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1.
Structure ; 30(5): 707-720.e5, 2022 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1829569

ABSTRACT

Because of the evolutionary variants of SARS-CoV-2, development of broad-spectrum neutralizing antibodies resilient to virus escape is urgently needed. We identified a group of high-affinity nanobodies from camels immunized with receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and resolved the structures of two non-competing nanobodies (NB1A7 and NB1B11) in complex with RBD using X-ray crystallography. The structures show that NB1A7 targets the highly conserved cryptic epitope shared by SARS-CoV-2 variants and some other coronaviruses and blocks ACE2 receptor attachment of the spike protein, and NB1B11 epitope overlaps with the contacting surface of ACE2 and is different from the binding site of NB1A7. These two nanobodies were covalently linked into multivalent and bi-paratopic formats, which significantly improved the avidity and neutralization potency and may further inhibit viral escape. The results contribute to the structure-guided design of antibodies against future variants of SARS-CoV-2 virus to combat coronavirus epidemics and pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Single-Domain Antibodies , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , Epitopes/metabolism , Humans , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Single-Domain Antibodies/chemistry , Single-Domain Antibodies/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
2.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(12): e24100, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1508785

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore clinical indexes for management of severe/critically ill patients with COVID-19, influenza A H7N9, and H1N1 pneumonia by comparing hematological and radiological characteristics. METHODS: Severe/critically ill patients with COVID-19, H7N9, and H1N1 pneumonia were retrospectively enrolled. The demographic data, clinical manifestations, hematological parameters, and radiological characteristics were compared. RESULTS: In this study, 16 cases of COVID-19, 10 cases of H7N9, and 13 cases of H1N1 who met severe/critically ill criteria were included. Compared with COVID-19, H7N9 and H1N1 groups had more chronic diseases (80% and 92.3% vs. 25%, p < 0.05), higher APACHE Ⅱ scores (16.00 ± 8.63 and 15.08 ± 6.24, vs. 5.50 ± 2.58, p < 0.05), higher mortality rates (40% and 46.2% vs. 0%, p < 0.05), significant lymphocytopenia (0.59 ± 0.31 × 109 /L and 0.56 ± 0.35 × 109 /L vs. 0.97 ± 0.33 × 109 /L, p < 0.05), and elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR; 14.67 ± 6.10 and 14.64 ± 10.36 vs. 6.29 ± 3.72, p < 0.05). Compared with the H7N9 group, ground-glass opacity (GGO) on chest CT was common in the COVID-19 group (p = 0.028), while pleural effusion was rare (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The NLR can be used as a clinical parameter for the predication of risk stratification and outcome in COVID-19 and influenza A pneumonia. Manifestations of pleural effusion or GGO in chest CT may be helpful for the identification of different viral pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Influenza, Human/blood , Influenza, Human/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Cell Count , COVID-19/etiology , Chronic Disease , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype , Influenza, Human/etiology , Influenza, Human/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors
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