019-nCoV infected patients, we cannot fully rule out the transmission by ocular surface. Whether tear testing can be used as an aid in judging of 2019-nCoV infection need further investigation.Authors Ying Yan and Bo Zeng contributed equally to this study

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318905

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the dynamic of total, IgA, IgM and IgG antibody of the confirmed COVID-19 patients during convalescent phases to understand the kinetics of antibody response among recovered patients. Methods: From March 4 to April 29, 2020, a total of 143 recovered COVID-19 patients with clear date of illness onset available were enrolled in this study. Nasopharyngeal and anal swabs were collected for SARS-CoV-2 RNA testing. Blood samples were collected for antibodies testing. Results: A total of 275 blood samples up to 96 days after illness onset were collected from 143 recovered patients. High titers of total and IgG antibodies continued to persist for over 3 months, with 100% and 99.3% patients remaining positive for total and IgG antibody. IgM antibody declined rapidly with a median time to seronegative at 67 (95%CI: 59, 75) days after illness onset. Around 25% patients were seronegative for IgA antibody at month 3 after illness onset. No statistical significance difference was founded in the antibody kinetics between patients with and without re-detectable positive RT-PCR results during in convalescent phases. Conclusion: Similar high antibody titers of total and IgG antibody continued to persist for over 3 months among recovered COVID-19 patients with and without re-detectable positive RT-PCR results.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309717

ABSTRACT

Background: The long-term functional outcome of discharged patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unresolved. We aimed to describe a six-month follow-up of functional status of COVID-19 survivors. Methods: We reviewed the data of COVID-19 patients who had been consecutively admitted to the Tumor Center of Union Hospital (Wuhan, China) between 15 February and 14 March 2020. We quantified a six-month functional outcome reflecting symptoms and disability in COVID-19 survivors using a post-COVID-19 functional status scale ranging from 0 to 5 (PCFS). We examined the risk factors for the incomplete functional status defined as a PCFS > 0 at a six-month follow-up after discharge. Results: We included a total of 95 COVID-19 survivors with a median age of 62 (IQR 53-69) who had a complete functional status (PCFS grade 0) at baseline in this retrospective observational study. At six-month follow-up, 67 (70.5%) patients had a complete functional outcome (grade 0), 9 (9.5%) had a negligible limited function (grade 1), 12 (12.6%) had a mild limited function (grade 2), 7 (7.4%) had moderate limited function (grade 3). Univariable logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between the onset symptoms of muscle or joint pain and an increased risk of incomplete function (unadjusted OR 4.06, 95%CI 1.33 - 12.37). This association remained after adjustment for age and admission delay (adjusted OR 3.39, 95%CI 1.06 - 10.81, p = 0.039). Conclusions: A small proportion of discharged COVID-19 patients may have an incomplete functional outcome at a six-month follow-up;intervention strategies are required.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315626

ABSTRACT

The therapeutic effect of tocilizumab remains controversial. We aimed to evaluate whether tocilizumab might be beneficial in COVID-19 patients. We searched PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library from inception to June 23, 2020. Summary estimates of overall response rate (ORR) and all-cause death rate in all patients were analyzed. This study was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020191313). We included data from 28 articles including 991 COVID-19 patients who underwent tocilizumab administration. The pooled ORR was 72% (95% CI, 66-79%) and pooled all-cause death rate was 16% (95% CI, 11-22%). The optimal timing of administration was the 7.15 day from the symptom onset and with the lowest death rate of 13.11%. 562 patients were defined as with severe infection, and the pooled ORR was 78% (95% CI, 70-85%). The pooled ORR of 56 organ transplantation recipients was 53% (95% CI, 26-78%), which was lower than non-transplant patients [75% (95% CI, 69-81%)]. Nearly all studies confirmed the safety of tocilizumab administration. Tocilizumab improves the clinical outcome of COVID-19 patients, especially in severe cases, and the optimal timing of administration may provide the guidance for management. However, tocilizumab may be used with caution in solid transplant recipients for the suboptimal efficacy.

7.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 799879, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674397

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the gender difference in anxiety in novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) patients in the quarantine ward during the outbreak. Methods: The self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) was used on the seventh day of isolation to analyze the anxiety levels of a total of 242 suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients in the quarantine wards of two hospitals; 232 of these patients (112 males and 120 females) completed the anxiety scoring. The anxiety scores were compared between male and female patients using the t-test, and a scatter diagram was used for analysis. Results: The SAS scores of females in quarantine wards were higher than those of males at seven days of isolation. Conclusion: Women with COVID-19 are more prone to anxiety than men while in isolation. It is necessary to give more attention to female patients in quarantine wards in the future, and psychological counseling may be necessary.

8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1554, 2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655625

ABSTRACT

Governments worldwide are implementing mass vaccination programs in an effort to end the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Here, we evaluated the effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccination program in its early stage and predicted the path to herd immunity in the U.S. By early March 2021, we estimated that vaccination reduced the total number of new cases by 4.4 million (from 33.0 to 28.6 million), prevented approximately 0.12 million hospitalizations (from 0.89 to 0.78 million), and decreased the population infection rate by 1.34 percentage points (from 10.10 to 8.76%). We built a Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model with vaccination to predict herd immunity, following the trends from the early-stage vaccination program. Herd immunity could be achieved earlier with a faster vaccination pace, lower vaccine hesitancy, and higher vaccine effectiveness. The Delta variant has substantially postponed the predicted herd immunity date, through a combination of reduced vaccine effectiveness, lowered recovery rate, and increased infection and death rates. These findings improve our understanding of the COVID-19 vaccination and can inform future public health policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunity, Herd/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States/epidemiology
9.
Chinese Journal of Nosocomiology ; 31(21):3699-3702, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1628297

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical efficacy and safety of the intradermal acupuncture combined with western medicine treatment of three severe crona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: The clinical data of three severe COVID-19 confirmed patients were retrospectively analyzed.On the basis of conventional western medical treatment, intradermal embedding treatment was used for the Kongzu, Dazhui, and Feishu points. Lung CT reports of patients before and after treatment were compared, including the percentage of neutrophil, lymphocyte, hypersensitive C-reactive protein, oxygen index and other indicators. RESULTS: The three severe COVID-19 patients were discharged from hospital after treatment with significant relief of symptoms. Lung CT re-examination showed absorption of lesions and normal inflammatory indicators, and nucleic acid reexamination was negative. CONCLUSION: At present, elderly patients with severe COVID-19 have complicated conditions and high mortality. As an auxiliary means, intradermal acupuncture combined with western medicine therapy is simple, safe and effective in the treatment of severe COVID-19, which is a new exploration for the treatment of complicated COVID-19 conditions.

10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1271, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633329

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The long-term functional outcome of discharged patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unresolved. We aimed to describe a 6-month follow-up of functional status of COVID-19 survivors. METHODS: We reviewed the data of COVID-19 patients who had been consecutively admitted to the Tumor Center of Union Hospital (Wuhan, China) between 15 February and 14 March 2020. We quantified a 6-month functional outcome reflecting symptoms and disability in COVID-19 survivors using a post-COVID-19 functional status scale ranging from 0 to 4 (PCFS). We examined the risk factors for the incomplete functional status defined as a PCFS > 0 at a 6-month follow-up after discharge. RESULTS: We included a total of 95 COVID-19 survivors with a median age of 62 (IQR 53-69) who had a complete functional status (PCFS grade 0) at baseline in this retrospective observational study. At 6-month follow-up, 67 (70.5%) patients had a complete functional outcome (grade 0), 9 (9.5%) had a negligible limited function (grade 1), 12 (12.6%) had a mild limited function (grade 2), 7 (7.4%) had moderate limited function (grade 3). Univariable logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between the onset symptoms of muscle or joint pain and an increased risk of incomplete function (unadjusted OR 4.06, 95% CI 1.33-12.37). This association remained after adjustment for age and admission delay (adjusted OR 3.39, 95% CI 1.06-10.81, p = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: A small proportion of discharged COVID-19 patients may have an incomplete functional outcome at a 6-month follow-up; intervention strategies are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Patient Discharge , Follow-Up Studies , Functional Status , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
BMC Surg ; 22(1): 6, 2022 Jan 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639167

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ingestion of fish bones leading to gastric perforation and inducing abscess formation in the caudate lobe of the liver is very rare. CASE PRESENTATION: A 67-year-old man presented to our hospital with a 2-day history of subxiphoid pain. There were no specific symptoms other than pain. Laboratory tests showed only an increase in the number and percentage of neutrophils. Contrast-enhanced Computerized tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed two linear dense opacities in the gastric cardia, one of which penetrated the stomach and was adjacent to the caudate lobe of the liver, with inflammatory changes in the caudate lobe. We finally diagnosed his condition as a caudate lobe abscess secondary to intestinal perforation caused by a fishbone based on the history and imaging findings. The patient underwent 3D laparoscopic partial caudate lobectomy, incision and drainage of the liver abscess, and fishbone removal. The procedure was successful and we removed the fishbone from the liver. The patient was discharged on the 9th postoperative day without other complications. CONCLUSIONS: Liver abscess caused by foreign bodies requires multidisciplinary treatment. Especially when located in the caudate lobe, we must detect and remove the cause of the abscess as early as possible. Foreign bodies that perforate the gastrointestinal tract can penetrate to the liver and cause abscess formation, as in this case. When exploring the etiology of liver abscesses, we should investigate the general condition, including the whole gastrointestinal tract.


Subject(s)
Foreign Bodies , Foreign-Body Migration , Laparoscopy , Liver Abscess , Aged , Animals , Foreign Bodies/complications , Foreign Bodies/diagnostic imaging , Foreign Bodies/surgery , Foreign-Body Migration/complications , Foreign-Body Migration/diagnostic imaging , Foreign-Body Migration/surgery , Humans , Liver Abscess/diagnostic imaging , Liver Abscess/etiology , Liver Abscess/surgery , Male
12.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 465-476, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625432

ABSTRACT

The extremely high transmission rate of SARS-CoV-2 and severe cases of COVID-19 pose the two critical challenges in the battle against COVID-19. Increasing evidence has shown that the viral spike (S) protein-driven syncytia may be responsible for these two events. Intensive attention has thus been devoted to seeking S-guided syncytium inhibitors. However, the current screening campaigns mainly rely on either live virus-based or plasmid-based method, which are always greatly limited by the shortage of high-level biosafety BSL-3 facilities or too much labour-intensive work. Here, we constructed a new hybrid VEEV-SARS-CoV-2-S-eGFP reporter vector through replacement of the structural genes of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) with the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 as the single structural protein. VEEV-SARS-CoV-2-S-eGFP can propagate steadily through cell-to-cell transmission pathway in S- and ACE2-dependent manner, forming GFP positive syncytia. In addition, a significant dose-dependent decay in GFP signals was observed in VEEV-SARS-CoV-2-S-eGFP replicating cells upon treatment with SARS-CoV-2 antiserum or entry inhibitors, providing further evidence that VEEV-SARS-CoV-2-S-eGFP system is highly sensitive to characterize the anti-syncytium-formation activity of antiviral agents. More importantly, the assay is able to be performed in a BSL-2 laboratory without manipulation of live SARS-CoV-2. Taken together, our work establishes a more convenient and efficient VEEV-SARS-CoV-2-S-eGFP replicating cells-based method for rapid screening of inhibitors blocking syncytium formation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Giant Cells , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Replicon , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
13.
Transactions in GIS : TG ; 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564272

ABSTRACT

The second COVID‐19 outbreak in Beijing was controlled by non‐pharmaceutical interventions, which avoided a second pandemic. Until mass vaccination achieves herd immunity, cities are at risk of similar outbreaks. It is vital to quantify and simulate Beijing's non‐pharmaceutical interventions to find effective intervention policies for the second outbreak. Few models have achieved accurate intra‐city spatio‐temporal epidemic spread simulation, and most modeling studies focused on the initial pandemic. We built a dynamic module of infected case movement within the city, and established an urban spatially epidemic simulation model (USESM), using mobile phone signaling data to create scenarios to assess the impact of interventions. We found that: (1) USESM simulated the transmission process of the epidemic within Beijing;(2) USESM showed the epidemic curve and presented the spatial distribution of epidemic spread on a map;and (3) to balance resources, interventions, and economic development, nucleic acid testing intensity could be increased and restrictions on human mobility in non‐epidemic areas eased.

14.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e049752, 2021 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561929

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Asymptomatic infection of SARS-CoV-2 may lead to silent community transmission and compromise the COVID-19 pandemic control measures. We aimed to estimate the rate of asymptomatic COVID-19 from published studies and compare this rate among different regions and patient groups. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, electronic databases including Medline, Embase, PubMed and three Chinese electronic databases (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI], WanFang Data and China Science, and Technology Journal Database [VIP]) were searched for literature published from 1 November 2019 to 31 December 2020. Original investigations with sample size (or number of subjects) not less than five were included for further analyses. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to different study types, study periods, geographical regions and patient demographics. The STATA (V.14.0) command 'metaprop' was implemented to conduct a meta-analysis of the pooled rate estimates of asymptomatic infections with exact binomial and score test-based 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: A total of 130 123 ascertained COVID-19 infections from 241 studies were included in this meta-analysis, including 31 411 asymptomatic infections. The overall rate of asymptomatic infections was 23.6% (18.5%-29.1%) and 21.7% (16.8%-27.0%) before and after excluding presymptomatic cases, respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that significantly higher in pregnant women (48.8%, 28.9%-68.9%), children (32.1%, 24.2%-40.5%), and studies reporting screening programmes (36.0%, 24.6%-48.1%) conducted on or after 1 March 2020 (42.5%, 33.4%-51.9%). In terms of geographical region, the rate was the highest in Africa (64.3%, 56.7%-71.6%), followed by America (40.0%, 27.4%-53.3%), Europe (28.1%, 19.0%-38.1%) and Asia (18.1%, 13.2%-23.5%). CONCLUSION: We approximated that one-fifth of COVID-19 infections are asymptomatic throughout the course of infection. Public health policies targeting these high-risk groups may be recommended to achieve early identification and more stringent containment of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Population Groups , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Front Public Health ; 9: 716483, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515550

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To explore and understand the SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence of convalescents, the association between antibody levels and demographic factors, and the seroepidemiology of convalescents of COVID-19 till March 2021. Methods: We recruited 517 voluntary COVID-19 convalescents in Sichuan Province and collected 1,707 serum samples till March 2021. Then we reported the seroprevalence and analyzed the associated factors. Results: Recent travel history was associated with IgM levels. Convalescents who had recent travel history were less likely to be IgM antibody negative [OR = 0.232, 95% CI: (0.128, 0.420)]. Asymptomatic cases had, approximately, twice the odds of being IgM antibody negative compared with symptomatic cases [OR = 2.583, 95% CI: (1.554, 4.293)]. Participants without symptoms were less likely to be IgG seronegative than those with symptoms [OR = 0.511, 95% CI: (0.293, 0.891)]. Convalescents aged 40-59 were less likely to be IgG seronegative than those aged below 20 [OR = 0.364, 95% CI: (0.138, 0.959)]. The duration of positive IgM antibodies persisted 365 days while the IgG persisted more than 399 days. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that recent travel history might be associated with the antibody levels of IgM, while age could be associated with the antibody levels of IgG. Infection type could be associated with both antibody levels of IgM and IgG that declined quicker in asymptomatic cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , China/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Seroepidemiologic Studies
17.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292349

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To reviewed our measures and other experiences associated with the treatment of glaucoma patients during the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak . Methods: : Measures consistent with the clinical situation and the type of glaucoma were implemented in each case. Results: : Consultation for treatment was provided through a WeChat glaucoma patient group. In our survey, 58.5%patients indicated an increase in negative emotions during the outbreak, and psychological counseling was provided frequently. Difficulties in purchasing eye drops were reported by 79.2% of glaucoma patients, so an online medicine supply system was set up and eyedrops from the pharmacy or hospital pharmacy were mailed to the patients. Phacoemulsification with goniosynechialysis was performed in7acute primary angle-closure glaucomapatients (11eyes) who experienced sustained high IOP(onset time, 12-65d). The IOP decreased significantly after the operation(t=7.895,P<0.01) without showing serious complications or infections. In addition, lectureson glaucoma prevention were promoted online. Conclusion: Effective measures can relieve thepsychological pressure and intraocular symptoms in glaucoma patientsin epidemic outbreak areas.

18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5026, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363491

ABSTRACT

Nationwide prospective surveillance of all-age patients with acute respiratory infections was conducted in China between 2009‒2019. Here we report the etiological and epidemiological features of the 231,107 eligible patients enrolled in this analysis. Children <5 years old and school-age children have the highest viral positivity rate (46.9%) and bacterial positivity rate (30.9%). Influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus are the three leading viral pathogens with proportions of 28.5%, 16.8% and 16.7%, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the three leading bacterial pathogens (29.9%, 18.6% and 15.8%). Negative interactions between viruses and positive interactions between viral and bacterial pathogens are common. A Join-Point analysis reveals the age-specific positivity rate and how this varied for individual pathogens. These data indicate that differential priorities for diagnosis, prevention and control should be highlighted in terms of acute respiratory tract infection patients' demography, geographic locations and season of illness in China.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Seasons , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Viruses/classification , Viruses/genetics , Young Adult
19.
Chinese Medical Journal ; 134(2):241-242, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1408666

ABSTRACT

This article aimed to study the clinical characteristics of these patients admitted to Jianghan Fangcang shelter hospital, the largest Fangcang shelter hospital in Wuhan, China. It is worth highlighting that six patients had anosmia without nasal congestion as the initial symptom. At the time of discharge from the Fangcang shelter hospital, the findings on chest CT were alleviated in 95.5% (1241/1300) of the patients. However, only one patient had chest CT findings suggestive of disease progression. Symptomatic patients have higher CRP level and lower lymphocytes counts than asymptomatic patients, which might suggest that higher CRP level and lower lymphocytes counts were related to the severity of symptoms. However, CT characteristics were not statistically different between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, which might indicate that CT characteristics were not associated with the severity of symptoms in non-critical patients. In conclusion, patients with fever and anosmia but without nasal congestion are more likely to be suffering from COVID-19. Higher CRP level and lower lymphocytes counts might relate to the severity of symptoms, while CT abnormalities were not associated with the severity of symptoms in non-critical patients.

20.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 19: 5039-5046, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385373

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have caused substantial public health burdens and global health threats. Understanding the superspreading potentials of these viruses are important for characterizing transmission patterns and informing strategic decision-making in disease control. This systematic review aimed to summarize the existing evidence on superspreading features and to compare the heterogeneity in transmission within and among various betacoronavirus epidemics of SARS, MERS and COVID-19. METHODS: PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase databases were extensively searched for original studies on the transmission heterogeneity of SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 published in English between January 1, 2003, and February 10, 2021. After screening the articles, we extracted data pertaining to the estimated dispersion parameter (k) which has been a commonly-used measurement for superspreading potential. FINDINGS: We included a total of 60 estimates of transmission heterogeneity from 26 studies on outbreaks in 22 regions. The majority (90%) of the k estimates were small, with values less than 1, indicating an over-dispersed transmission pattern. The point estimates of k for SARS and MERS ranged from 0.12 to 0.20 and from 0.06 to 2.94, respectively. Among 45 estimates of individual-level transmission heterogeneity for COVID-19 from 17 articles, 91% were derived from Asian regions. The point estimates of k for COVID-19 ranged between 0.1 and 5.0. CONCLUSIONS: We detected a substantial over-dispersed transmission pattern in all three coronaviruses, while the k estimates varied by differences in study design and public health capacity. Our findings suggested that even with a reduced R value, the epidemic still has a high resurgence potential due to transmission heterogeneity.

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