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1.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-338053

ABSTRACT

Introduction A small body of epidemiological research suggests that working in an essential sector is a risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection or subsequent disease or mortality. However, there is limited evidence to date on the US, or on how the risks associated with essential work differ across demographic subgroups defined by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Methods Using publicly available data from the National Center for Health Statistics on deaths occurring in the US in 2020, we calculated per-capita COVID-19 mortality by industry and occupation. We additionally calculated per-capita COVID-19 mortality by essential industry—essential or not—by age group, sex, and race/ethnicity. Results Among non-military individuals and individuals with a known industry or occupation, there were 48,030 reported COVID-19 deaths, representing 25.1 COVID-19 deaths per 100,000 working-age individuals after age standardization. Per-capita age-standardized COVID-19 mortality was 1.96 times higher among essential workers than among workers in non-essential industries, representing an absolute difference of 14.9 per 100,000. Across industry, per-capita age-standardized COVID-19 mortality was highest in the following industries: accommodation and food services (45.4 per 100,000);transportation and warehousing (43.4);agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting (42.3);mining (39.6);and construction (38.7). Discussion Given that SARS-CoV-2 is an airborne virus, we call for collaborative efforts to ensure that workplace settings are properly ventilated and that workers have access to effective masks. We also urge for paid sick leave, which can help increase vaccine access and minimize disease transmission.

2.
60th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC) ; : 2824-2829, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1868529

ABSTRACT

This paper studies the distributed link removal problem for controlling epidemic spreading in a networked meta-population system. A deterministic networked susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model is considered to describe the epidemic evolving process. To curb the spread of epidemics, we reformulate the original topology design problem into a minimization program of the Perron-Frobenius eigenvalue of the matrix involving the network topology and transition rates. A modified distributed link removal strategy is developed such that it can be applied to the SIR model with heterogeneous transition rates on weighted digraphs. The proposed approach is implemented to control the COVID-19 pandemic by using the infected and recovered data reported by the German federal states. The numerical experiment shows that the infected percentage can be significantly reduced by employing the distributed link removal strategy.

3.
Modern Pathology ; 35(SUPPL 2):1006-1007, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1857652

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 pandemic has caused more than 4.7 million deaths worldwide to date and still continues globally unabated. Numerous studies have linked the mortality in COVID-19 to aggressive immune response and cytokine storm. However, little is known about the cytokine profiles of individual immune cells that are directly involved in tissue damage. Here we investigate intracellular cytokines in individual T and NK cells of COVID-19 patients. Design: We studied 50 blood samples from 22 COVID-19 patients, 4 with mild, 6 moderate and 12 severe disease. There were 6 healthy controls. We performed high-dimensional 30-color spectral flow cytometry to characterize the immune cell subsets. For cytokine study, cells were stimulated for 6 hours, and stained for surface antigens and intracellular cytokines (IL1b, IL2, IL4, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL12, IL17a, IL21, INFg, GnzB, TNFa, and GMCSF). Data ware acquired on FACSymphony 50-parameter analyzer and analysis performed using FlowJo. Results: Our studies revealed significant differences in lymphocyte cytokine profiles between COVID+ and healthy controls (Fig 1). CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells exhibited increased percentages of IL2+ and IFNg+ cells, indicating a shift towards Th1 reaction. Granzyme B is highly upregulated in all T and NK cell subsets, demonstrating highly armed cytotoxic cells in COVID patients. The most prominent changes were noted in NK cells, 7 cytokines were highly expressed, most are proinflammatory cytokines. Of particular interest are IL-21 and GMCSF, both are known to play important roles in inflammatory cell recruitment, activation and renewal, which can lead to augmented tissue inflammation and injury. These changes were already evident in patients with mild disease, but there is heightened cytokine production in severe cases. Conclusions: Using high-dimensional flow cytometry we demonstrated for the first time significantly increased production of multiple proinflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic molecules in individual T and NK cells of COVID-19 patients. NK cells are most drastically activated. It is conceivable that when recruited to the target tissue such as lung, these highly primed cells will play a major role in tissue injury and ultimately organ failure via their direct cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion. This is consistent with previous reports of increased NK cells in the COVID lungs. Analysis of NK cell cytokine profiles may serve to predict disease progression, and reveal new targets for immune-therapy for severe COVID patients. (Table Presented).

4.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333641

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Latino people in the US are experiencing higher excess deaths during the COVID-19 pandemic than any other racial/ethnic group, but it is unclear which subgroups within this diverse population are most affected. Such information is necessary to target policies that prevent further excess mortality and reduce inequities. METHODS: Using death certificate data for January 1, 2016 through February 29, 2020 and time-series models, we estimated the expected weekly deaths among Latino people in California from March 1 through October 3, 2020. We quantified excess mortality as observed minus expected deaths and risk ratios (RR) as the ratio of observed to expected deaths. We considered subgroups defined by age, sex, place of birth, education, occupation, and combinations of these factors. FINDINGS: During the first seven months of the pandemic, Latino deaths in California exceeded expected deaths by 10,316, a 31% increase. Excess death rates were greatest for individuals born in Mexico (RR 1.44;95% PI, 1.41, 1.48) or Central America (RR 1.49;95% PI, 1.37, 1.64), with less than a high school degree (RR 1.41;95% PI, 1.35, 1.46), or in food-and-agriculture (RR 1.60;95% PI, 1.48, 1.74) or manufacturing occupations (RR 1.59;95% PI, 1.50, 1.69). Immigrant disadvantages in excess death were magnified among working-age Latinos in essential occupations. INTERPRETATION: The pandemic has disproportionately impacted mortality among Latino immigrants and Latinos in unprotected essential jobs;Interventions to reduce these disparities should include early vaccination, workplace safety enforcement, and expanded access to medical care. FUNDING: National Institute on Aging;UCSF. RESEARCH IN CONTEXT: Evidence before this study: Several articles have suggested all-cause excess mortality estimates are superior to official COVID-19 counts for assessing the impact of the pandemic on marginalized populations that lack access to testing and healthcare. We searched PubMed, Google scholar, and the medRxiv preprint database through December 22, 2020 for studies of ("excess mortality" or "excess death") AND ("COVID-19" or "coronavirus") set in the United States and we identified two empirical studies with estimates of excess mortality among Latinos during the pandemic. The study set in California (from our research team) found per capita excess mortality was highest among Black and Latino people. The national study found percent excess mortality was significantly higher among Latino people than any other racial/ethnic group. Neither study further disaggregated the diverse Latino population or provided subgroup estimates to clarify why excess pandemic mortality is so high in this population. In the U.S., official COVID-19 statistics are rarely disaggregated by place of birth, education, or occupation which has resulted in a lack of evidence of how these factors have impacted mortality during the pandemic. No study to date of excess mortality in the U.S. has provided estimates for immigrant or occupational subgroups. Added value of this study: Our population-based observational study of all-cause mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic provides the first estimates of within-group heterogeneity among the Latino population in California - one of the populations hardest hit by COVID-19 in the U.S. We provide the first subgroup estimates by place of birth and occupational sector, in addition to combined estimates by foreign-birth and participation in an essential job and education. In doing so, we reveal that Latino immigrants in essential occupations have the highest risk of excess death during the pandemic among working-age Latinos. We highlight the heightened risk of excess mortality associated with food/agriculture and manufacturing occupational sectors, essential sectors in which workers may lack COVID-19 protections. Implications of all the available evidence: Our study revealed stark disparities in excess mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic among Latinos, pointing to the particularly high vulnerability of Latino immigrants and Latinos in essential jobs. These findings may offer insight into the disproportionate COVID-19 mortality experienced by immigrants or similarly marginalized groups in other contexts. Interventions to reduce these disparities should include policies enforcing occupational safety, especially for immigrant workers, early vaccination, and expanded access to medical care.

6.
Journal of Internet Technology ; 23(1):63-71, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1687993

ABSTRACT

This study explores why a developing country may fall into the privacy trap of digital transformation after Covid-19. The privacy trap is that, when the developing country executes its digital transformation policy, the government inevitably compromises their civilian privacy and often have no way of knowing when/why/how the service will use or leak the privacy. To date, little scholarly literature has examined the existence and implication of the privacy trap in a developing country. Therefore, we analyze data from 306 respondents in Taiwan based on descriptive and inferential statistics. The results show the privacy trap exists and may be derived by that the bandwagon effect overriding the effects of privacy concerns on the willingness to provide personal information. These findings implicate that, based on the in-depth expert interview, one possible way but also the biggest challenge to escaping the privacy trap is to transform from the current economic system of cost-oriented labor to the economic system of a risk-oriented education system supporting breakthroughs in science and technology. This study could ultimately contribute to the developing countries to protect their civilian's privacy when executing digital transformation especially from a digital minority to a digital beneficiary.

7.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-297025

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 mortality disproportionately affected specific occupations and industries. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) protects the health and safety of workers by setting and enforcing standards for working conditions. Workers may file OSHA complaints about unsafe conditions. Complaints may indicate poor workplace safety during the pandemic. We evaluated COVID-19-related complaints filed with California (Cal)/OSHA between January 1, 2020 and December 14, 2020 across seven industries. To assess whether workers in occupations with high COVID-19-related mortality were also most likely to file Cal/OSHA complaints, we compared industry-specific per-capita COVID-19 confirmed deaths from the California Department of Public Health with COVID-19-related complaints. Although 7,820 COVID-19-related complaints were deemed valid by Cal/OSHA, only 627 onsite inspections occurred and 32 citations were issued. Agricultural workers had the highest per-capita COVID-19 death rates (402 per 100,000 workers) but were least represented among workplace complaints (44 per 100,000 workers). Health Care workers had the highest complaint rates (81 per 100,000 workers) but the second lowest COVID-19 death rate (81 per 100,000 workers). Industries with the highest inspection rates also had high COVID-19 mortality. Our findings suggest complaints are not proportional to COVID-19 risk. Instead, higher complaint rates may reflect worker groups with greater empowerment, resources, or capacity to advocate for better protections. This capacity to advocate for safe workplaces may account for relatively low mortality rates in potentially high-risk occupations. Future research should examine factors determining worker complaints and complaint systems to promote participation of those with the greatest need of protection.

8.
Journal of Building Engineering ; 45:11, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1517355

ABSTRACT

According to the discussion of the design method and operational effect for Wuhan Huoshenshan Hospital, this paper summarized the design control points of indoor and outdoor environment of COVID-19 emergency hospital. Based on the design of Wuhan Huoshenshan Hospital, this paper analyzed and discussed the site design, building layout, three-zones and two-passages, the design scheme of the ventilation and air conditioning system for negative pressure ward and negative pressure isolation ward, air distribution, as well as some other key designs for COVID-19 emergency hospital. The design points were summarized and refined. The design methods and technology requirements of the COVID-19 emergency hospital were provided in this study, such as ventilation and air conditioning system setting, ventilation quantity of wards, pressure gradient control measures among different areas, upper and lower air distribution, filter setting mode and distance of air inlet and outlet, which could benefit to provide references for the design of similar projects in the future.

9.
Journal of Building Engineering ; 44:6, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1482735

ABSTRACT

Respiratory supporting, as an important medical treatment for new coronavirus pneumonia patients, must be effectively guaranteed by medical oxygen supply. However, the medical oxygen system designed and configured by the existing hospitals according to the current specifications cannot meet the oxygen needs for patients with new coronavirus pneumonia. This paper aimed to study the design of medical oxygen system in new coronavirus pneumonia emergency hospital. By investigating the oxygen treatment plan for the novel coronavirus pneumonia patients in the health emergency hospital, the oxygen treatment characteristics of different patients were studied. The oxygen characteristics of different respiratory support terminals were explored to study the oxygen demands of new coronavirus pneumonia emergency hospitals. Through calculating flow rates of medical gas system air source referring to 'technical code for medical gases engineering', the proportion coefficient of severe patients converted into respiratory distress patients was introduced, and the model of calculating flow rates of medical oxygen system air source in emergency hospital was proposed. The cases were verified in a typical health emergency hospital that the developed calculation flow model of medical oxygen source met the demands of hospital oxygen. The outcomes provide a reference for the design and construction of medical oxygen in such health emergency hospitals.

10.
Ieee Sensors Journal ; 21(19):22047-22057, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1467503

ABSTRACT

The highly infectious and serious nature of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has highlighted the need for hospital space disinfection technology and the prevention of human exposure to pathogenic environments. This research developed novel chlorine dioxide (ClO2) sterilization technology to reduce bacteria and viruses in the air and on surfaces. A smart sterilization robot system was also developed to spray disinfectants in operating theaters or patients' rooms, designed according to the results of controlled experiments and the requirements for hospital disinfection. The system was built incorporated a semi-automatic remote-controlled module and an automatic intelligent disinfection function;that is, it could operate independently according to specific epidemic prevention strategies, which were implemented using a combination of Internet of Things (IoT) applications and a gesture recognition function. The elimination of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria on sample plates was 99.8 % effective. This paper reviews the evolution of various disinfection technologies and describes a disinfection robot system in detail.

11.
International Journal of Fuzzy Systems ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1091994

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered (SEIR) model is applied to the novel coronavirus disease. With the actual data in Georgia, USA, we obtained the related parameters such as the recovery rate and mortality rate. Then, the development of the novel coronavirus is investigated. For more accuracy, we consider the parameters in this model as the functions of the infected number and disease duration. These parameters’ functions are used to reflect the impact of disease development on parameters. Furthermore, the coefficients in these functions are regarded as uncertainties. To obtain these uncertain coefficients, the fuzzy set theory and confidence index theory are adopted. Thus, the fuzzy SEIR model is proposed. © 2021, Taiwan Fuzzy Systems Association.

12.
Advances in Science, Technology and Engineering Systems ; 5(6):1690-1697, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1040217

ABSTRACT

Tourism is relatively high profit, low-cost and high work opportunity industry. Medical tourism is special kind of business type in tourism industry. The characteristic of medical tourism is high threshold and high profit for hospital and government. But, fewer literatures research about competitiveness of medical tourism industry until now. Especially, medical tourism industry faces big challenge when COVID-19 occurs which stop patient to go abroad for treating in the world. This research arranges relative literatures and invite some expert's opinion to design criteria for evaluating competitiveness of medical tourism industry in each area. After that, linguistic VIKOR and Entropy will be integrated to analyze and evaluate performance of medical tourism industry among China, Taiwan, Japan and South Korea. Finally, some reasonable suggestion will be provided for Taiwan government and hospital. © 2020 ASTES Publishers. All rights reserved.

13.
Humanities & Social Sciences Communications ; 8(1), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1035889

ABSTRACT

The pandemic and efforts to control it are causing sharp reductions in global economic activity and associated fossil energy use, with unknown influence on longer-term efforts to limit greenhouse gas emissions under the Paris Climate Agreement. To explore this effect, estimates of economic recession and recovery in near-term months are extended to cover a return to full employment in future years, to be compared with an estimate of growth had COVID-19 not occurred. On the assumption that the Paris emissions pledges for 2020 will be met in any case, projection of global emissions with and without the pandemic show that, through its growth impact alone, it will yield only a small effect on emissions in 2030 and beyond. Other COVID legacies may include residual influences in patterns of consumption and travel, and the direction of recovery funds to low carbon investments. Most important, however, will be the effect of the economic shocks on the willingness of nations to meet (or augment) their existing Paris emissions pledges. The main effect of the pandemic on the threat of climate change, therefore, will be not its growth impact but its influence on national commitments to action.

14.
Public Health ; 190: 99-100, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1001650

ABSTRACT

Taiwan had been using many important public health management strategies to beat Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) without a lockdown. Mask wearing by the general public was thought to be the major factor for the success of Taiwan to stop the spread of COVID-19. We share our experience in Taiwan as an example for other countries to safely reopen from a lockdown.

15.
2nd IEEE Eurasia Conference on Biomedical Engineering, Healthcare and Sustainability 2020, ECBIOS 2020 ; : 190-192, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-891468

ABSTRACT

Tourism is a high profit and low-cost industry. Medical tourism is one kind of tourism type. This kind of tourism type is high threshold and can bring more profit for government. However, a few of literatures research about competitive ability of medical tourism. This study collects relative literature and interview some expert to design the criteria to evaluate competitive ability of medical tourism. And then, linguistic VIKOR and Entropy are used to evaluate competitive ability of medical tourism among China, Taiwan, Japan, South Korea. © 2020 IEEE.

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