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1.
Nutrients ; 14(8):1678, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1792588

ABSTRACT

For older adults, self-care begins with daily health behaviors (DHB), which refers to a series of basic behaviors beneficial to health in daily life;it is the foundation for promoting health, preventing disease, and maintaining health with or without the support of a healthcare provider. Thus, this study aimed to observe the changes in DHB among older adults when the COVID-19 pan-demic first erupted in China (at the beginning of 2020) and explore the impact factors on self-care routines in daily life. We applied a cross-sectional study among 1256 (83.7%) valid older Chinese from 19 February 2020 to 19 March 2020, the score of DHB changes (mean ±SD, 14.70 ±2.140;range, 8–18) presented a significant growth (t1256 = 44.636, p < 0.001) during COVID-19. From 3 hierarchical linear regression models, the older Chinese who received a higher education include high school (β= 0.403, 95% CI [0.009, 0.797], p = 0.045) and college degree and above (β= 0.488, 95% CI [0.034, 0.943], p = 0.035), and lived in the eastern China (β= 0.771, 95% CI [0.392, 1.151], p < 0.001) took DHB more frequently. However, the high-risk infection (β= −0.740, 95% CI [−1.248, −0.231], p = 0.004), overweight/obese character (β= −0.265, 95% CI [−0.526, −0.004], p = 0.047), and alcohol consumption (β= −0.350, 95% CI [−0.634, −0.065], p = 0.016) are significant factors in decreasing a senior's DHB performance. For China, self-care offers a straightforward strategy among the range of measures required to combat COVID-19 and future health threats. In summary, findings in this study can build a foundation for developing healthcare policy and services for the relevant government and departments on prompting DHB and the importance of self-care among the older population.

2.
J Virol ; : e0003822, 2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788914

ABSTRACT

Due to the limitation of human studies with respect to individual difference or the accessibility of fresh tissue samples, how severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection results in pathological complications in lung, the main site of infection, is still incompletely understood. Therefore, physiologically relevant animal models under realistic SARS-CoV-2 infection conditions would be helpful to our understanding of dysregulated inflammation response in lung in the context of targeted therapeutics. Here, we characterized the single-cell landscape in lung and spleen upon SARS-CoV-2 infection in an acute severe disease mouse model that replicates human symptoms, including severe lung pathology and lymphopenia. We showed a reduction of lymphocyte populations and an increase of neutrophils in lung and then demonstrated the key role of neutrophil-mediated lung immunopathology in both mice and humans. Under severe conditions, neutrophils recruited by a chemokine-driven positive feedback produced elevated "fatal signature" proinflammatory genes and pathways related to neutrophil activation or releasing of granular content. In addition, we identified a new Cd177high cluster that is undergoing respiratory burst and Stfahigh cluster cells that may dampen antigen presentation upon infection. We also revealed the devastating effect of overactivated neutrophil by showing the highly enriched neutrophil extracellular traps in lung and a dampened B-cell function in either lung or spleen that may be attributed to arginine consumption by neutrophil. The current study helped our understanding of SARS-CoV-2-induced pneumonia and warranted the concept of neutrophil-targeting therapeutics in COVID-19 treatment. IMPORTANCE We demonstrated the single-cell landscape in lung and spleen upon SARS-CoV-2 infection in an acute severe disease mouse model that replicated human symptoms, including severe lung pathology and lymphopenia. Our comprehensive study revealed the key role of neutrophil-mediated lung immunopathology in SARS-CoV-2-induced severe pneumonia, which not only helped our understanding of COVID-19 but also warranted the concept of neutrophil targeting therapeutics in COVID-19 treatment.

3.
PLoS Biol ; 20(3): e3001592, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770633

ABSTRACT

Gastrointestinal effects associated with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) are highly variable for reasons that are not understood. In this study, we used intestinal organoid-derived cultures differentiated from primary human specimens as a model to examine interindividual variability. Infection of intestinal organoids derived from different donors with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) resulted in orders of magnitude differences in virus replication in small intestinal and colonic organoid-derived monolayers. Susceptibility to infection correlated with angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression level and was independent of donor demographic or clinical features. ACE2 transcript levels in cell culture matched the amount of ACE2 in primary tissue, indicating that this feature of the intestinal epithelium is retained in the organoids. Longitudinal transcriptomics of organoid-derived monolayers identified a delayed yet robust interferon signature, the magnitude of which corresponded to the degree of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Interestingly, virus with the Omicron variant spike (S) protein infected the organoids with the highest infectivity, suggesting increased tropism of the virus for intestinal tissue. These results suggest that heterogeneity in SARS-CoV-2 replication in intestinal tissues results from differences in ACE2 levels, which may underlie variable patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Humans , Organoids , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Econ Polit (Bologna) ; : 1-19, 2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767781

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic has revealed the essential role of care work in sustaining life, health, and maintaining the basics of everyday existence. It has also made visible the disproportionate burden of care work on women that existed before the outbreak, which has intensified rapidly and been gravely exposed during the pandemic. In this article, we take China as a case study to investigate the gendered impact of this pandemic and further problematize the landscape of care provision. With a feminist political economy perspective, we introduce China's provisioning of care prior to the outbreak and investigate how the care crisis has further deepened in the pandemic. Drawing on the most recent data available on China's experience, we explore the role and function of community-centered social infrastructure, an assemblage of state, family, and local resources, in effectively combating the virus and providing care. We further provide comparative international evidence to demonstrate the essential role of community care infrastructure in this pandemic. Building social infrastructure to deliver care at the community level presents important policy implication, especially for many developing countries. Therefore, a critical reflection and discussion on pandemics and women is not only more vital than ever, but also sheds light on the endeavour to develop long-term solutions for the care crisis that will almost certainly outlive the current pandemic.

5.
J Virol ; : e0016922, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765080

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1) and SARS-CoV-2 are highly pathogenic to humans and have caused pandemics in 2003 and 2019, respectively. Genetically diverse SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs) have been detected or isolated from bats, and some of these viruses have been demonstrated to utilize human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor and to have the potential to spill over to humans. A pan-sarbecovirus vaccine that provides protection against SARSr-CoV infection is urgently needed. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine against recombinant SARSr-CoVs carrying two different spike proteins (named rWIV1 and rRsSHC014S, respectively). Although serum neutralizing assays showed limited cross-reactivity between the three viruses, the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine provided full protection against SARS-CoV-2 and rWIV1 and partial protection against rRsSHC014S infection in human ACE2 transgenic mice. Passive transfer of SARS-CoV-2-vaccinated mouse sera provided low protection for rWIV1 but not for rRsSHC014S infection in human ACE2 mice. A specific cellular immune response induced by WIV1 membrane protein peptides was detected in the vaccinated animals, which may explain the cross-protection of the inactivated vaccine. This study shows the possibility of developing a pan-sarbecovirus vaccine against SARSr-CoVs for future preparedness. IMPORTANCE The genetic diversity of SARSr-CoVs in wildlife and their potential risk of cross-species infection highlight the necessity of developing wide-spectrum vaccines against infection of various SARSr-CoVs. In this study, we tested the protective efficacy of the SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine (IAV) against two SARSr-CoVs with different spike proteins in human ACE2 transgenic mice. We demonstrate that the SARS-CoV-2 IAV provides full protection against rWIV1 and partial protection against rRsSHC014S. The T-cell response stimulated by the M protein may account for the cross protection against heterogeneous SARSr-CoVs. Our findings suggest the feasibility of the development of pan-sarbecovirus vaccines, which can be a strategy of preparedness for future outbreaks caused by novel SARSr-CoVs from wildlife.

6.
Cancer Med ; 2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748778

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Oncology telemedicine was implemented rapidly after COVID-19. We examined multilevel correlates and outcomes of telemedicine use for patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT) for cancer. METHODS: Upon implementation of a telemedicine platform at a comprehensive cancer center, we analyzed 468 consecutive patient RT courses from March 16, 2020 to June 1, 2020. Patients were categorized as using telemedicine during ≥1 weekly oncologist visits versus in-person oncologist management only. Temporal trends were evaluated with Cochran-Armitage tests; chi-squared test and multilevel multivariable logistic models identified correlates of use and outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, 33% used telemedicine versus 67% in-person only oncologist management. Temporal trends (ptrend  < 0.001) correlated with policy changes: uptake was rapid after local social-distancing restrictions, reaching peak use (35% of visits) within 4 weeks of implementation. Use declined to 15% after national "Opening Up America Again" guidelines. In the multilevel model, patients more likely to use telemedicine were White non-Hispanic versus Black or Hispanic (odds ratio [OR] = 2.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-4.72; p = 0.04) or receiving ≥6 fractions of RT versus 1-5 fractions (OR = 4.49, 95% CI 2.29-8.80; p < 0.001). Model intraclass correlation coefficient demonstrated 43% utilization variation was physician-level driven. Treatment toxicities and 30-day emergency visits or unplanned hospitalizations did not differ for patients using versus not using telemedicine (p > 0.05, all comparisons). CONCLUSION: Though toxicities were similar with telemedicine oncology management, there remained lower uptake among non-White patients. Continuing strategies for oncology telemedicine implementation should address multilevel patient, physician, and policy factors to optimize telemedicine's potential to surmount-and not exacerbate-barriers to quality cancer care.

7.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-330005

ABSTRACT

We propose a mixed frequency spatial VAR (MF-SVAR) modeling framework to measure the effectiveness of policies conditional on the spillover and diffusion effects of the global pandemic and unemployment interactions. We study the effects of two aspects of policy effectiveness, namely policy start date and policy timeliness, from a spatio-temporal aspect. The spatial panel data contain weekly new case growth rates and monthly unemployment rate changes for 68 countries across 6 continents at mixed frequencies from January 2020 to August 2021. We find that government policies have a significant impact on the growth of new cases, but marginal on the change in unemployment rates. For policy effectiveness, the start date of the policy is critical. In terms of both immediate impact on the near term and the total impact over the following four weeks, the $4

8.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 83, 2022 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740428

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 induced marked lymphopenia in severe patients with COVID-19. However, whether lymphocytes are targets of viral infection is yet to be determined, although SARS-CoV-2 RNA or antigen has been identified in T cells from patients. Here, we confirmed that SARS-CoV-2 viral antigen could be detected in patient peripheral blood cells (PBCs) or postmortem lung T cells, and the infectious virus could also be detected from viral antigen-positive PBCs. We next prove that SARS-CoV-2 infects T lymphocytes, preferably activated CD4 + T cells in vitro. Upon infection, viral RNA, subgenomic RNA, viral protein or viral particle can be detected in the T cells. Furthermore, we show that the infection is spike-ACE2/TMPRSS2-independent through using ACE2 knockdown or receptor blocking experiments. Next, we demonstrate that viral antigen-positive T cells from patient undergone pronounced apoptosis. In vitro infection of T cells induced cell death that is likely in mitochondria ROS-HIF-1a-dependent pathways. Finally, we demonstrated that LFA-1, the protein exclusively expresses in multiple leukocytes, is more likely the entry molecule that mediated SARS-CoV-2 infection in T cells, compared to a list of other known receptors. Collectively, this work confirmed a SARS-CoV-2 infection of T cells, in a spike-ACE2-independent manner, which shed novel insights into the underlying mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2-induced lymphopenia in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Animals , Caco-2 Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Vero Cells
9.
iScience ; 25(4): 104046, 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734556

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown some efficacy in the COVID-19 treatment. We proposed that exogenous supplementation of ACE2 via MSCs (ACE2-MSCs) might have better therapeutic effects. We constructed SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein stably transfected AT-II and Beas-2B cells and used SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudovirus to infect hACE2 transgenic mice. The results showed that spike glycoprotein transfection triggers the release of apoptotic bodies and formation of membrane pores in pyroptosis. Inflammatory factors and pyroptosis factors were highly upregulated by spike glycoprotein transfection. SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudovirus worsened lung injury and increased the main factors of cytokine storm and pyroptosis. Compared to using MSCs or rh-ACE2 alone, the administration of ACE2-MSCs could significantly reduce these factors better and alleviate lung injury in vivo and in vitro, which might be because of the increased activities of secretory ACE2. Our proposal is a promising therapeutic solution for preclinical or clinical research.

11.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2022 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701116

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In-person religious service attendance has been linked to favorable health and well-being outcomes. However, little research has examined whether online religious participation improves these outcomes, especially when in-person attendance is suspended. METHODS: Using longitudinal data of 8951 UK adults, this study prospectively examined the association between frequency of online religious participation during the stringent lockdown in the UK (23 March -13 May 2020) and 21 indicators of psychological well-being, social well-being, pro-social/altruistic behaviors, psychological distress, and health behaviors. All analyses adjusted for baseline socio-demographic characteristics, pre-pandemic in-person religious service attendance, and prior values of the outcome variables whenever data were available. Bonferroni correction was used to correct for multiple testing. RESULTS: Individuals with online religious participation of ≥1/week (v. those with no participation at all) during the lockdown had a lower prevalence of thoughts of self-harm in week 20 (odds ratio 0.24; 95% CI 0.09-0.62). Online religious participation of <1/week (v. no participation) was associated with higher life satisfaction (standardized ß = 0.25; 0.11-0.39) and happiness (standardized ß = 0.25; 0.08-0.42). However, there was little evidence for the associations between online religious participation and all other outcomes (e.g. depressive symptoms and anxiety). CONCLUSIONS: There was evidence that online religious participation during the lockdown was associated with some subsequent health and well-being outcomes. Future studies should examine mechanisms underlying the inconsistent results for online v. in-person religious service attendance and also use data from non-pandemic situations.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324302

ABSTRACT

Background: The ongoing outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to declaration of public health emergency of international concern by World Health Organization and the first-level public health emergency response in China. We aimed to share the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism taken in Mainland China and evaluate the effectiveness. Methods: A powerful Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism was adopted to fight against COVID-19 in Mainland China. Data were collected from the daily epidemic reports released by the national and provincial health commissions of China from January 21 to April 6, 2020. Global data were collected from daily situation reports by World Health Organization. Results: As of April 6, 2020, there were 81,740 confirmed COVID-19 cases (32 new) in Mainland China. The case fatality ratio was 4.74% and 0.85% in and outside Hubei respectively. It is gratifying to see that there were up to 22 provinces reporting zero new infections, but it can’t be ignored that there were 1,196,651 confirmed cases (68,700 new) reported in over 221 countries and territories outside China and the total death number were 69,274, nowadays China is facing great challenges of imported cases. Conclusions: Great achievements have been made in controlling the spread of COVID-19 in Mainland China, but it is still a major challenge worldwide. The comprehensive and powerful control measures taken by Mainland China have proved to be effective and might be applicable to other regions.

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323544

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection can lead to a series of clinical settings from non-symptomatic viral carriers/spreaders to severe illness characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)1,2. A sizable part of patients with COVID-19 have mild clinical symptoms at the early stage of infection, but the disease progression may become quite rapid in the later stage with ARDS as the common manifestation and followed by critical multiple organ failure, causing a high mortality rate of 7-10% in the elderly population with underlying chronic disease1-3. The pathological investigation in the lungs and other organs of fatal cases is fundamental for the mechanistic understanding of severe COVID-19 and the development of specific therapy in these cases. Gross anatomy and molecular markers allowed us to identify, in two fatal patients subject to necropsy, the main pathological features such as exudation and hemorrhage, epithelium injuries, infiltration of macrophages and fibrosis in the lungs. The mucous plug with fibrinous exudate in the alveoli and the activation of alveolar macrophages were characteristic abnormalities. These findings shed new insights into the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and justify the use of interleukin 6 (IL6) receptor antagonists and convalescent plasma with neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 for severe patients.Authors Chaofu Wang, Jing Xie, Lei Zhao, Xiaochun Fei, Heng Zhang, and Yun Tan contributed equally to this work. Authors Chaofu Wang, Jun Cai, Rong Chen, Zhengli Shi, and Xiuwu Bian jointly supervised this work.

14.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322627

ABSTRACT

Background: There have been inconsistent reports regarding the unique manifestations of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurring in China. This study analyzed the clinical manifestation of 13 severe COVID-19 cases at a single institution and compared the data to previously reported characteristics of severe COVID-19 in China. Methods: : This retrospective case study included patients with severe COVID-19 who were admitted to the isolation ward of the Shandong Chest Hospital from January 2020 to February 2020. The clinical signs and symptoms, laboratory examination results, imaging features, treatment strategies, and patient prognoses were summarized. A database search was then conducted for studies published through December 2020 documenting characteristics of severe COVID-19 cases in China. The pooled results for severe COVID-19 patients in China were calculated by using the random-effects model. Results: : A total of 4 severe and 9 critical patients were included from Shandong Chest Hospital. The average patient age was 55.3 (range 23-88) years, and 61.5% of patients were male. Chest computed tomography for all patients showed multiple lesions as ground-glass shadows in both lungs. All patients presented bacterial infection and various degrees of liver and myocardial injury. The treatment strategies for patients included antibiotics, immunoglobulin, and glucocorticoids, and mechanical ventilation was used in all patients for respiratory failure. Two patients died, and 11 recovered. In the pooled data for severe COVID-19 patients, the most common comorbidities were hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and coronary heart disease. The common signs in these patients were fever, cough, fatigue, chest tightness, and a leukocyte count > 10. Conclusions: : Older males with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and coronary heart disease may be at higher risk of developing severe COVID-19. Patients should be assessed for concomitant bacterial infections. Cardiac and liver enzymes, fever, cough, fatigue, chest tightness, and leukocytosis should be monitored for signs of disease progression.

16.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315773

ABSTRACT

Italy was the first, among all the European countries, to be strongly hit by the Covid-19 pandemic outbreak caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2). The virus, proven to be very contagious, infected more than 9 million people worldwide (in June 2020). Nevertheless, it is not clear the role of air pollution and meteorological conditions on virus transmission. In this study, we quantitatively assessed how the meteorological and air quality parameters are correlated to the Covid-19 transmission in Lombardy (Northern Italy), the region epicenter of the virus outbreak. Our main findings highlight that temperature and humidity related variables are negatively correlated to the virus transmission, whereas air pollution (PM 2.5 ) shows a positive correlation. In other words, Covid-19 pandemic transmission prefers dry and cool environmental conditions, as well as polluted air. For these reasons, the virus might easier spread in unfiltered air-conditioned environments. Those results will be supporting decision makers to contain new possible outbreaks.

17.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315772

ABSTRACT

Italy was the first, among all the European countries, to be strongly hit by the Covid-19 pandemic outbreak caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2). The virus, proven to be very contagious, infected more than 9 million people worldwide (in June 2020). Nevertheless, it is not clear the role of air pollution and meteorological conditions on virus transmission. In this study, we quantitatively assessed how the meteorological and air quality parameters are correlated to the Covid-19 transmission in Lombardy (Northern Italy), the region epicenter of the virus outbreak. Our main findings highlight that temperature and humidity related variables are negatively correlated to the virus transmission, whereas air pollution (PM2.5) shows a positive correlation. In other words, Covid-19 pandemic transmission prefers dry and cool environmental conditions, as well as polluted air. For these reasons, the virus might easier spread in unfiltered air-conditioned environments. Those results will be supporting decision makers to contain new possible outbreaks.

18.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315486

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the resilience of medical workers from other provinces to Wuhan to support fighting against 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19). Methods : In February 2020, medical works supporting Wuhan in the fighting against COVID-19 were eligible to complete an online survey made up of Connor Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ). Results : A total of 114 medical workers were investigated. The CD-RISC scores of medical workers were at a high level (67.03±13.22). The resilience level was highest for physicians (73.48±11.49), followed by supporting staff, including health care assistants, technicians (67.78±12.43) and nurses (64.86±13.46). There were also significant differences in education, training and support from hospital, adequate preparation and confidence to complete support tasks (P<0. 05). Resilience was negatively correlated with anxiety (r=-.498, P<0.01) and depression (r=-.471, P<0.01), but positively correlated with active coping styles (r=.733, P<0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed that active coping (β=1.314, p<0.05), depression (β= -.806, p<0.05), anxiety (β= -1.091, p<0.05) and training and support from hospital (β= -3.510, p<0.05) were significant influence factors of resilience. Conclusion : The manager of the health management system should be aware that active coping, depression, anxiety and training, and support from hospitals are the influential factor of resilience. In addition, it is necessary to need to take these preferences into account and develop psychosocial interventions to help reinforce the resilience of medical works fighting emerging contagious diseases such as COVID-19.

19.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308312

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread globally and resulted in the COVID-19 pandemic worldwide. To depict the psychological and behavioral responses, and knowledge of nursing interns who are facing the COVID-19 epidemic in China, we conducted a knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) survey using a convenience sample in the First People’s Hospital of Lianyungang, Kangda College of Nanjing Medical University, Jiangsu Province, China. Methods: : A combination of a face-to-face questionnaire survey and an online survey was used for nursing interns from 12 Chinese universities. The Symptom Checklist 90 was used to investigate anxiety and depression of the nursing interns during the COVID-19 epidemic. Self-designed questionnaires were used to investigate behavioral responses, COVID-19-related knowledge, and preventive measures. Results: : During the COVID-19 epidemic, the mean score of anxiety of 237 surveyed nursing interns were not statistically significantly different with that of the Chinese norm (1.42 vs. 1.39, P = 0.354). However, the mean score of depression of them were lower than that of the Chinese norm (1.22 vs. 1.50, P < 0.001). However, no statistically significant difference in the anxiety or depression was found between demographic subgroups. The most common way for the nursing interns to seek for help was asking for instructor or other medical professionals (89.45%). When the nursing interns had suspected symptoms, they will most likely go to the hospital for treatment (97.89%). The nursing interns have good knowledge regarding the origin and prevention of COVID-19 (correct percentage > 94%), however less knowledge regarding treatment and incubation (correct percentage < 10%). Conclusion: The nursing interns showed relative lower depression in the face of COVID-19 public health emergencies, and took proper preventive measures during the epidemic, however, were lack of certain epidemiology knowledge about COVID-19.

20.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308306

ABSTRACT

The recurrent coronavirus outbreaks in China (SARS-CoV and its relative, SARS-CoV-2) have raised speculations that perhaps Asians are somehow more susceptible to these coronaviruses. Here, we test this possibility based on an analysis of the lung-specific expression of ACE2, which encodes the known cell-entry receptor of both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. We show that ACE2 expression is not affected during tumorigenesis, supporting that the abundant transcriptomes in cancer genomic studies can be informatively used to study ACE2 expression among diverse individuals without cancer. We find that ACE2 expression in the lung increases with age, but is not associated with sex. Further, Asians do not differ from other populations for ACE2 expression and do not harbor unique genetic polymorphisms in the ACE2 locus. Thus, beyond illustrating an innovative method for assessing the potential impacts of demographic factors for non-cancer diseases from large-scale cancer sample datasets, our statistically robust findings emphasize that individuals of all races require the same level of personal protection against SARS-CoV-2.

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