Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 12 de 12
Filter
1.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0275209, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054362

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adherence to oral nutritional supplement therapy among postoperative patients with gastric cancer is low. There is little knowledge about patients' priorities and needs regarding oral nutritional supplement therapy. The discrete choice experiment is an innovative method used to elicit patients' preferences. Good practice guidelines emphasize that the development of attributes and levels is a fundamentally important process. OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively describe the identification, refinement, and selection of attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment. METHODS: A mixed-methods approach, consisting of three consecutive steps: a literature review, in-depth interviews, and focus groups. First, the literature review allowed quick identification of attributes and levels. Then, 15 in-depth interviews were conducted to gather a rich description of the experience of patients taking oral nutritional supplements after gastrectomy and to verify and enrich the attributes and levels list. Finally, four focus group participants discussed the wording of the attributes and levels and reduced the number of attributes to manageable numbers through voting ranking methods. RESULTS: Following the literature review and qualitative data collection, eight attributes were finally generated, each with two to three levels. The following attributes were included: 1) information provider; 2) health guidance approach; 3) adverse reactions; 4) flavor; 5) follow-up method; 6) follow-up frequency; 7) psychological support; 8) cost. These attributes covered the important attributes of nutritional preparations and health guidance included in ONS therapy that were relevant to patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study's mixed-methods approach has been found highly suitable to identify, refine and select attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment. The three methods have pros and cons, and they complement each other, especially the analysis of qualitative data led to a deeper and broader understanding of attributes and levels.


Subject(s)
Stomach Neoplasms , Behavior Therapy , Gastrectomy , Humans , Nutritional Support , Postoperative Period , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery
2.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 3337-3346, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581602

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 tends to cause more severe disease in patients with COPD once they are infected. We aimed to investigate the rates of influenza, pneumococcal and COVID-19 vaccination uptake in patients with COPD and to determine whether the COVID-19 pandemic and widespread vaccination against COVID-19 had any impact on the intention to accept influenza vaccines in these patients. Methods: We conducted a multi-center and cross-sectional survey in seven tertiary hospitals in Beijing and consecutively recruited outpatients with COPD from June 1st to July 30th, 2021. The survey included patient's clinical characteristics, uptake of influenza, pneumococcal and COVID-19 vaccination, vaccine knowledge, attitude towards vaccines, and the change of intention to receive influenza vaccination after COVID-19 epidemic and COVID-19 vaccination in Beijing. Results: A total of 264 patients were enrolled. The rate of COVID-19 vaccination during the study period was 39.0%. The rates of influenza vaccination in the past season and pneumococcal vaccination in the past year were 22.7% and 5.7%, respectively. Of the patients who had not received COVID-19 vaccination (n = 161), only 16.2% reported that COVID-19 vaccination was recommended by clinicians, while 23.5% had no knowledge regarding COVID-19 vaccination. About 51.1% of the patients reported that their intention to receive influenza vaccination was influenced by the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 vaccination was independently associated with a positive change in intention to receive influenza vaccination. Conclusion: The coverage rate of COVID-19 vaccination among patients with COPD in Beijing was 39.0%, and that of influenza and pneumococcal vaccination was very low. The COVID-19 pandemic and the COVID-19 vaccination campaign showed a significant, positive impact on patients with COPD in terms of influenza vaccination. Improving awareness of the effectiveness and safety of vaccines among both healthcare professionals and patients could increase vaccination coverage in patients with COPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Intention , Pandemics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
3.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(16): 1920-1929, 2021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522371

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a major public health problem and presents an unprecedented challenge. However, no specific drugs were currently proven. This study aimed to evaluate the comparative efficacy and safety of pharmacological interventions in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and clinicaltrials.gov were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)/SARS-CoV. Random-effects network meta-analysis within the Bayesian framework was performed, followed by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system assessing the quality of evidence. The primary outcome of interest includes mortality, cure, viral negative conversion, and overall adverse events (OAEs). Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated as the measure of effect size. RESULTS: Sixty-six RCTs with 19,095 patients were included, involving standard of care (SOC), eight different antiviral agents, six different antibiotics, high and low dose chloroquine (CQ_HD, CQ_LD), traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), corticosteroids (COR), and other treatments. Compared with SOC, a significant reduction of mortality was observed for TCM (OR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.20-0.56, moderate quality) and COR (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.75-0.96, low quality) with improved cure rate (OR = 2.16, 95% CI: 1.60-2.91, low quality for TCM; OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.05-1.30, low quality for COR). However, an increased risk of mortality was found for CQ_HD vs. SOC (OR = 3.20, 95% CI: 1.18-8.73, low quality). TCM was associated with decreased risk of OAE (OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.38-0.70, very low quality) but CQ_HD (OR = 2.51, 95% CI: 1.20-5.24) and interferons (IFN) (OR = 2.69, 95% CI: 1.02-7.08) vs. SOC with very low quality were associated with an increased risk. CONCLUSIONS: COR and TCM may reduce mortality and increase cure rate with no increased risk of OAEs compared with standard care. CQ_HD might increase the risk of mortality. CQ, IFN, and other antiviral agents could increase the risk of OAEs. The current evidence is generally uncertain with low-quality and further high-quality trials are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Network Meta-Analysis , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Comput Biol Med ; 141: 105003, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) effected a global health crisis in 2019, 2020, and beyond. Currently, methods such as temperature detection, clinical manifestations, and nucleic acid testing are used to comprehensively determine whether patients are infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. However, during the peak period of COVID-19 outbreaks and in underdeveloped regions, medical staff and high-tech detection equipment were limited, resulting in the continued spread of the disease. Thus, a more portable, cost-effective, and automated auxiliary screening method is necessary. OBJECTIVE: We aim to apply a machine learning algorithm and non-contact monitoring system to automatically screen potential COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We used impulse-radio ultra-wideband radar to detect respiration, heart rate, body movement, sleep quality, and various other physiological indicators. We collected 140 radar monitoring data from 23 COVID-19 patients in Wuhan Tongji Hospital and compared them with 144 radar monitoring data from healthy controls. Then, the XGBoost and logistic regression (XGBoost + LR) algorithms were used to classify the data according to patients and healthy subjects. RESULTS: The XGBoost + LR algorithm demonstrated excellent discrimination (precision = 92.5%, recall rate = 96.8%, AUC = 98.0%), outperforming other single machine learning algorithms. Furthermore, the SHAP value indicates that the number of apneas during REM, mean heart rate, and some sleep parameters are important features for classification. CONCLUSION: The XGBoost + LR-based screening system can accurately predict COVID-19 patients and can be applied in hotels, nursing homes, wards, and other crowded locations to effectively help medical staff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Logistic Models , Monitoring, Physiologic , Radar , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Drug Evaluation Research ; 43(4):591-600, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1352917

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the potential mechanism of Tankejing in the treatment of respiratory system based on network pharmacology, and to evaluate the possibility of Tankejing in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia.

6.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(6): 6259-6269, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267011

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccines are considered the most effective protection against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Human Challenge Studies can help to shorten the development process of vaccines. The reviewers' opinions from research ethics committees (REC) play an essential gate-keeping role in determining whether a clinical trial can be conducted or not. METHODS: A convergent mixed-methods study was conducted in a leading general hospital in China. A total of 58 REC members from the institution were invited to participate in an online questionnaire survey. According to the result of the quantitative survey, 15 of these REC members were purposefully selected to participate in qualitative interviews further. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistical techniques, and thematic analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. Findings from the quantitative and qualitative analyses were synthesized to deeply illustrate the attitudes, views, and suggestions of REC members on human challenge studies to develop COVID-19 vaccination. RESULTS: The response rate of the online questionnaire was 62% (36/58), and 15 of the respondents were interviewed. All participants deemed that the human challenge study should provide compensation to its participants and that sufficiently informed consent is necessary. The human challenge study was disagreed with by 38.9% of participants. The key points of concern raised were representativeness and fairness of participant selection, benefit, and risk, vulnerable groups, compensation to participants, informed consent, and general view on human challenge studies. CONCLUSIONS: Human challenge studies helped accelerate the development of vaccines for disease control to a certain extent, but the bottom line of medical ethics should not have been broken. At any time, the rights and interests of research participants should come first.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , China , Ethics Committees, Research , Humans , Informed Consent , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Appl Math Comput ; 398: 125983, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1031636

ABSTRACT

Social distancing can be divided into two categories: spontaneous social distancing adopted by the individuals themselves, and public social distancing promoted by the government. Both types of social distancing have been proved to suppress the spread of infectious disease effectively. While previous studies examined the impact of each social distancing separately, the simultaneous impacts of them are less studied. In this research, we develop a mathematical model to analyze how spontaneous social distancing and public social distancing simultaneously affect the outbreak threshold of an infectious disease with asymptomatic infection. A communication-contact two-layer network is constructed to consider the difference between spontaneous social distancing and public social distancing. Based on link overlap of the two layers, the two-layer network is divided into three subnetworks: communication-only network, contact-only network, and overlapped network. Our results show that public social distancing can significantly increase the outbreak threshold of an infectious disease. To achieve better control effect, the subnetwork of higher infection risk should be more targeted by public social distancing, but the subnetworks of lower infection risk shouldn't be overlooked. The impact of spontaneous social distancing is relatively weak. On the one hand, spontaneous social distancing in the communication-only network has no impact on the outbreak threshold of the infectious disease. On the other hand, the impact of spontaneous social distancing in the overlapped network is highly dependent on the detection of asymptomatic infection sources. Moreover, public social distancing collaborates with infection detection on controlling an infectious disease, but their impacts can't add up perfectly. Besides, public social distancing is slightly less effective than infection detection, because infection detection can also promote spontaneous social distancing.

9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(48): e23357, 2020 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-944499

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak globally, repurposing approved drugs is emerging as important therapeutic options. Danoprevir boosted by ritonavir (Ganovo) is a potent hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease (NS3/4A) inhibitor, which was approved and marketed in China since 2018 to treat chronic hepatitis C patients. METHODS: This is an open-label, single arm study evaluating the effects of danoprevir boosted by ritonavir on treatment naïve and experienced COVID-19 patients for the first time. Patients received danoprevir boosted by ritonavir (100 mg/100 mg, twice per day). The primary endpoint was the rate of composite adverse outcomes and efficacy was also evaluated. RESULTS: The data showed that danoprevir boosted by ritonavir is safe and well tolerated in all patients. No patient had composite adverse outcomes during this study. After initiation of danoprevir/ritonavir treatment, the first negative reverse real-time PCR (RT-PCR) test occurred at a median of 2 days, ranging from 1 to 8 days, and the obvious absorption in CT scans occurred at a median 3 days, ranging from 2 to 4 days. After 4 to 12-day treatment of danoprevir boosted by ritonavir, all enrolled 11 patients were discharged from the hospital. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that repurposing danoprevir for COVID-19 is a promising therapeutic option.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cyclopropanes/therapeutic use , Isoindoles/therapeutic use , Lactams, Macrocyclic/therapeutic use , Proline/analogs & derivatives , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cyclopropanes/administration & dosage , Cyclopropanes/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Isoindoles/administration & dosage , Isoindoles/adverse effects , Lactams, Macrocyclic/administration & dosage , Lactams, Macrocyclic/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Proline/administration & dosage , Proline/adverse effects , Proline/therapeutic use , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Sulfonamides/adverse effects , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
10.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 15: 2487-2494, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-874299

ABSTRACT

Background: Social distancing and restriction measures during the COVID-19 epidemic may have impacts on medication availability and healthcare utilization for COPD patients, and thereby affect standard disease management. We aimed to investigate the change of respiratory symptoms, pharmacological treatment and healthcare utilization of COPD patients during the epidemic in Beijing, China. Methods: We conducted a single-center, cross-sectional survey performed at Peking University Third Hospital and recruited patients with COPD who were interviewed by phone call. Clinical data, including respiratory symptoms, pharmacological treatment, management and healthcare access before and during the COVID-19 epidemic from January 25 to April 25, 2020, were collected. Results: A total of 153 patients were enrolled for analysis. Before the epidemic, 81.7% (125/153) had long-term maintenance medication and ICS/LABA (60.8%) and LAMA (57.5%) were most commonly used. During the epidemic, 75.2% (115/153) maintained their pharmacological treatment and 6.5% (10/153) had to reduce or stop taking medications, with a slight decrease of patients taking ICS/LABA (53.6%) and LAMA (56.9%). Most of the patients [76.5% (117/153)] had a low symptom burden, with a CAT score <10 during the epidemic. Of 153 patients, 45 (29.4%) patients reported worsening of respiratory symptoms but only 15.6% (7/45) sought medical care in hospitals, while the remaining expressed concerns about cross-infection in the hospital (55.5%, 25/45) or had mild symptoms which were managed by themselves (28.8%, 13/45). Conclusion: During the COVID-19 epidemic in Beijing, most of our COPD patients maintained their long-term pharmacological treatment and had mild-to-moderate symptoms. Approximately, 30.0% of the patients experienced worsening of respiratory symptoms, but most of them did not seek medical care in the hospital due to concerns about cross-infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Beijing , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Management
12.
Appl Math Comput ; 388: 125536, 2021 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670600

ABSTRACT

The interaction between epidemic spreading and information diffusion is an interdisciplinary research problem. During an epidemic, people tend to take self-protective measures to reduce the infection risk. However, with the diffusion of rumor, people may be difficult to make an appropriate choice. How to reduce the negative impact of rumor and to control epidemic has become a critical issue in the social network. Elaborate mathematical model is instructive to understand such complex dynamics. In this paper, we develop a two-layer network to model the interaction between the spread of epidemic and the competitive diffusions of information. The results show that knowledge diffusion can eradicate both rumor and epidemic, where the penetration intensity of knowledge into rumor plays a vital role. Specifically, the penetration intensity of knowledge significantly increases the thresholds for rumor and epidemic to break out, even when the self-protective measure is not perfectly effective. But eradicating rumor shouldn't be equated with eradicating epidemic. The epidemic can be eradicated with rumor still diffusing, and the epidemic may keep spreading with rumor being eradicated. Moreover, the communication-layer network structure greatly affects the spread of epidemic in the contact-layer network. When people have more connections in the communication-layer network, the knowledge is more likely to diffuse widely, and the rumor and epidemic can be eradicated more efficiently. When the communication-layer network is sparse, a larger penetration intensity of knowledge into rumor is required to promote the diffusion of knowledge.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL