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1.
Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol ; 17(1): 67, 2021 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690881

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A significant portion of COVID-19 sufferers have asthma. The impacts of asthma on COVID-19 progression are still unclear but a modifying effect is plausible as respiratory viruses are acknowledged to be an important trigger for asthma exacerbations and a different, potentially type-2 biased, immune response might occur. In this study, we compared the blood circulating cytokine response to COVID-19 infection in patients with and without asthma. METHODS: Plasma samples and clinical information were collected from 80 patients with mild (25), severe (36) or critical (19) COVID-19 and 29 healthy subjects at the John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK. The concentrations of 51 circulating proteins in the plasma samples were measured with Luminex and compared between groups. RESULTS: Total 16 pre-existing asthma patients were found (3 in mild, 10 in severe, and 3 in critical COVID-19). The prevalence of asthma in COVID-19 severity groups did not suggest a clear correlation between asthma and COVID-19 severity. Within the same COVID-19 severity group, no differences were observed between patients with or without asthma on oxygen saturation, CRP, neutrophil counts, and length of hospital stay. The mortality in the COVID-19 patients with asthma (12.5%) was not higher than that in patients without asthma (17.2%). No significant difference was found between asthmatic and non-asthmatic in circulating cytokine response in different COVID-19 severity groups, including the cytokines strongly implicated in COVID-19 such as CXCL10, IL-6, CCL2, and IL-8. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-existing asthma was not associated with an enhanced cytokine response after COVID-19 infection, disease severity or mortality.

2.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(9): e1009804, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416909

ABSTRACT

Prior studies have demonstrated that immunologic dysfunction underpins severe illness in COVID-19 patients, but have lacked an in-depth analysis of the immunologic drivers of death in the most critically ill patients. We performed immunophenotyping of viral antigen-specific and unconventional T cell responses, neutralizing antibodies, and serum proteins in critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, using influenza infection, SARS-CoV-2-convalescent health care workers, and healthy adults as controls. We identify mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cell activation as an independent and significant predictor of death in COVID-19 (HR = 5.92, 95% CI = 2.49-14.1). MAIT cell activation correlates with several other mortality-associated immunologic measures including broad activation of CD8+ T cells and non-Vδ2 γδT cells, and elevated levels of cytokines and chemokines, including GM-CSF, CXCL10, CCL2, and IL-6. MAIT cell activation is also a predictor of disease severity in influenza (ECMO/death HR = 4.43, 95% CI = 1.08-18.2). Single-cell RNA-sequencing reveals a shift from focused IFNα-driven signals in COVID-19 ICU patients who survive to broad pro-inflammatory responses in fatal COVID-19 -a feature not observed in severe influenza. We conclude that fatal COVID-19 infection is driven by uncoordinated inflammatory responses that drive a hierarchy of T cell activation, elements of which can serve as prognostic indicators and potential targets for immune intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, CD/immunology , Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Proteins/metabolism , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness/mortality , Female , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Influenza, Human/immunology , Lectins, C-Type/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells/immunology , Patient Acuity
3.
Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol ; 17(1): 67, 2021 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A significant portion of COVID-19 sufferers have asthma. The impacts of asthma on COVID-19 progression are still unclear but a modifying effect is plausible as respiratory viruses are acknowledged to be an important trigger for asthma exacerbations and a different, potentially type-2 biased, immune response might occur. In this study, we compared the blood circulating cytokine response to COVID-19 infection in patients with and without asthma. METHODS: Plasma samples and clinical information were collected from 80 patients with mild (25), severe (36) or critical (19) COVID-19 and 29 healthy subjects at the John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK. The concentrations of 51 circulating proteins in the plasma samples were measured with Luminex and compared between groups. RESULTS: Total 16 pre-existing asthma patients were found (3 in mild, 10 in severe, and 3 in critical COVID-19). The prevalence of asthma in COVID-19 severity groups did not suggest a clear correlation between asthma and COVID-19 severity. Within the same COVID-19 severity group, no differences were observed between patients with or without asthma on oxygen saturation, CRP, neutrophil counts, and length of hospital stay. The mortality in the COVID-19 patients with asthma (12.5%) was not higher than that in patients without asthma (17.2%). No significant difference was found between asthmatic and non-asthmatic in circulating cytokine response in different COVID-19 severity groups, including the cytokines strongly implicated in COVID-19 such as CXCL10, IL-6, CCL2, and IL-8. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-existing asthma was not associated with an enhanced cytokine response after COVID-19 infection, disease severity or mortality.

4.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(7): 682-689, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254904

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Currently, as the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a pandemic, rapidly obtaining accurate information of patient symptoms and their progression is crucial and vital. Although the early studies in China have illustrated that the representative symptoms of COVID-19 include (dry) cough, fever, headache, fatigue, gastrointestinal discomfort, dyspnea, and muscle pain, there is increasing evidence to suggest that olfactory and taste disorder are related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, we conduct this study to review the present literature about the correlation between anosmia or dysgeusia and COVID-19. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search in 2020 of the electronic journal databases, mainly PubMed or Web of Science, was performed using the keywords COVID-19 or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with hyposmia, anosmia, dysgeusia, olfactory disorder, or olfactory dysfunction. The country, study period, case number, inpatient or outpatient medical visit, evaluation method (subjective complaints of dysfunction or objective evaluation), and occurrence rate of olfactory or gustatory function were reviewed. RESULTS: Many studies reported that the recoverable olfactory or gustatory dysfunction may play an important role as the early clinical symptom of COVID-19. It is associated with better prognosis, although further investigation and validation should be carried out. CONCLUSION: Studies have shown that smell and taste disturbances may represent an early symptom of COVID-19 and healthcare professionals must be very vigilant when managing patients with these symptoms. In the pandemic era, this implies testing for COVID-19 by healthcare workers with full personal protective equipment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/etiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans
5.
Pathogens ; 10(2)2021 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106109

ABSTRACT

Chloroquine (CQ) and its derivative, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), have attracted wide attention for treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, conflicting outcomes have been found in COVID-19 clinical trials after treatment with CQ or HCQ. To date, it remains uncertain whether CQ and HCQ are beneficial antiviral drugs for combating COVID-19. We performed a systematic review to depict the efficacy of CQ or HCQ for the treatment of COVID-19. The guidelines of PRISMA were used to conduct this systematic review. We searched through articles from PubMed, Web of Science and other sources that were published from 1 January 2020 to 31 October 2020. The search terms included combinations of human COVID-19, CQ, and HCQ. Eleven qualitative articles comprising of four clinical trials and seven observation studies were utilized in our systematic review. The analysis shows that CQ and HCQ do not have efficacy in treatment of patients with severe COVID-19. In addition, CQ and HCQ have caused life-threatening adverse reactions which included cardiac arrest, electrocardiogram modification, and QTc prolongation, particularly during the treatment of patients with severe COVID-19. Our systematic review suggested that CQ and HCQ are not beneficial antiviral drugs for curing patients with severe COVID-19. The treatment effect of CQ and HCQ is not only null but also causes serious side effects, which may cause potential cardiotoxicity in severe COVID-19 patients.

6.
Nat Immunol ; 21(11): 1336-1345, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889210

ABSTRACT

The development of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines and therapeutics will depend on understanding viral immunity. We studied T cell memory in 42 patients following recovery from COVID-19 (28 with mild disease and 14 with severe disease) and 16 unexposed donors, using interferon-γ-based assays with peptides spanning SARS-CoV-2 except ORF1. The breadth and magnitude of T cell responses were significantly higher in severe as compared with mild cases. Total and spike-specific T cell responses correlated with spike-specific antibody responses. We identified 41 peptides containing CD4+ and/or CD8+ epitopes, including six immunodominant regions. Six optimized CD8+ epitopes were defined, with peptide-MHC pentamer-positive cells displaying the central and effector memory phenotype. In mild cases, higher proportions of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells were observed. The identification of T cell responses associated with milder disease will support an understanding of protective immunity and highlights the potential of including non-spike proteins within future COVID-19 vaccine design.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Humans , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , United Kingdom , Viral Vaccines/immunology
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