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1.
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 4237-4247, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is ravaging the world. To date, there are no standard therapies available to cure the disease. Consequently, research on COVID-19 vaccines is booming. This report aimed to assess the research trends of the global COVID-19 vaccines. METHODS: The relevant publications on the COVID-19 vaccines were searched in the Web of Science Core Collection Database (WOSCC) database from December 2019 to 11 August 2021. The VOSviewer1.6.16 was used to assess the co-authorship, co-occurrence, citation of countries, institutions, authors, journals, and hotspot keywords. The HistCiteTM (http://www.histcite.com/) software was used to calculate the total local citation score (TLCS) and total global citation score (TGCS) of each variable and generate the citation historiography graph of COVID-19 vaccine development using the citation time series analysis method. RESULTS: A total of 5070 studies authored by 21,151 researchers and published by 1364 different journals were eventually included in this study. The bulk of the retrieved studies were original articles (n = 2401, 47.36%). Among these studies, 1204 (23.75%) were published in 2020. A total of 3863 (76.19%) were published in 2021 and 4295 (84.71%) were open access. The highest number of studies was conducted in the USA, followed by England, China, and Germany. The main partners of the USA were China, England, and Canada. The University of Maryland (TLCS: 1618, TGCS: 2991) and Prof. Ugur Sahin from the University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University (TLCS: 1397, TGCS: 2407) were the most cited institution and author, respectively. The vaccines featured the highest number of papers, with 294 publications (TLCS: 0, TGCS: 1226). The most cited journal was the New England Journal of Medicine (TLCS: 3310, TGCS: 5914), with an impact factor (IF) of 91.245. The related topics included the following six aspects: attitudes towards vaccination, immunoinformatics analysis, clinical research, effectiveness and side effects, and the public management of vaccines. The timing diagram revealed that the research hotspots focused on the side effects of vaccines and public attitude towards vaccination. CONCLUSION: This novel comprehensive bibliometric analysis can help researchers and non-researchers to rapidly identify the potential partners, landmark studies, and research topics within their domains of interest. Through this study, we hope to provide more data to combat the COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
Psychology in the Schools ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1802558

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the lockdown of Wuhan due to the outbreak of COVID-19 impacted various aspects of local college students' life and may further negatively affect their psychological state. This study was conducted among 652 Wuhan local college students during the quarantine of this city. We assessed their psychological state using Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scale 21 and evaluated their living condition including diet, schedule, recreational activities, social contact, academic life, and attention paid to pandemic news. Results showed that 16.87% of the students reported stress, 28.68% with anxiety, and 35.12% had depression. According to multivariate logistic regression analysis, having a medical background was associated with higher stress levels;students who had an irregular diet and schedule were more likely to develop stress, anxiety, and depression;students with their academic life affected had a higher prevalence of anxiety and depression. By studying local students in the hardest-hit area during the pandemic, our findings can provide references for the improvement of college students' mental health in the long term.

3.
Inquiry ; 59: 469580211055621, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784978

ABSTRACT

By September 20, 2021, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been pandemic in 237 countries and regions, resulting in 228,506,698 confirmed cases and 4,692,361 deaths. At the same time, a total of 1123 cases of COVID-19 had been confirmed in Beijing, China. Peking University Shougang Hospital has 4 community hospitals with 174 staff members, covering 230,000 residents in Shijingshan district, Beijing. The community hospitals were the basic units of China's healthcare system for public health services, as the main battlefield for screening and controlling of COVID-19. We reported our experience about the prevention of SARS-CoV-2. We suggest that community hospitals should change their process for admitting patients. While the screening of suspected cases of COVID-19 is vital, patients with suspected infections should be isolated immediately.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Beijing/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Hospitals, Community , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332142

ABSTRACT

Background: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has spread worldwide, and its associated stressors have resulted in decreased sleep quality among athletes. This study aimed to test the correlation between perceived stress and sleep quality and to figure out whether competitive state anxiety and depression mediate this association. Methods: : The Perceived Stress Scale, Self-rating Depression Scale, CSA Inventory-2, and Pittsburgh SQ Index were administered in 590 Chinese athletes (275 females, age = 19.93 + 2.90 years). Mediation analyses were used to investigate whether competitive state anxiety and depression mediate the correlation between perceived stress and sleep quality in athletes. Results: : The results indicated that perceived stress was positively related to poor sleep quality ( r = 0.232, p < 0.001). Moreover, competitive state anxiety (ab = 0.0347, Boot SE =0.0179, Boot 95% CI = [0.0252, 0.1091]) and depression (ab = 0.0235, Boot SE = 0.0120, Boot 95% CI = [0.0032, 0.0502]) mediated the correlation between perceived stress and sleep quality in athletes. Conclusions: : These findings contributed to a better understanding of how perceived stress related to sleep quality in athletes during the COVID-19 pandemic and indicated that perceived stress, competitive state anxiety, and depression are risk factors in the development of athletes’ poor sleep quality.

5.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 38, 2022 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770580

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is of great challenge to raise the public coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) related health literacy (CRHL) in impoverished regions due to the limits of poor infrastructure, large proportion of vulnerable groups, etc. However, those limits cannot be solved in the short term. Therefore, this study chose Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, one of the poorest areas in China, as a pilot, to reveal the quantitative relationships among different dimensions under the COVID-19 health education framework, clarify the key points for health promotion, and provide specific suggestions for COVID-19 health education strategy in impoverished regions. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in five regions of Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture in 2020. There were 2,100 individuals sampled by multi-stage method. This survey mainly measured the four dimensions: CRHL, COVID-19 related tense psychological reactions (CRTPR), COVID-19 related information report acquisition (CRIRA), and general health literacy (GHL). The multivariate logistic regression was used to explore the influence of demographic characteristics on each dimension. Furthermore, to quantify the relationships among different dimensions, this study employed the structural equation model (SEM), and analyzed the mediating effects of CRHL and CRIRA as well as the moderating effects of regional characteristic variables. RESULTS: The CRHL played an important role in promoting COVID-19 health education, reaching 52.5% in Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture. The GHL (ß = 0.336) and age (ß = 0.136) had statistically positive impacts on CRHL. The CRHL affected CRTPR negatively (ß = - 0.198) and CRIRA positively (ß = 0.052). The CRHL played significant mediating roles among the four dimensions (P < 0.05). Effectiveness of government prevention and control as well as the ethnicity moderated not only the relationships between CRHL and other dimensions, but also the mediating effect of CRHL (P < 0.05). People with lower income and education levels had lower GHL (ß = 0.286, 1.292). The youth were more likely to show CRTPR (ß = - 0.080). CONCLUSIONS: By proposing and verifying the theoretical framework, this study put forward specific suggestions on how to improve COVID-19 health education strategies in impoverished regions via implementation methods, key groups and effect evaluation, which also provided references about future public health emergencies for other impoverished regions of the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Education , Humans , Pilot Projects
6.
BMC Nephrol ; 23(1): 117, 2022 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770497

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Host factors such as angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the transmembrane protease, serine-subtype-2 (TMPRSS2) are important factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clinical and pre-clinical studies demonstrated that RAAS-blocking agents can be safely used during a SARS-CoV-2 infection but it is unknown if DPP-4 inhibitors or SGLT2-blockers may promote COVID-19 by increasing the host viral entry enzymes ACE2 and TMPRSS2. METHODS: We investigated telmisartan, linagliptin and empagliflozin induced effects on renal and cardiac expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2 and key enzymes involved in RAAS (REN, AGTR2, AGT) under high-salt conditions in a non-diabetic experimental 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx) model. In the present study, the gene expression of Ace2, Tmprss2, Ren, Agtr2 and Agt was assessed with qRT-PCR and the protein expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 with immunohistochemistry in the following experimental groups: Sham + normal diet (ND) + placebo (PBO); 5/6Nx + ND + PBO; 5/6Nx + high salt-diet (HSD) + PBO; 5/6Nx + HSD + telmisartan; 5/6Nx + HSD + linagliptin; 5/6Nx + HSD + empagliflozin. RESULTS: In the kidney, the expression of Ace2 was not altered on mRNA level under disease and treatment conditions. The renal TMPRSS2 levels (mRNA and protein) were not affected, whereas the cardiac level was significantly increased in 5/6Nx rats. Intriguingly, the elevated TMPRSS2 protein expression in the heart was significantly normalized after treatment with telmisartan, linagliptin and empagliflozin. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicated that there is no upregulation regarding host factors potentially promoting SARS-CoV-2 virus entry into host cells when the SGLT2-blocker empagliflozin, telmisartan and the DPP4-inhibitor blocker linagliptin are used. The results obtained in a preclinical, experimental non-diabetic kidney failure model need confirmation in ongoing interventional clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/pharmacology , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Kidney/metabolism , Nephrectomy , Rats , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
7.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330104

ABSTRACT

Activation and differentiation of T cells are closely linked to their cellular metabolic programs. Glycolysis and mitochondrial metabolism are thought to be critical in modulating T cell function. Here we asked to what extent inhibition of glycolysis, using 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose (2DG), regulate activation, effector function, or differentiation of human T cell subsets. We found that glycolysis is required for T cell receptor (TCR) -mediated activation and proliferation of human naive CD4+ T cells but had less of an impact on memory subsets. CD4+ T cells cultured in the presence of 2DG displayed higher level of IL-17-secreting cells (Th17) from memory or in vitro differentiated naive regulatory T cell (Tregs) subsets. Moreover, the mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cell subset survived or expanded better and secreted higher IL-17 in the presence of 2DG. Remarkably, we found that the 2DG effect was reversed by mannose but not by glucose. Collectively, these findings suggest that 2DG could enrich IL-17 secreting human effector T cell subsets and their cellular functions. Our finding provides a framework to manipulate glycolytic pathways in human T cells in infectious diseases such as COVID19 and in enhancing cancer immunotherapy.

8.
Pharmaceutics ; 14(3)2022 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742580

ABSTRACT

Matrine (MAR), oxymatrine (OMAR), and sophoridine (SPD) are natural alkaloids with varying biological activities; matrine was recently used for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the short half-lives and rapid elimination of these matrine-type alkaloids would lead to low oral bioavailability and serious side effects. Herein, resveratrol (RES) was selected as a co-former to prepare their co-amorphous systems to improve the therapeutic index. The formation of co-amorphous MAR-RES, OMAR-RES, and SPD-RES was established through powder X-ray diffraction and modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and NMR studies revealed the strong molecular interactions between resveratrol and these alkaloids, especially OMAR-RES. Matrine, oxymatrine, and sophoridine in the co-amorphous systems showed sustained release behaviors in the dissolution experiments, due to the recrystallization of resveratrol on the surface of co-amorphous drugs. The three co-amorphous systems exhibited excellent physicochemical stability under high relative humidity conditions. Our study not only showed that minor structural changes of active pharmaceutical ingredients may have distinct molecular interactions with the co-former, but also discovered a new type of sustained release mechanism for co-amorphous drugs. This promising co-amorphous drug approach may present a unique opportunity for repurposing these very promising drugs against COVID-19.

9.
Energy Reports ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1739683

ABSTRACT

Electric load forecasting is a challenging research, which is of great significance to the safe and stable operation of power grid in epidemic period. In this paper, Long-Short-Term-Memory (LSTM) model with simplex optimizer is proposed to forecast the electric load for an enterprise during the COVID-19 pandemic. The forecasting process consists of data processing, LSTM network construction and optimization. Firstly, some data processing steps includes information quantifying, electric load data cleaning, correlation-coefficient-based medical data filtering, clustering-based medical data and electric load data filling. Then LSTM-Based electric load forecasting model of enterprise is established during the COVID-19 pandemic. On this basis, LSTM network is trained and parameters are optimized via simplex optimizer. Finally, an example of the electric load forecasting of an enterprise during the COVID-19 pandemic is investigated. The forecasting results show that the reduced number of iterations is about 25% and the improved forecasting accuracy is about 5.6%. These results can be used as a reference for resuming production of enterprises and planning of electric grid.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313435

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused global pandemic, resulting in considerable mortality. The risk factors, clinical treatments and especially comprehensive risk models for COVID-19 death are urgently warranted. Methods In this retrospective study, 281 non-survivors and 712 survivors with propensity score matching by age, sex and comorbidities were enrolled from January 13, 2020 to March 31, 2020. Results Higher SOFA, qSOFA, APACHE II and SIRS scores, hypoxia, elevated inflammatory cytokines, multi-organ dysfunction, decreased immune cells subsets and complications were significantly associated with the higher COVID-19 death risk. In addition to traditional predictors for death risk, including APACHE II (AUC = 0.83), SIRS (AUC = 0.75), SOFA (AUC = 0.70) and qSOFA scores (AUC = 0.61), another four prediction models that included immune cells subsets (AUC = 0.90), multiple organ damage biomarkers (AUC = 0.89), complications (AUC = 0.88) and inflammatory-related indexes (AUC = 0.75) were established. Additionally, the predictive accuracy of combining these risk factors (AUC = 0.950) was also significantly higher than that of each risk group alone, outperforming previous risk models, which was significant for early clinical management for COVID-19. Conclusions The potential risk factors could help to predict the clinical prognosis of COVID-19 patients at an early stage. The combined model might be more suitable for the death risk evaluation of COVID-19.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310373

ABSTRACT

Background: hepatic hemangioma is the most common benign tumor of the liver. However, patients with large hemangiomas that cause compression symptoms or that are at risk of rupture may need further intervention. It is necessary to explore additional minimally invasive and personalized treatment options. Case presentation : A 47-year-old female was diagnosed with right hepatic hemangioma for more than 10 years. Abdominal contrast-enhanced CT and CEUS revealed that there was a large hemangioma in the right liver, with a size of approximately 95x97x117 mm. Due to the patient's refusal of surgical treatment, hepatic artery embolization was performed in the first stage, then after 25 days of liver protection treatment, the liver function indexes decreased to normal levels. Then, B-ultrasound-guided microwave ablation of the giant hepatic hemangioma was performed. Ten days after the surgery, hepatobiliary ultrasonography showed that the hemangioma of the right liver was smaller than the previous size (the volume was reduced by approximately 30%). Then the patient was discharged from the hospital, and CT suggested that the hepatic hemangioma is significantly smaller two months after discharge. Because of COVID-19, the patient's CT examination was delayed. Conclusions: TAE combined with microwave ablation is a safe and effective minimally invasive treatment for hepatic hemangioma.

12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309035

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It has been declared a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) by the World Health Organisation (WHO) on 30 January 2020. We aim to systematically review the tool used for the assessment of the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) on Covid-19 infection. Methods: : We will conduct a systematic review of knowledge, attitude, and practice assessment on COVID-19 infection. The search will cover the period December 2019 to January 2021. Study selection will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Study quality will be assessed using the STROBE checklist for a cross-sectional study. Data will be analysed using descriptive statistics. The numerical outcome will be analysed using mean and standard deviation. The categorical outcome will be analysed using absolute number and percentage. The range number of items, reliability, and validity of each domain will be assessed descriptively. Discussion: This systematic review of KAP measurement tools will provide a detailed summary of the existing tools used to assess the KAP levels towards COVID-19 and its’ reliability and validity in different settings and populations. Also, the review will provide evidence on the importance of the reliability and validity of the assessment tools in ensuring quality data from future research. Systematic Review Registration : International Platform of Registered Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis Protocols (INPLASY), number INPLASY202150039

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308288

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causing a cluster of respiratory infections in Wuhan, China, is identified in December 2019. The main symptoms are defined as fever, cough, shortness of breath, with early symptom of sputum, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and the final lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis. Currently, there is no effective method to cure it. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy is an immediate need for treating COVID-19 especially severe patients at present. Methods: : We describe the two confirmed case of COVID-19 severe patients in Hangzhou, China to explore the role of menstrual blood-derived MSC in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, we mimic disease model of pulmonary fibrosis in mice to assess the role of MSC. Then, a co-culture system to investigate the underlying mechanism between MSC and pulmonary-associated cells by a series of Physiological, biochemical, bioinformatics analysis. Results: : MSC transplantation increases the immune indicators (including lymphocytes) and decreases inflammatory indicators (such as IL-6, IL-10, TNF, and IFN). More importantly, the two patients alleviated symptom and discharged after 3 weeks’ treatment with MSC. Additionally, MSCs exhibit an anti-inflammatory role through suppressing some inflammatory factors (RANTES, GM-CSF, MIG-1g, MCP-5, Eotaxin), which is anastomotic to current clinical study using MSC to treat COVID-19. Conclusions: : This is the first report using menstrual blood-derived MSC in treating COVID-19 patients. From our clinical results, we hold one idea that MSCs reduced inflammatory effect to defend cytokine storm. The underlying mechanism is probably that MSCs inhibit epithelia cell apoptosis and reduce the secretion of inflammatory factors to prevent myofibroblasts activity. MSC provides an alternative method for treating COVID-19 particularly some patients with ARDS or subsequent pulmonary fibrosis. Trial registration: This clinical trial was submitted to and approved by the Ethics Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital, Collage of Medicine, Zhejiang University. MSC administration in patient with COVID-19 was conducted in a single center and open-label clinical trial (ChiCTR2000029606).

14.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308283

ABSTRACT

To what extent did independent directors help firms’ recovery during the COVID-19 pandemic? In this paper, we answer this question by investigating whether independent directors contribute to Chinese listed firms’ operation income growth during the first and second quarters of the year 2020. By employing a triple difference-in-differences (DDD) estimation strategy, we show that firms located in more pandemic-affected regions experienced a more pronounced operating recovery if they receive more independent directors’ opinions and have fewer female and busy directors. The possible reason is that those female and busy directors were likely to be distracted during the pandemic outbreak. We also provide evidence that firms paying higher remunerations to independent directors tend to recover quicker. Moreover, independent directors’ age and education level positively contribute to firms’ recovery. Our work is among the first to study independent directors’ role in shaping firms’ operation performance under the COVID-19.

15.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308277

ABSTRACT

We aimed to identify potential risk factors and establish a nomogram prediction model for severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Total 370 patients with COVID-19 were enrolled from The Third People’s Hospital of Yichang during the period from January to March, 2020. COVID-19 was diagnosed according to the coronavirus disease 2019 diagnosis and treatment plan. Risk is summarized as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). There are 326 patients with mild or ordinary COVID-19, and 44 with severe or critical COVID-19. After propensity score matching and statistical adjustment, eight factors were significantly associated with severe or critical COVID-19 (p <0.05). Due to strong evidence of correlation, only five factors, including diagnostic delay (OR, 95% CI, p: 1.08, 1.02 to 1.17, 0.048), albumin (0.82, 0.75 to 0.91, <0.001), lactate dehydrogenase (1.56, 1.14 to 2.13, 0.011), white blood cell (1.27, 1.08 to 1.5, 0.004), and neutrophil (1.40, 1.16 to 1.7, <0.001), remained for model construction and prediction performance assessment. The nomogram model based on the five factors has a good prediction capability and accuracy (C-index: 90.6%). Taken together, our findings provide evidence for the significant contribution of five independent factors to the risk of developing severe or critical COVID-19, and their prediction in a nomogram model was more prominent.Funding Statement: This work was sponsored by Fujian Provincial Health Technology Project (Grant number: 2019-CX-28).Declaration of Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: The conduct of this study was reviewed and approved by both ethics committees of The Third People’s Hospital of Yichang and The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University (Approval No. MRCTA, ECFAH of FMU 2020-153).

16.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308272

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, a severe novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection (Coronavirus Disease 2019,COVID-19) has occurred in Wuhan, China, and has rapidly spread to the country and around the world. This study intends to investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 in a surrounding city of Wuhan. Methods: : A retrospective study was conducted on 208 cases of COVID -19 patients from February 11, 2020 to February 29, 2020 in Xiaogan dongnan Hospital, collected basic information, history of exposure, medical history, clinical symptoms, laboratory indicators and pulmonary imaging Data, and analyzed the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of all patients. According to the clinical classification criteria, 208 patients were divided into light group and ordinary group, and the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the two groups were compared. Results: : Among 208 patients in this study, with a median age of 50.5 years (IQR,36-64.7,range,10-91 years), among which 107 (51.4%) were males and 101 (48.6%) were females. 51 (24.5%) had a clear exposure to COVID-19 infection within 2 weeks before admission, and 40 (19.2%) had a history of residence or exposure in Wuhan within 2 weeks before admission. Among all the patients, there were 16 (7.7%) with pulmonary diseases, 41 (19.7%) with hypertension, 11 (5.3%) with coronary heart disease, 13 (6.3%) with diabetes, 12(5.8%) with a history of alcohol consumption, and 12(5.8%) with a history of smoking. Among all clinical symptoms, 146 cases (70.2%) of fever, the highest temperature range was 37.3℃-41℃ before admission, 115 (55.3%) cases of cough, and 57 (27.4%) cases of chest tightness, 47 (22.6%) cases of fatigue, 28 (13.5%) cases of inappetence, 9 (4.3%) cases of diarrhea, 7 (3.4%) cases of nasal congestion or runny nose , and 5 ( 2.4%) cases of pharyngalgia. Analysis of the laboratory results of 208 patients showed that 42 (20.2%) cases had decreased white blood cell count, and 61 (29.3%) cases had decreased lymphocyte count. There were 154 (74%) cases with elevated CRP, 50 (24%) cases with elevated fasting blood glucose, and 23 (11.1%) cases with elevated LDH (>245U/L). The comparison of clinical characteristics between the light group and the common group showed that the median age of the light group was 44.8 years (IQR 30-58), the median age of the common group was 53.1 years (IQR 38.8-67) (P<0.01). The symptoms of fever [53(80.3%) vs 93(65.5%),P<0.05], fatigue [53(80.3%) vs 93(65.5%),P<0.05] and inappetence [4(6.1%) vs 24(16.9%),P<0.05] in the light group were less than those in the common group. The white blood cell count (5.48 vs 6.37, P<0.05), lymphocyte count (1.40 vs 1.61, P<0.05) and HDL-C (1.5 vs 1.3, P<0.05) of the common group were lower than that of the light group, while CRP (26.5 vs 22.1, P<0.01), AST (22.9 vs 18.5, P<0.05), fasting blood glucose (5.8 vs 5.6, P<0.05), LDH (196.8 vs 157.9, P<0.001) of the common group were higher than that of the light group. Conclusion: COVID-19 infection is mainly in middle-aged and elderly patients, patients with other diseases are more susceptible to infection. The main symptoms of COVID-19 infection were fever, cough, chest tightness, fatigue, and inappetence. Decreased lymphocyte count, increased CRP concentration, increased LDH concentration and decreased HDL-C concentration were the laboratory features of COVID-19 infection, and were important indicators to assess the severity of COVID-19 disease.

17.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325300

ABSTRACT

Balancing common disease treatment and epidemic control is a key objective of medical supplies procurement in hospitals during a pandemic such as COVID-19. This problem can be formulated as a bi-objective optimization problem for simultaneously optimizing the effects of common disease treatment and epidemic control. However, due to the large number of supplies, difficulties in evaluating the effects, and the strict budget constraint, it is difficult for existing evolutionary multiobjective algorithms to efficiently approximate the Pareto front of the problem. In this paper, we present an approach that first transforms the original high-dimensional, constrained multiobjective optimization problem to a low-dimensional, unconstrained multiobjective optimization problem, and then evaluates each solution to the transformed problem by solving a set of simple single-objective optimization subproblems, such that the problem can be efficiently solved by existing evolutionary multiobjective algorithms. We applied the transform-and-divide evolutionary optimization approach to six hospitals in Zhejiang Province, China, during the peak of COVID-19. Results showed that the proposed approach exhibits significantly better performance than that of directly solving the original problem. Our study has also shown that transform-and-divide evolutionary optimization based on problem-specific knowledge can be an efficient solution approach to many other complex problems and, therefore, enlarge the application field of evolutionary algorithms.

18.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318614

ABSTRACT

Excessive inflammatory responses induced upon SARS-CoV-2 infection interlocks with severe symptoms and acute lung injury in patients with Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Revealing the mechanism underlying the control of SARS-CoV-2-triggered immune-inflammatory responses would help us to understand the pathological process and guide clinical treatment. However, the effect of the NLRP3 inflammasome on regulating SARS-CoV-2-induced inflammatory responses has not been reported. Here, we revealed a distinct mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein promotes the NLRP3 inflammasome activation to induce hyperinflammation. We demonstrated that N protein facilitates the maturation of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 and induces proinflammatory responses in cultured cells and mice tissues. In team of molecular mechanism, N protein interacts directly with NLRP3 protein, promotes the binding of NLRP3 with ASC, and facilitates the assemble of the inflammasome complex. More importantly, N protein aggravates lung injury, accelerated death in sepsis and acute inflammation mouse models, and promotes IL-1β and IL-6 activation in mice. Notably, N-induced lung injury and cytokine production were blocked by Ac-YVAD-cmk, an inhibitor of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Therefore, this study revealed a distinct mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 N protein promotes the NLRP3 inflammasome activation and induces excessive inflammatory responses.

19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 204: 356-363, 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670549

ABSTRACT

Infections caused by SARS-CoV-2 have brought great harm to human health. After transmission for over two years, SARS-CoV-2 has diverged greatly and formed dozens of different lineages. Understanding the trend of its genome evolution could help foresee difficulties in controlling transmission of the virus. In this study, we conducted an extensive monthly survey and in-depth analysis on variations of nucleotide, amino acid and codon numbers in 311,260 virus samples collected till January 2022. The results demonstrate that the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 is toward increasing U-content and reducing genome-size. C, G and A to U mutations have all contributed to this U-content increase. Mutations of C, G and A at codon position 1, 2 or 3 have no significant difference in most SARS-CoV-2 lineages. Current viruses are more cryptic and more efficient in replication, and are thus less virulent yet more infectious. Delta and Omicron variants have high mutability over other lineages, bringing new threat to human health. This trend of genome evolution may provide a clue for tracing the origin of SARS-CoV-2, because ancestral viruses should have lower U-content and probably bigger genome-size.


Subject(s)
Base Composition/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Base Sequence/genetics , COVID-19/transmission , China , Codon/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Genome/genetics , Genome Size/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Mutation/genetics , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Uracil/metabolism
20.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 428, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585884

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced hyper-inflammation links to the acute lung injury and COVID-19 severity. Identifying the primary mediators that initiate the uncontrolled hypercytokinemia is essential for treatments. Mast cells (MCs) are strategically located at the mucosa and beneficially or detrimentally regulate immune inflammations. In this study, we showed that SARS-CoV-2-triggered MC degranulation initiated alveolar epithelial inflammation and lung injury. SARS-CoV-2 challenge induced MC degranulation in ACE-2 humanized mice and rhesus macaques, and a rapid MC degranulation could be recapitulated with Spike-RBD binding to ACE2 in cells; MC degranulation altered various signaling pathways in alveolar epithelial cells, particularly, the induction of pro-inflammatory factors and consequential disruption of tight junctions. Importantly, the administration of clinical MC stabilizers for blocking degranulation dampened SARS-CoV-2-induced production of pro-inflammatory factors and prevented lung injury. These findings uncover a novel mechanism for SARS-CoV-2 initiating lung inflammation, and suggest an off-label use of MC stabilizer as immunomodulators for COVID-19 treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Degranulation , Lung Injury/metabolism , Mast Cells/metabolism , Pulmonary Alveoli/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Female , Humans , Lung Injury/genetics , Lung Injury/virology , Macaca mulatta , Male , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Transgenic , Pulmonary Alveoli/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
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