Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 22
Filter
1.
British Journal of Educational Technology ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1831976

ABSTRACT

This study explored two different ways for K‐12 school teachers to access educational makerspace through virtual fieldtrips. K‐12 school teachers from rural areas of the Southeast USA were divided into two groups. The experimental group (n = 48) drove telepresence robots to take their fieldtrip, while the comparison group (n = 23) watched the same fieldtrip through a recorded video. Analyses of the quantitative and qualitative data, collected through surveys and written reflections, showed that the experimental group reported significantly higher scores in embodiment, social presence and engagement (ie, behaviour, emotion and cognition) than the comparison group, and that actual driving the robots for the virtual fieldtrips was highlighted as a favored experience. Educational significance and implications are discussed. Practitioner notes What is currently known about this topic With makerspaces gaining increasing attention in K‐12 education, professional development (PD) opportunities are needed to help teachers understand makerspaces and related technologies. Teachers in rural areas are faced with the challenges of accessing makerspace resources and opportunities, especially during the COVID‐19 pandemic. Little research has explored teacher makerspace PD in rural areas. Maker resource deficiency in rural areas and the COVID‐19 pandemic call for an alternative approach to the makerspace PD, particularly for teachers in rural areas. What this paper adds Explored the use of telepresence robots for rural teachers to access an authentic makerspace through virtual fieldtrips. Examined the effects of virtual fieldtrip to access makerspaces on K‐12 teachers' embodiment, social presence and engagement. Examined the aspects of the telepresence fieldtrip that were most valuable to K‐12 teachers. Investigated the factors that contribute to teachers' engagement in a virtual fieldtrip. Implications for practitioners Telepresence robot was an effective tool that enabled teachers in rural areas to explore authentic makerspaces through a virtual trip over distance. To help teachers conceptualize the idea of makerspace, it is important to allow teachers to move in the physical makerspace and interact with the environment. To design an engaging fieldtrip that triggers active learning, more attention should be given to how to develop the emotional aspect of a fieldtrip experience. Embodiment plays an important role in virtual fieldtrips. When teachers have a higher level of embodiment, they are more likely to be emotionally and cognitively engaged in a fieldtrip experience. What is currently known about this topic With makerspaces gaining increasing attention in K‐12 education, professional development (PD) opportunities are needed to help teachers understand makerspaces and related technologies. Teachers in rural areas are faced with the challenges of accessing makerspace resources and opportunities, especially during the COVID‐19 pandemic. Little research has explored teacher makerspace PD in rural areas. Maker resource deficiency in rural areas and the COVID‐19 pandemic call for an alternative approach to the makerspace PD, particularly for teachers in rural areas. What this paper adds Explored the use of telepresence robots for rural teachers to access an authentic makerspace through virtual fieldtrips. Examined the effects of virtual fieldtrip to access makerspaces on K‐12 teachers' embodiment, social presence and engagement. Examined the aspects of the telepresence fieldtrip that were most valuable to K‐12 teachers. Investigated the factors that contribute to teachers' engagement in a virtual fieldtrip. Implications for practitioners Telepresence robot was an effective tool that enabled teachers in rural areas to explore authentic makerspaces through a virtual trip over distance. To help teachers conceptualize the idea of makerspace, it is important to allow teachers to move in the physical makerspace and interact with the environment. To design an engagi g fieldtrip that triggers active learning, more attention should be given to how to develop the emotional aspect of a fieldtrip experience. Embodiment plays an important role in virtual fieldtrips. When teachers have a higher level of embodiment, they are more likely to be emotionally and cognitively engaged in a fieldtrip experience. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of British Journal of Educational Technology is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

3.
Endocr Pract ; 2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729761

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has demonstrated benefits in managing inpatient diabetes. We initiated this single-arm pilot feasibility study during the COVID-19 pandemic in 11 patients to determine the feasibility and accuracy of real-time CGM in cardiac surgery patients with diabetes after their transition of care from the intensive care unit(ICU). METHODS: Clarke Error Grid(CEG) analysis was used to compare CGM and point-of-care(POC) measurements. Mean absolute relative difference(MARD) of the paired measurements was calculated to assess the accuracy of the CGM for glucose measurements during the first 24 hours on CGM, the remainder of time on the CGM as well as for different chronic kidney disease(CKD) strata. RESULTS: Overall MARD between POC and CGM measurements was 14.80%. MARD for patients without CKD IV and V with eGFR < 20 ml/min/1.73m2 was 12.13%. Overall, 97% of the CGM values were within the no-risk zone of the CEG analysis. For the first 24 hours, a sensitivity analysis of the overall MARD for all subjects and for those with eGFR > 20 ml/min/1.73m2 was 15.42% (+/- 14.44) and 12.80% (+/- 7.85) respectively. Beyond the first 24 hours, overall MARD for all subjects and for those with eGFR > 20 ml/min/1.73m2 was 14.54% (+/- 13.21) and 11.86% (+/- 7.64) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: CGM has great promise to optimize inpatient diabetes management in the noncritical care setting and after the transition of care from the ICU with high clinical reliability, and accuracy. More studies are needed to further assess CGM in patients with advanced CKD.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308177

ABSTRACT

Background: In late December, 2019, patients of atypical pneumonia due to an unidentified microbial agent were reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Subsequently, a novel coronavirus was identified as the causative pathogen which was named 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). As of Feb 12, 2020, more than 44,000 cases of 2019-nCoV infection have been confirmed in China and continue to expand. Provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions of China have launched first-level response to major public health emergencies one after another from Jan 23.2020, which means restricting movement of people among provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between the migration scale index and the number of confirmed Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (NCP) cases and to depict the effect of restricting population movement. Methods: : Excel 2010 was used to demonstrate the temporal distribution at the day level and SPSS 23.0 was used to analyze the correlation between the migration scale index and the number of confirmed NCP cases. Results: : Since January 23, 2020, Wuhan migration scale index has dropped significantly and since January 26, 2020, Hubei province migration scale index has dropped significantly. New confirmed NCP cases per day in China except Wuhan gradually increased since January 24, 2020, and showed a downward trend from February 6, 2020. New confirmed NCP cases per day in China except Hubei province gradually increased since January 24, 2020, and maintained at a high level from January 24, 2020 to February 4, 2020, then showed a downward trend. Wuhan emigration scale index from January 9 to January 22, January 10 to January 23 and January 11 to January 24 was correlated with the number of new confirmed NCP cases per day in China except Wuhan from January 22 to February 4. Hubei province emigration scale index from January 10 to January 23 and January 11 to January 24 was correlated with the number of new confirmed NCP cases per day in China except Hubei province from January 22 to February 4. Conclusions: : People who left Wuhan from January 9 to January 22 may lead to the outbreak in China except Wuhan and people who left Hubei province from January 10 to January 24 may lead to the outbreak in China except Hubei province. “Wuhan lockdown” and Hubei province launching first-level response to major public health emergencies may have had a good effect the control NCP epidemic. Because there were still new confirmed NCP cases in China except Wuhan and in China except Hubei province and this may indicate that the occurrence of second-generation cases.

5.
Viruses ; 14(1)2022 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625478

ABSTRACT

Although many persons in the United States have acquired immunity to COVID-19, either through vaccination or infection with SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 will pose an ongoing threat to non-immune persons so long as disease transmission continues. We can estimate when sustained disease transmission will end in a population by calculating the population-specific basic reproduction number ℛ0, the expected number of secondary cases generated by an infected person in the absence of any interventions. The value of ℛ0 relates to a herd immunity threshold (HIT), which is given by 1-1/ℛ0. When the immune fraction of a population exceeds this threshold, sustained disease transmission becomes exponentially unlikely (barring mutations allowing SARS-CoV-2 to escape immunity). Here, we report state-level ℛ0 estimates obtained using Bayesian inference. Maximum a posteriori estimates range from 7.1 for New Jersey to 2.3 for Wyoming, indicating that disease transmission varies considerably across states and that reaching herd immunity will be more difficult in some states than others. ℛ0 estimates were obtained from compartmental models via the next-generation matrix approach after each model was parameterized using regional daily confirmed case reports of COVID-19 from 21 January 2020 to 21 June 2020. Our ℛ0 estimates characterize the infectiousness of ancestral strains, but they can be used to determine HITs for a distinct, currently dominant circulating strain, such as SARS-CoV-2 variant Delta (lineage B.1.617.2), if the relative infectiousness of the strain can be ascertained. On the basis of Delta-adjusted HITs, vaccination data, and seroprevalence survey data, we found that no state had achieved herd immunity as of 20 September 2021.


Subject(s)
Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/immunology , Epidemics , Humans , Immunity, Herd , SARS-CoV-2 , Uncertainty , United States/epidemiology
6.
Gut ; 71(2): 238-253, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622066

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Helicobacter pylori infection is mostly a family-based infectious disease. To facilitate its prevention and management, a national consensus meeting was held to review current evidence and propose strategies for population-wide and family-based H. pylori infection control and management to reduce the related disease burden. METHODS: Fifty-seven experts from 41 major universities and institutions in 20 provinces/regions of mainland China were invited to review evidence and modify statements using Delphi process and grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation system. The consensus level was defined as ≥80% for agreement on the proposed statements. RESULTS: Experts discussed and modified the original 23 statements on family-based H. pylori infection transmission, control and management, and reached consensus on 16 statements. The final report consists of three parts: (1) H. pylori infection and transmission among family members, (2) prevention and management of H. pylori infection in children and elderly people within households, and (3) strategies for prevention and management of H. pylori infection for family members. In addition to the 'test-and-treat' and 'screen-and-treat' strategies, this consensus also introduced a novel third 'family-based H. pylori infection control and management' strategy to prevent its intrafamilial transmission and development of related diseases. CONCLUSION: H. pylori is transmissible from person to person, and among family members. A family-based H. pylori prevention and eradication strategy would be a suitable approach to prevent its intra-familial transmission and related diseases. The notion and practice would be beneficial not only for Chinese residents but also valuable as a reference for other highly infected areas.


Subject(s)
Family Health , Helicobacter Infections/prevention & control , Helicobacter pylori , Infection Control/organization & administration , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Consensus , Delphi Technique , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Helicobacter Infections/transmission , Humans , Infant , Middle Aged , Young Adult
7.
Science China. Chemistry ; : 1-17, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1615421

ABSTRACT

Cost-effective, rapid, and accurate virus detection technologies play key roles in reducing viral transmission. Prompt and accurate virus detection enables timely treatment and effective quarantine of virus carrier, and therefore effectively reduces the possibility of large-scale spread. However, conventional virus detection techniques often suffer from slow response, high cost or sophisticated procedures. Recently, two-dimensional (2D) materials have been used as promising sensing platforms for the high-performance detection of a variety of chemical and biological substances. The unique properties of 2D materials, such as large specific area, active surface interaction with biomolecules and facile surface functionalization, provide advantages in developing novel virus detection technologies with fast response and high sensitivity. Furthermore, 2D materials possess versatile and tunable electronic, electrochemical and optical properties, making them ideal platforms to demonstrate conceptual sensing techniques and explore complex sensing mechanisms in next-generation biosensors. In this review, we first briefly summarize the virus detection techniques with an emphasis on the current efforts in fighting again COVID-19. Then, we introduce the preparation methods and properties of 2D materials utilized in biosensors, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and other 2D materials. Furthermore, we discuss the working principles of various virus detection technologies based on emerging 2D materials, such as field-effect transistor-based virus detection, electrochemical virus detection, optical virus detection and other virus detection techniques. Then, we elaborate on the essential works in 2D material-based high-performance virus detection. Finally, our perspective on the challenges and future research direction in this field is discussed.

8.
Bioinformatics ; 2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606856

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Bayesian inference in biological modeling commonly relies on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling of a multidimensional and non-Gaussian posterior distribution that is not analytically tractable. Here, we present the implementation of a practical MCMC method in the open-source software package PyBioNetFit (PyBNF), which is designed to support parameterization of mathematical models for biological systems. The new MCMC method, am, incorporates an adaptive move proposal distribution. For warm starts, sampling can be initiated at a specified location in parameter space and with a multivariate Gaussian proposal distribution defined initially by a specified covariance matrix. Multiple chains can be generated in parallel using a computer cluster. We demonstrate that am can be used to successfully solve real-world Bayesian inference problems, including forecasting of new Coronavirus Disease 2019 case detection with Bayesian quantification of forecast uncertainty. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: PyBNF version 1.1.9, the first stable release with am, is available at PyPI and can be installed using the pip package-management system on platforms that have a working installation of Python 3. PyBNF relies on libRoadRunner and BioNetGen for simulations (e.g., numerical integration of ordinary differential equations defined in SBML or BNGL files) and Dask.Distributed for task scheduling on Linux computer clusters. The Python source code can be freely downloaded/cloned from GitHub and used and modified under terms of the BSD-3 license (https://github.com/lanl/pybnf). Online documentation covering installation/usage is available (https://pybnf.readthedocs.io/en/latest/). A tutorial video is available on YouTube (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2aRqpqFOiS4&t=63s). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295600

ABSTRACT

Bayesian inference in biological modeling commonly relies on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling of a multidimensional and non-Gaussian posterior distribution that is not analytically tractable. Here, we present the implementation of a practical MCMC method in the open-source software package PyBioNetFit (PyBNF), which is designed to support parameterization of mathematical models for biological systems. The new MCMC method, am, incorporates an adaptive move proposal distribution. For warm starts, sampling can be initiated at a specified location in parameter space and with a multivariate Gaussian proposal distribution defined initially by a specified covariance matrix. Multiple chains can be generated in parallel using a computer cluster. We demonstrate that am can be used to successfully solve real-world Bayesian inference problems, including forecasting of new Coronavirus Disease 2019 case detection with Bayesian quantification of forecast uncertainty. PyBNF version 1.1.9, the first stable release with am, is available at PyPI and can be installed using the pip package-management system on platforms that have a working installation of Python 3. PyBNF relies on libRoadRunner and BioNetGen for simulations (e.g., numerical integration of ordinary differential equations defined in SBML or BNGL files) and Dask.Distributed for task scheduling on Linux computer clusters.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294455

ABSTRACT

To characterize Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission dynamics in each of the 15 most populous metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in the United States (US) from January 2020 to September 2021, we extended a previously reported compartmental model accounting for effects of multiple distinct periods of social distancing by adding consideration of vaccination and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants Alpha (lineage B.1.1.7) and Delta (lineage B.1.617.2). For each MSA, we found region-specific parameterizations of the model using daily reports of new COVID-19 cases available from January 21, 2020 to August 24, 2021. In the process, we obtained estimates of the relative infectiousness of Alpha and Delta as well as their takeover times in each MSA. We find that 14-d ahead forecasts are reasonably accurate;these forecasts are being updated daily. Projections made on August 24, 2021 suggest that 5 of the 15 MSAs have already achieved herd immunity.

12.
Clin Hemorheol Microcirc ; 78(2): 199-207, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352794

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is a new type of epidemic pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The population is generally susceptible to COVID-19, which mainly causes lung injury. Some cases may develop severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Currently, ARDS treatment is mainly mechanical ventilation, but mechanical ventilation often causes ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) accompanied by hypercapnia in 14% of patients. Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) can remove carbon dioxide from the blood of patients with ARDS, correct the respiratory acidosis, reduce the tidal volume and airway pressure, and reduce the incidence of VILI. CASE REPORT: Two patients with critical COVID-19 combined with multiple organ failure undertook mechanical ventilation and suffered from hypercapnia. ECCO2R, combined with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), was conducted concomitantly. In both cases (No. 1 and 2), the tidal volume and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) were down-regulated before the treatment and at 1.5 hours, one day, three days, five days, eight days, and ten days after the treatment, together with a noticeable decrease in PCO2 and clear increase in PO2, while FiO2 decreased to approximately 40%. In case No 2, compared with the condition before treatment, the PCO2 decreased significantly with down-regulation in the tidal volume and PEEP and improvement in the pulmonary edema and ARDS after the treatment. CONCLUSION: ECCO2R combined with continuous blood purification therapy in patients with COVID-19 who are criti-cally ill and have ARDS and hypercapnia might gain both time and opportunity in the treatment, down-regulate the ventilator parameters, reduce the incidence of VILI and achieve favorable therapeutic outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Carbon Dioxide/isolation & purification , Extracorporeal Circulation/methods , Hemofiltration/methods , Hypercapnia/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Hypercapnia/physiopathology , Hypercapnia/virology , Male , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology
13.
World J Pediatr ; 17(3): 263-271, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279501

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to explore the characteristics of Kawasaki disease (KD) and concurrent pathogens due to a stay-at-home isolation policy during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. METHODS: All patients with KD admitted between February and April in 2015-2020, were classified into before (group 1, in 2015-2019) and after (group 2, in 2020) isolation groups. A total of 4742 patients [with KD (n = 98) and non-KD (n = 4644)] referred to Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) and virus detection were analyzed in 2020. Clinical characteristics, laboratory data, and 13 pathogens were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Group 2 had a significantly increased incidence of KD (0.11%) with 107 patients compared to that of group 1 (0.03%) with 493 patients. The comparisons of oral mucosal change, strawberry tongue, desquamation of the fingertips, cervical lymphadenopathy and neutrophil percentage decreased in group 2 compared to group 1. The infection rate of MP increased significantly in group 2 (34.7%) compared to group 1 (19.3%), while the positive rate of viruses decreased significantly in group 2 (5.3%) compared to group 1 (14.3%). In 2020, the positive rate of MP infection increased significantly in patients with KD compared to the increase in patients with non-KD. The infection rate of MP for younger children aged less than 3 years old was higher in group 2 than in group 1. CONCLUSION: Compared with the characteristics of KD from 2015 to 2019 years, the incidence of KD was increased in 2020 and was accompanied by a high incidence of MP infection, especially in younger children (less than 3 years old) during the isolation due to COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Physical Distancing , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/virology
14.
Research of Environmental Sciences ; 33(7):1640-1648, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1196355

ABSTRACT

During the outbreak of novel coronavirus pneumonia(COVID-19), chlorinated disinfectants were widely used. The chlorinated disinfectants will react with the organic matter in surface water, and the reaction products are chlorinated disinfection by-products(CDBPs). Common CDBPs include halomethanes, haloacetic acids, inorganic haloxate, haloacetonitriles, cyanogen halides,halonitromethane, haloacetaldehyde and other CDBPs.In view of the continued discovery and study of CDBPs, the types and hazards of CDBPs reported in the literature were reviewed. The results indicate that most of the CDBPs have 'three effects' of carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic toxicity, threatening aquatic biosecurity and human health. Although the current research mainly focuses on CDBPs in drinking water,a few studies have confirmed that CDBPs are also detected in surface water. Because large amount of chlorine disinfectants are used during the COVID-19 outbreak,it is recommended to screen the main CDBPs in the surface water containing residual chlorine, conduct targeted monitoring, promot the rational use of disinfectants and strengthen supervision. CDBPs should be added to surface water quality standards and industry wastewater discharge standards. Finally, the secondary environmental impacts on the surface water ecosystems can be avoided.

15.
Artif Organs ; 45(7): 762-769, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978684

ABSTRACT

Our aim was to investigate the effect of artificial liver blood purification treatment on the survival of severe/critical patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A total of 101 severe and critical patients with coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled in this open, case-control, multicenter, prospective study. According to the patients' and their families' willingness, they were divided into two groups. One was named the treatment group, in which the patients received artificial liver therapy plus comprehensive treatment (n = 50), while the other was named the control group, in which the patients received only comprehensive treatment (n = 51). Clinical data and laboratory examinations, as well as the 28-day mortality rate, were collected and analyzed. Baseline data comparisons on average age, sex, pre-treatment morbidity, initial symptoms, vital signs, pneumonia severity index score, blood routine examination and biochemistry indices etc. showed no difference between the two groups. Cytokine storm was detected, with a significant increase of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) level. The serum IL-6 level decreased from 119.94 to 20.49 pg/mL in the treatment group and increased from 40.42 to 50.81 pg/mL in the control group (P < .05), indicating that artificial liver therapy significantly decreased serum IL-6. The median duration of viral nucleic acid persistence was 19 days in the treatment group (ranging from 6 to 67 days) and 17 days in the control group (ranging from 3 to 68 days), no significant difference was observed (P = .36). As of 28-day follow-up,17 patients in the treatment group experienced a median weaning time of 24 days, while 11 patients in the control group experienced a median weaning time of 35 days, with no significant difference between the two groups (P = .33). The 28-day mortality rates were 16% (8/50) in the treatment group and 50.98% (26/51) in the control group, with a significant difference (z = 3.70, P < .001). Cytokine storm is a key factor in the intensification of COVID-19 pneumonia. The artificial liver therapy blocks the cytokine storm by clearing inflammatory mediators, thus preventing severe cases from progressing to critically ill stages and markedly reducing short-term mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Liver, Artificial , Plasma Exchange/instrumentation , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/blood , Female , Hospital Mortality , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma Exchange/adverse effects , Plasma Exchange/mortality , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
16.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 54(10): 833-840, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963399

ABSTRACT

Performance of endoscopic procedures is associated with a risk of infection from COVID-19. This risk can be reduced by the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). However, shortage of PPE has emerged as an important issue in managing the pandemic in both traditionally high and low-resource areas. A group of clinicians and researchers from thirteen countries representing low, middle, and high-income areas has developed recommendations for optimal utilization of PPE before, during, and after gastrointestinal endoscopy with particular reference to low-resource situations. We determined that there is limited flexibility with regard to the utilization of PPE between ideal and low-resource settings. Some compromises are possible, especially with regard to PPE use, during endoscopic procedures. We have, therefore, also stressed the need to prevent transmission of COVID-19 by measures other than PPE and to conserve PPE by reduction of patient volume, limiting procedures to urgent or emergent, and reducing the number of staff and trainees involved in procedures. This guidance aims to optimize utilization of PPE and protection of health care providers.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/economics , Health Resources/economics , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/statistics & numerical data , Female , Gastroenterology/standards , Global Health , Humans , Infection Control/organization & administration , Internationality , Male , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Poverty , Societies, Medical
17.
19.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e99, 2020 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-306263

ABSTRACT

In late December 2019, patients of atypical pneumonia due to an unidentified microbial agent were reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Subsequently, a novel coronavirus was identified as the causative pathogen which was named SARS-CoV-2. As of 12 February 2020, more than 44 000 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection have been confirmed in China and continue to expand. Provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions of China have launched first-level response to major public health emergencies one after another from 23 January 2020, which means restricting movement of people among provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between the migration scale index and the number of confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and to depict the effect of restricting population movement. In this study, Excel 2010 was used to demonstrate the temporal distribution at the day level and SPSS 23.0 was used to analyse the correlation between the migration scale index and the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases. We found that since 23 January 2020, Wuhan migration scale index has dropped significantly and since 26 January 2020, Hubei province migration scale index has dropped significantly. New confirmed COVID-19 cases per day in China except for Wuhan gradually increased since 24 January 2020, and showed a downward trend from 6 February 2020. New confirmed COVID-19 cases per day in China except for Hubei province gradually increased since 24 January 2020, and maintained at a high level from 24 January 2020 to 4 February 2020, then showed a downward trend. Wuhan migration scale index from 9 January to 22 January, 10 January to 23 January and 11 January to 24 January was correlated with the number of new confirmed COVID-19 cases per day in China except for Wuhan from 22 January to 4 February. Hubei province migration scale index from 10 January to 23 January and 11 January to 24 January was correlated with the number of new confirmed COVID-19 cases per day in China except for Hubei province from 22 January to 4 February. Our findings suggested that people who left Wuhan from 9 January to 22 January, and those who left Hubei province from 10 January to 24 January, led to the outbreak in the rest of China. The 'Wuhan lockdown' and the launching of the first-level response to this major public health emergency may have had a good effect on controlling the COVID-19 epidemic. Although new COVID-19 cases continued to be confirmed in China outside Wuhan and Hubei provinces, in our opinion, these are second-generation cases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Time
20.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(8): 1391-1399, 2020 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-188089

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly contagious virus that can transmit through respiratory droplets, aerosols, or contacts. Frequent touching of contaminated surfaces in public areas is therefore a potential route of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. The inanimate surfaces have often been described as a source of nosocomial infections. However, summaries on the transmissibility of coronaviruses from contaminated surfaces to induce the coronavirus disease 2019 are rare at present. This review aims to summarize data on the persistence of different coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces. The literature was systematically searched on Medline without language restrictions. All reports with experimental evidence on the duration persistence of coronaviruses on any type of surface were included. Most viruses from the respiratory tract, such as coronaviruses, influenza, SARS-CoV, or rhinovirus, can persist on surfaces for a few days. Persistence time on inanimate surfaces varied from minutes to up to one month, depending on the environmental conditions. SARS-CoV-2 can be sustained in air in closed unventilated buses for at least 30 min without losing infectivity. The most common coronaviruses may well survive or persist on surfaces for up to one month. Viruses in respiratory or fecal specimens can maintain infectivity for quite a long time at room temperature. Absorbent materials like cotton are safer than unabsorbent materials for protection from virus infection. The risk of transmission via touching contaminated paper is low. Preventive strategies such as washing hands and wearing masks are critical to the control of coronavirus disease 2019.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL