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1.
J Virol ; 95(22): e0096621, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561933

ABSTRACT

The high pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 requires it to be handled under biosafety level 3 conditions. Consequently, Spike protein-pseudotyped vectors are a useful tool to study viral entry and its inhibition, with retroviral, lentiviral (LV), and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vectors the most commonly used systems. Methods to increase the titer of such vectors commonly include concentration by ultracentrifugation and truncation of the Spike protein cytoplasmic tail. However, limited studies have examined whether such a modification also impacts the protein's function. Here, we optimized concentration methods for SARS-CoV-2 Spike-pseudotyped VSV vectors, finding that tangential flow filtration produced vectors with more consistent titers than ultracentrifugation. We also examined the impact of Spike tail truncation on transduction of various cell types and sensitivity to convalescent serum neutralization. We found that tail truncation increased Spike incorporation into both LV and VSV vectors and resulted in enhanced titers but had no impact on sensitivity to convalescent serum. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the D614G mutation, which became a dominant SARS-CoV-2 variant early in the pandemic. Our studies revealed that, similar to the tail truncation, D614G independently increases Spike incorporation and vector titers, but this effect is masked by also including the cytoplasmic tail truncation. Therefore, the use of full-length Spike protein, combined with tangential flow filtration, is recommended as a method to generate high titer pseudotyped vectors that retain native Spike protein functions. IMPORTANCE Pseudotyped viral vectors are useful tools to study the properties of viral fusion proteins, especially those from highly pathogenic viruses. The Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 has been investigated using pseudotyped lentiviral and VSV vector systems, where truncation of its cytoplasmic tail is commonly used to enhance Spike incorporation into vectors and to increase the titers of the resulting vectors. However, our studies have shown that such effects can also mask the phenotype of the D614G mutation in the ectodomain of the protein, which was a dominant variant arising early in the COVID-19 pandemic. To better ensure the authenticity of Spike protein phenotypes when using pseudotyped vectors, we recommend using full-length Spike proteins, combined with tangential flow filtration methods of concentration if higher-titer vectors are required.


Subject(s)
Genetic Vectors/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Cell Line , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Genetic Vectors/immunology , Humans , Lentivirus/genetics , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/genetics , Viral Load/genetics
2.
Ann Surg ; 275(2): 242-246, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522450

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between the timing of surgery relative to the development of Covid-19 and the risks of postoperative complications. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: It is unknown whether patients who recovered from Covid-19 and then underwent a major elective operation have an increased risk of developing postoperative complications. METHODS: The risk of postoperative complications for patients with Covid-19 undergoing 18 major types of elective operations in the Covid-19 Research Database was evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. Patients were grouped by time of surgery relative to SARS-CoV-2 infection; that is, surgery performed: (1) before January 1, 2020 ("pre-Covid-19"), (2) 0 to 4 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection ("peri-Covid-19"), (3) 4 to 8 weeks after infection ("early post-Covid-19"), and (4) ≥8 weeks after infection ("late post-Covid-19"). RESULTS: Of the 5479 patients who met study criteria, patients with peri-Covid-19 had an elevated risk of developing postoperative pneumonia [adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 6.46; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.06-10.27], respiratory failure (aOR, 3.36; 95% CI: 2.22-5.10), pulmonary embolism (aOR, 2.73; 95% CI: 1.35-5.53), and sepsis (aOR, 3.67; 95% CI: 2.18-6.16) when compared to pre-Covid-19 patients. Early post-Covid-19 patients had an increased risk of developing postoperative pneumonia when compared to pre-Covid-19 patients (aOR, 2.44; 95% CI: 1.20-4.96). Late post-Covid-19 patients did not have an increased risk of postoperative complications when compared to pre-Covid-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Major, elective surgery 0 to 4 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with an increased risk of postoperative complications. Surgery performed 4 to 8 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection is still associated with an increased risk of postoperative pneumonia, whereas surgery 8 weeks after Covid-19 diagnosis is not associated with increased complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Elective Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Time-to-Treatment , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/diagnosis , United States
3.
Res Sq ; 2020 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729814

ABSTRACT

Dysfunctional immune responses contribute critically to the progression of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) from mild to severe stages including fatality, with pro-inflammatory macrophages as one of the main mediators of lung hyper-inflammation. Therefore, there is an urgent need to better understand the interactions among SARS-CoV-2 permissive cells, macrophage, and the SARS-CoV-2 virus, thereby offering important insights into new therapeutic strategies. Here, we used directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) to establish a lung and macrophage co-culture system and model the host-pathogen interaction and immune response caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among the hPSC-derived lung cells, alveolar type II and ciliated cells are the major cell populations expressing the viral receptor ACE2 and co-effector TMPRSS2, and both were highly permissive to viral infection. We found that alternatively polarized macrophages (M2) and classically polarized macrophages (M1) had similar inhibitory effects on SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, only M1 macrophages significantly up-regulated inflammatory factors including IL-6 and IL-18, inhibiting growth and enhancing apoptosis of lung cells. Inhibiting viral entry into target cells using an ACE2 blocking antibody enhanced the activity of M2 macrophages, resulting in nearly complete clearance of virus and protection of lung cells. These results suggest a potential therapeutic strategy, in that by blocking viral entrance to target cells while boosting anti-inflammatory action of macrophages at an early stage of infection, M2 macrophages can eliminate SARS-CoV-2, while sparing lung cells and suppressing the dysfunctional hyper-inflammatory response mediated by M1 macrophages.

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