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1.
Preprint | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-297102

ABSTRACT

TMEM16F, a Ca2+-activated phospholipid scramblase (CaPLSase), is critical for placental trophoblast syncytialization, HIV infection, and SARS-CoV2-mediated syncytialization. How TMEM16F is activated during cell fusion is unclear. Here, we used trophoblasts as a model for cell fusion and demonstrated that Ca2+ influx through Ca2+ permeable transient receptor potential vanilloid channel TRPV4 is critical for TMEM16F activation and subsequent human trophoblast fusion. GSK1016790A, a TRPV4 specific agonist, robustly activates TMEM16F in trophoblasts. Patch-clamp electrophysiology demonstrated that TRPV4 and TMEM16F are functionally coupled within Ca2+ microdomains in human trophoblasts. Pharmacological inhibition or gene silencing of TRPV4 hindered TMEM16F activation and subsequent trophoblast syncytialization. Our study uncovers the functional expression of TRPV4 and a physiological activation mechanism of TMEM16F in human trophoblasts, thus providing us with novel strategies to regulate CaPLSase activity as a critical checkpoint of physiologically- and disease-relevant cell fusion events.

3.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296170

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has impacted the world in unprecedented ways since first emerging in December 2019. In the last two years, the scientific community has made an enormous effort to understand COVID-19 and potential interventions. As of June 15, 2021, there were more than 140,000 COVID-19 focused manuscripts on PubMed and preprint servers, such as medRxiv and BioRxiv . Preprints, which constitute more than 15% of all manuscripts, may contain more up-to-date research findings compared to published papers, due to the sometimes lengthy timeline between manuscript submission and publication. Including preprints in systematic reviews and meta-analyses thus has the potential to improve the timeliness of reviews. However, there is no clear guideline on whether preprints should be included in systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Using a prototypical example of a rapid systematic review examining the comparative effectiveness of COVID-19 therapeutics, we propose including all preprints in the systematic review by assigning them a weight we term the “confidence score”. Motivated by our observation that, unlike the traditional journal submission process which is unobserved, the timeline from submission to publication for a preprint can be observed and can be modeled as a time-to-event outcome. This observation provides a unique opportunity to model and quantify the probability that a preprint will be published, which can be used as a confidence score to weight preprints in systematic reviews and meta-analyses. To obtain the confidence score, we propose a novel survival cure model, which incorporates both the time from posting to publication for a preprint, and key characteristics of the study described in the content of the preprint. Using meta data from 158 preprints on evaluating therapeutic options for COVID-19 posted through 09/03/2020, we demonstrate the utility of the confidence score in weighting of preprints in a systematic review. Our proposed method has the potential to advance timely systematic reviews of the evidence examining COVID-19 and other clinical conditions with rapidly evolving evidence bases by providing an approach for inclusion of unpublished manuscripts.

4.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 712081, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497098

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is mainly associated with respiratory distress syndrome, but a subset of patients often present gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Imbalances of gut microbiota have been previously linked to respiratory virus infection. Understanding how the gut-lung axis affects the progression of COVID-19 can provide a novel framework for therapies and management. In this study, we examined the gut microbiota of patients with COVID-19 (n = 47) and compared it to healthy controls (n = 19). Using shotgun metagenomic sequencing, we have identified four microorganisms unique in COVID-19 patients, namely Streptococcus thermophilus, Bacteroides oleiciplenus, Fusobacterium ulcerans, and Prevotella bivia. The abundances of Bacteroides stercoris, B. vulgatus, B. massiliensis, Bifidobacterium longum, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lachnospiraceae bacterium 5163FAA, Prevotella bivia, Erysipelotrichaceae bacterium 6145, and Erysipelotrichaceae bacterium 2244A were enriched in COVID-19 patients, whereas the abundances of Clostridium nexile, Streptococcus salivarius, Coprococcus catus, Eubacterium hallii, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Adlercreutzia equolifaciens were decreased (p < 0.05). The relative abundance of butyrate-producing Roseburia inulinivorans is evidently depleted in COVID-19 patients, while the relative abundances of Paraprevotella sp. and the probiotic Streptococcus thermophilus were increased. We further identified 30 KEGG orthology (KO) modules overrepresented, with 7 increasing and 23 decreasing modules. Notably, 15 optimal microbial markers were identified using the random forest model to have strong diagnostic potential in distinguishing COVID-19. Based on Spearman's correlation, eight species were associated with eight clinical indices. Moreover, the increased abundance of Bacteroidetes and decreased abundance of Firmicutes were also found across clinical types of COVID-19. Our findings suggest that the alterations of gut microbiota in patients with COVID-19 may influence disease severity. Our COVID-19 classifier, which was cross-regionally verified, provides a proof of concept that a set of microbial species markers can distinguish the presence of COVID-19.

5.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 731974, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485049

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is causing a worldwide epidemic. It spreads very fast and hits people of all ages, especially patients with underlying diseases such as diabetes. In this review, we focus on the influences of diabetes on the outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the involved mechanisms including lung dysfunction, immune disorder, abnormal expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), overactivation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, and increased furin level. On the other hand, SARS-CoV-2 may trigger the development of diabetes. It causes the damage of pancreatic ß cells, which is probably mediated by ACE2 protein in the islets. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 may aggravate insulin resistance through attacking other metabolic organs. Of note, certain anti-diabetic drugs (OADs), such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) activator and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, have been shown to upregulate ACE2 in animal models, which may increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, Metformin, as a first-line medicine for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), may be a potential drug benefiting diabetic patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, probably via a suppression of mTOR signaling together with its anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrosis function in lung. Remarkably, another kind of OADs, dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitor, may also exert beneficial effects in this respect, probably via a prevention of SARS-CoV-2 binding to cells. Thus, it is of significant to identify appropriate OADs for the treatment of diabetes in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/pharmacology , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Lung/drug effects , Lung/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 701836, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394782

ABSTRACT

Background: It is much valuable to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prevention and control in the non-pharmacological intervention phase of the pandemic across countries and identify useful experiences that could be generalized worldwide. Methods: In this study, we developed a susceptible-exposure-infectious-asymptomatic-removed (SEIAR) model to fit the daily reported COVID-19 cases in 160 countries. The time-varying reproduction number (R t ) that was estimated through fitting the mathematical model was adopted to quantify the transmissibility. We defined a synthetic index (I AC ) based on the value of R t to reflect the national capability to control COVID-19. Results: The goodness-of-fit tests showed that the SEIAR model fitted the data of the 160 countries well. At the beginning of the epidemic, the values of R t of countries in the European region were generally higher than those in other regions. Among the 160 countries included in the study, all European countries had the ability to control the COVID-19 epidemic. The Western Pacific Region did best in continuous control of the epidemic, with a total of 73.76% of countries that can continuously control the COVID-19 epidemic, while only 43.63% of the countries in the European Region continuously controlled the epidemic, followed by the Region of Americas with 52.53% of countries, the Southeast Asian Region with 48% of countries, the African Region with 46.81% of countries, and the Eastern Mediterranean Region with 40.48% of countries. Conclusion: Large variations in controlling the COVID-19 epidemic existed across countries. The world could benefit from the experience of some countries that demonstrated the highest containment capabilities.

7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 141, 2021 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387322

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses spike (S) glycoproteins mediate viral entry into host cells by binding to host receptors. However, how the S1 subunit undergoes conformational changes for receptor recognition has not been elucidated in Alphacoronavirus. Here, we report the cryo-EM structures of the HCoV-229E S trimer in prefusion state with two conformations. The activated conformation may pose the potential exposure of the S1-RBDs by decreasing of the interaction area between the S1-RBDs and the surrounding S1-NTDs and S1-RBDs compared to the closed conformation. Furthermore, structural comparison of our structures with the previously reported HCoV-229E S structure showed that the S trimers trended to open the S2 subunit from the closed conformation to open conformation, which could promote the transition from pre- to postfusion. Our results provide insights into the mechanisms involved in S glycoprotein-mediated Alphacoronavirus entry and have implications for vaccine and therapeutic antibody design.


Subject(s)
CD13 Antigens/metabolism , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Cell Line, Tumor , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Models, Molecular , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Multimerization/physiology , Protein Structure, Quaternary , Protein Subunits/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure
8.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 76, 2021 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380898

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection causes a broad clinical spectrum of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The development of COVID-19 may be the result of a complex interaction between the microbial, environmental, and host genetic components. To reveal genetic determinants of susceptibility to COVID-19 severity in the Chinese population, we performed a genome-wide association study on 885 severe or critical COVID-19 patients (cases) and 546 mild or moderate patients (controls) from two hospitals, Huoshenshan and Union hospitals at Wuhan city in China. We identified two loci on chromosome 11q23.3 and 11q14.2, which are significantly associated with the COVID-19 severity in the meta-analyses of the two cohorts (index rs1712779: odds ratio [OR] = 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38-0.63 for T allele; P = 1.38 × 10-8; and index rs10831496: OR = 1.66; 95% CI, 1.38-1.98 for A allele; P = 4.04 × 10-8, respectively). The results for rs1712779 were validated in other two small COVID-19 cohorts in the Asian populations (P = 0.029 and 0.031, respectively). Furthermore, we identified significant eQTL associations for REXO2, C11orf71, NNMT, and CADM1 at 11q23.3, and CTSC at 11q14.2, respectively. In conclusion, our findings highlight two loci at 11q23.3 and 11q14.2 conferring susceptibility to the severity of COVID-19, which might provide novel insights into the pathogenesis and clinical treatment of this disease.

9.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 800-811, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343640

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims at reviewing novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) datasets extracted from PubMed Central articles, thus providing quantitative analysis to answer questions related to dataset contents, accessibility and citations. METHODS: We downloaded COVID-19-related full-text articles published until 31 May 2020 from PubMed Central. Dataset URL links mentioned in full-text articles were extracted, and each dataset was manually reviewed to provide information on 10 variables: (1) type of the dataset, (2) geographic region where the data were collected, (3) whether the dataset was immediately downloadable, (4) format of the dataset files, (5) where the dataset was hosted, (6) whether the dataset was updated regularly, (7) the type of license used, (8) whether the metadata were explicitly provided, (9) whether there was a PubMed Central paper describing the dataset and (10) the number of times the dataset was cited by PubMed Central articles. Descriptive statistics about these seven variables were reported for all extracted datasets. RESULTS: We found that 28.5% of 12 324 COVID-19 full-text articles in PubMed Central provided at least one dataset link. In total, 128 unique dataset links were mentioned in 12 324 COVID-19 full text articles in PubMed Central. Further analysis showed that epidemiological datasets accounted for the largest portion (53.9%) in the dataset collection, and most datasets (84.4%) were available for immediate download. GitHub was the most popular repository for hosting COVID-19 datasets. CSV, XLSX and JSON were the most popular data formats. Additionally, citation patterns of COVID-19 datasets varied depending on specific datasets. CONCLUSION: PubMed Central articles are an important source of COVID-19 datasets, but there is significant heterogeneity in the way these datasets are mentioned, shared, updated and cited.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Datasets as Topic , Information Dissemination/methods , PubMed , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Humans
10.
Environ Microbiol ; 2021 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341220

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused high number of infections and deaths of healthcare workers globally. Distribution and possible transmission route of SARS-CoV-2 in hospital environment should be clarified. We herein collected 431 environmental (391 surface and 40 air) samples in the intensive care unit (ICU) and general wards (GWs) of three hospitals in Wuhan, China from February 21 to March 4, 2020, and detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA by real-time quantitative PCR. The viral positive rate in the contaminated areas was 17.8% (28/157), whereas there was no virus detected in the clean areas. Higher positive rate (22/59, 37.3%) was found in ICU than that in GWs (3/63, 4.8%). The surfaces of computer keyboards and mouse in the ICU were the most contaminated (8/10, 80.0%), followed by the ground (6/9, 66.7%) and outer glove (2/5, 40.0%). From 17 air samples in the contaminated areas, only one sample collected at a distance of around 30 cm from the patient was positive. Enhanced surface disinfection and hand hygiene effectively decontaminated the virus from the environment. This finding might help understand the transmission route and contamination risk of SARS-CoV-2 and evaluate the effectiveness of infection prevention and control measures in healthcare facilities.

11.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(11): 3219-3226, 2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340779

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with multiple metabolic diseases are at high risk for the occurrence and death of COVID-19. Little is known about patients with underweight and metabolically healthy obesity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of BMI and COVID-19 mortality in hospitalized patients, and also explore the association in different metabolically healthy (MHS) and unhealthy status (MUS). METHODS AND RESULTS: A retrospective cohort study based on 3019 inpatients from Wuhan was conducted. Included patients were classified into four groups according the BMI level (underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity), and patients with at least one of the metabolic abnormalities (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia) was defined as MUS. Multiple Cox model was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR). Compared to patients with normal weight, the HRs of overweight and obesity for COVID-19 mortality were 1.91 (95%CI:1.02-3.58) and 2.54 (95%CI:1.22-5.25) respectively in total patients, and 2.58 (95%CI:1.16-5.75) and 3.89 (95%CI:1.62-9.32) respectively in the elderly. The HR of underweight for COVID-19 mortality was 4.58 (95%CI:1.56-13.48) in the elderly. For different metabolic statuses, both underweight, overweight and obesity had obviously negative association with COVID-19 mortality in total and elderly patients with MUS. However, no significance was found in non-elderly and patients with MHS. CONCLUSION: Not only overweight or obesity, but also underweight can be associated with COVID-9 mortality, especially in the elderly and in patients with MUS. More large-scale studies are needed for patients with underweight and metabolically healthy overweight or obesity.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Thinness/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity, Metabolically Benign/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Methods Inf Med ; 60(1-02): 32-48, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331415

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The electronic health record (EHR) has become increasingly ubiquitous. At the same time, health professionals have been turning to this resource for access to data that is needed for the delivery of health care and for clinical research. There is little doubt that the EHR has made both of these functions easier than earlier days when we relied on paper-based clinical records. Coupled with modern database and data warehouse systems, high-speed networks, and the ability to share clinical data with others are large number of challenges that arguably limit the optimal use of the EHR OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to provide an exhaustive reference for those who use the EHR in clinical and research contexts, but also for health information systems professionals as they design, implement, and maintain EHR systems. METHODS: This study includes a panel of 24 biomedical informatics researchers, information technology professionals, and clinicians, all of whom have extensive experience in design, implementation, and maintenance of EHR systems, or in using the EHR as clinicians or researchers. All members of the panel are affiliated with Penn Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and have experience with a variety of different EHR platforms and systems and how they have evolved over time. RESULTS: Each of the authors has shared their knowledge and experience in using the EHR in a suite of 20 short essays, each representing a specific challenge and classified according to a functional hierarchy of interlocking facets such as usability and usefulness, data quality, standards, governance, data integration, clinical care, and clinical research. CONCLUSION: We provide here a set of perspectives on the challenges posed by the EHR to clinical and research users.


Subject(s)
Electronic Health Records , Health Information Systems , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Humans
13.
Front Public Health ; 9: 678738, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315961

ABSTRACT

Background: Infections are the second leading cause of death among patients undergoing hemodialysis. However, preventive measures against infectious diseases are limited and have not been made mandatory for patients. Objective: To investigate the incidence of infectious diseases before and during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Design: A historical comparative study of a prospective cohort. Setting(s): February 1, 2015 to January 31, 2020 was defined as the period before the mitigative confrontation of the COVID-19 pandemic in China. The period from February 1 to June 29, 2020 was defined as the period of mitigative confrontation of the COVID-19 pandemic in China. Participants: A cohort of patients undergoing hemodialysis whose infectious disease episodes were documented prospectively in the hemodialysis unit of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University since February 1, 2015. Methods: Mandatory mask-wearing and reinforced hand-hygiene education were implemented to prevent COVID-19 from January 23, 2020 in China. The incidence of infectious episodes, including catheter-related infection, digestive tract infection, upper respiratory tract infection (UTRI), pneumonia, and infection at other sites, were documented and compared in the periods before and during the pandemic. Results: The historical control group consisted of 157 patients, with 79 patients in the COVID-19 prevention group. The mask-wearing rate of patients increased from 1.5 to 100%. Hand sanitizer consumption increased significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic. The compliance rates of hand hygiene increased from 66, 75.5, to 55% in physicians, nurses, and other employees before the pandemic to 90.5, 92.5, and 76.5%, respectively. The incidences of UTRI and pneumonia decreased during the pandemic (p < 0.001). Notably, catheter-related and digestive tract infections also decreased during the pandemic (p = 0.003 and 0.034, respectively). A matched-pair study was conducted to further analyze the 79 individual changes in the incidences of infectious disease before and during the pandemic. As a result, the incidences of UTRI, pneumonia, catheter-related infections, digestive tract infections, and infections at other sites all decreased during the pandemic. Conclusions: The present study indicated an association between mandatory mask-wearing and reinforced hand hygiene education and decreased respiratory, catheter-related, and digestive tract infection episodes in the hemodialysis unit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Hand Hygiene , China/epidemiology , Hemodialysis Units, Hospital , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2112842, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274639

ABSTRACT

Importance: Black patients hospitalized with COVID-19 may have worse outcomes than White patients because of excess individual risk or because Black patients are disproportionately cared for in hospitals with worse outcomes for all. Objectives: To examine differences in COVID-19 hospital mortality rates between Black and White patients and to assess whether the mortality rates reflect differences in patient characteristics by race or by the hospitals to which Black and White patients are admitted. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study assessed Medicare beneficiaries admitted with a diagnosis of COVID-19 to 1188 US hospitals from January 1, 2020, through September 21, 2020. Exposure: Hospital admission for a diagnosis of COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary composite outcome was inpatient death or discharge to hospice within 30 days of admission. We estimated the association of patient-level characteristics (including age, sex, zip code-level income, comorbidities, admission from a nursing facility, and days since January 1, 2020) with differences in mortality or discharge to hospice among Black and White patients. To examine the association with the hospital itself, we adjusted for the specific hospitals to which patients were admitted. We used simulation modeling to estimate the mortality among Black patients had they instead been admitted to the hospitals where White patients were admitted. Results: Of the 44 217 Medicare beneficiaries included in the study, 24 281 (55%) were women; mean (SD) age was 76.3 (10.5) years; 33 459 participants (76%) were White, and 10 758 (24%) were Black. Overall, 2634 (8%) White patients and 1100 (10%) Black patients died as inpatients, and 1670 (5%) White patients and 350 (3%) Black patients were discharged to hospice within 30 days of hospitalization, for a total mortality-equivalent rate of 12.86% for White patients and 13.48% for Black patients. Black patients had similar odds of dying or being discharged to hospice (odds ratio [OR], 1.06; 95% CI, 0.99-1.12) in an unadjusted comparison with White patients. After adjustment for clinical and sociodemographic patient characteristics, Black patients were more likely to die or be discharged to hospice (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.03-1.19). This difference became indistinguishable when adjustment was made for the hospitals where care was delivered (odds ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.94-1.10). In simulations, if Black patients in this sample were instead admitted to the same hospitals as White patients in the same distribution, their rate of mortality or discharge to hospice would decline from the observed rate of 13.48% to the simulated rate of 12.23% (95% CI for difference, 1.20%-1.30%). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that Black patients hospitalized with COVID-19 had higher rates of hospital mortality or discharge to hospice than White patients after adjustment for the personal characteristics of those patients. However, those differences were explained by differences in the hospitals to which Black and White patients were admitted.


Subject(s)
African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , /statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Hospice Care/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Medicare , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
15.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(15): 3487-3497, 2021 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244995

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) combined with liver injury has become a very prominent clinical problem. Due to the lack of a clear definition of liver injury in patients with COVID-19, the different selection of evaluation parameters and statistical time points, there are the conflicting conclusions about the incidence rate in different studies. The mechanism of COVID-19 combined with liver injury is complicated, including the direct injury of liver cells caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 replication and liver injury caused by cytokines, ischemia and hypoxia, and drugs. In addition, underlying diseases, especially chronic liver disease, can aggravate COVID-19 liver injury. In the treatment of COVID-19 combined with liver injury, the primary and basic treatment is to treat the etiology and pathogenesis, followed by support, liver protection, and symptomatic treatment according to the clinical classification and severity of liver injury. This article evaluates the incidence, pathogenesis and prevention and treatment of COVID-19 combined with liver injury, and aims to provide countermeasures for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 combined with liver injury.

16.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(6): 1315-1330, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243726

ABSTRACT

Critical care medicine is a medical specialty engaging the diagnosis and treatment of critically ill patients who have or are likely to have life-threatening organ failure. Sepsis, a life-threatening condition that arises when the body responds to infection, is currently the major cause of death in intensive care units (ICU). Although progress has been made in understanding the pathophysiology of sepsis, many drawbacks in sepsis treatment remains unresolved. For example, antimicrobial resistance, controversial of glucocorticoids use, prolonged duration of ICU care and the subsequent high cost of the treatment. Recent years have witnessed a growing trend of applying traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in sepsis management. The TCM application emphasizes use of herbal formulation to balance immune responses to infection, which include clearing heat and toxin, promoting blood circulation and removing its stasis, enhancing gastrointestinal function, and strengthening body resistance. In this paper, we will provide an overview of the current status of Chinese herbal formulations, single herbs, and isolated compounds, as an add-on therapy to the standard Western treatment in the sepsis management. With the current trajectory of worldwide pandemic eruption of newly identified Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19), the adjuvant TCM therapy can be used in the ICU to treat critically ill patients infected with the novel coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Sepsis/drug therapy , Artemisinins/therapeutic use , Astragalus propinquus , Berberine/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Emodin/therapeutic use , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intestinal Mucosa , Microcirculation , Pandemics , Permeability , Rheum , SARS-CoV-2 , Salvia miltiorrhiza
17.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e048822, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234305

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to establish a set of disability weights (DWs) for COVID-19 symptoms, evaluate the disease burden of inpatients and analyse the characteristics and influencing factors of the disease. DESIGN: This was a multicentre retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: The medical records generated in three temporary military hospitals in Wuhan. PARTICIPANTS: Medical records of 2702 inpatients generated from 5 February to 5 April 2020 were randomly selected for this study. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: DWs of COVID-19 symptoms were determined by the person trade-off approach. The inpatients' medical records were analysed and used to calculate the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). The mean DALY was evaluated across sex and age groups. The relationship between DALY and age, sex, body mass index, length of hospital stay, symptom duration before admission and native place was determined by multiple linear regression. RESULTS: For the DALY of each inpatient, severe expiratory dyspnoea, mild cough and sore throat had the highest (0.399) and lowest (0.004) weights, respectively. The average synthetic DALY and daily DALY were 2.29±1.33 and 0.18±0.15 days, respectively. Fever and fatigue contributed the most DALY at 31.36%, whereas nausea and vomiting and anxiety and depression contributed the least at 7.05%. There were significant differences between sex and age groups in both synthetic and daily DALY. Age, body mass index, length of hospital stay and symptom duration before admission were strongly related to both synthetic and daily DALY. CONCLUSIONS: Although the disease burden was higher among women than men, their daily disease burdens were similar. The disease burden in the younger population was higher than that in the older population. Treatment at the hospitals relieved the disease burden efficiently, while a delay in hospitalisation worsened it.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cost of Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitals, Military , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
18.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 809, 2021 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204066

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the outbreak of COVID-19, traditional face-to-face psychological intervention are difficult to achieve, so hotline becomes available and recommended strategies. The callers' characteristic could help us to study their experiences of emotional distress, as well as the reasons for calling during the pandemic, which can be used to inform future service design and delivery. METHODS: The information of 1558 callers called our hospital' s hotline for help from February 3, 2020, to March 16, 2020 were collected in the form of Tick-box and Free text, and the inductive content analysis was undertaken focusing on the reasons for caller engagement. RESULTS: It was indicated that more than half of the callers are female (59.7%), mostly between the age of 18-59 (76.5%). The average age was 37.13 ± 13.76 years old. The average duration of a call to the hotline was 10.03 ± 9.84 min. The most frequent description emotional state were anxious (45.1%) and calm (30.3%), with the sub-sequence of scared (18.2%), sad (11.9%), and angry (6.9%). All callers displayed a wide range of reasons for calling, with needing support around their emotion (64.6%), seeking practical help (44.0%), and sleep problems (20.3%) constituting the majority of calls. Among the subthemes, 314 callers thought the epidemic has made them upset, 198 asked questions about the epidemic, and 119 reported their life routines were disrupted. The prevalence of key reasons does not appear to differ over time. Through their feedback, 79.1% agreed that they felt emotionally better after calling, and 95.0% agreed that hotline had helped them. CONCLUSIONS: During the epidemic, the most concern of the public is still related to epidemics and its adverse effects. Fortunately, the hotline can be an active and effective rescue measure after an emergency happened.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hotlines , Adult , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
19.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 53, 2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191906

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes an immense disease burden. Although public health countermeasures effectively controlled the epidemic in China, non-pharmaceutical interventions can neither be maintained indefinitely nor conveniently implemented globally. Vaccination is mainly used to prevent COVID-19, and most current antiviral treatment evaluations focus on clinical efficacy. Therefore, we conducted population-based simulations to assess antiviral treatment effectiveness among different age groups based on its clinical efficacy. METHODS: We collected COVID-19 data of Wuhan City from published literature and established a database (from 2 December 2019 to 16 March 2020). We developed an age-specific model to evaluate the effectiveness of antiviral treatment in patients with COVID-19. Efficacy was divided into three types: (1) viral activity reduction, reflected as transmission rate decrease [reduction was set as v (0-0.8) to simulate hypothetical antiviral treatments]; (2) reduction in the duration time from symptom onset to patient recovery/removal, reflected as a 1/γ decrease (reduction was set as 1-3 days to simulate hypothetical or real-life antiviral treatments, and the time of asymptomatic was reduced by the same proportion); (3) fatality rate reduction in severely ill patients (fc) [reduction (z) was set as 0.3 to simulate real-life antiviral treatments]. The population was divided into four age groups (groups 1, 2, 3 and 4), which included those aged ≤ 14; 15-44; 45-64; and ≥ 65 years, respectively. Evaluation indices were based on outbreak duration, cumulative number of cases, total attack rate (TAR), peak date, number of peak cases, and case fatality rate (f). RESULTS: Comparing the simulation results of combination and single medication therapy s, all four age groups showed better results with combination medication. When 1/γ = 2 and v = 0.4, age group 2 had the highest TAR reduction rate (98.48%, 56.01-0.85%). When 1/γ = 2, z = 0.3, and v = 0.1, age group 1 had the highest reduction rate of f (83.08%, 0.71-0.12%). CONCLUSIONS: Antiviral treatments are more effective in COVID-19 transmission control than in mortality reduction. Overall, antiviral treatments were more effective in younger age groups, while older age groups showed higher COVID-19 prevalence and mortality. Therefore, physicians should pay more attention to prevention of viral spread and patients deaths when providing antiviral treatments to patients of older age groups.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adolescent , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Young Adult
20.
Journal of Modern Laboratory Medicine ; 35(2):76-79, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1167814

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus infection epidemic has now entered an important stage of prevention and control. As of February 24, 2020, there have been more than 77,000 confirmed cases of new coronavirus infection across the country, and more than 2,000 deaths. Among them, more than 1,700 infections of medical staff and 8 deaths have caused great impact on people's lives. The harm. As the back of the front-line work of the epidemic, clinical laboratories also face the severe challenge of being infected. According to the characteristics of clinical laboratories, this article discusses and recommends protective measures to reduce the infection of laboratory technicians.

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