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1.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 133, 2021 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091497

ABSTRACT

We conducted a multicentre cross-sectional survey of COVID-19 patients to evaluate the acute psychological impact on the patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during isolation treatment based on online questionnaires from 2 February to 5 March 2020. A total of 460 COVID-19 patients from 13 medical centers in Hubei province were investigated for their mental health status using online questionnaires (including Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, Patient Health Questionnaire-15, and Insomnia Severity Index scales). Among all 460 COVID-19 patients, 187 (40.65%) of them were healthcare workers (HCWs). 297 (64.57%) of them were females. The most common psychological problems were somatization symptoms (66.09%, n = 304), followed by depression (53.48%, n = 246), anxiety (46.30%, n = 213), problems of insomnia (42.01%, n = 171), and then self-mutilating or suicidal thoughts (23.26%, n = 107). Of all the patients, 15.65% (n = 72) had severe somatization symptoms, and 2.83% (n = 13) had severe (almost every day) self-mutilating or suicidal thoughts. The most common psychological problems for HCWs were somatization symptoms (67.84%, n = 125), followed by depression (51.87%, n = 97), anxiety (44.92%, n = 84), problems of insomnia (36.18%, n = 55), and then self-mutilating or suicidal thoughts (20.86%, n = 39). Patients with lower education levels were found to be associated with higher incidence of self-mutilating or suicidal thoughts (odds ratio [OR], 2.68, 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.66-4.33 [P < 0.001]). Patients with abnormal body temperature were found to be associated with higher incidence of self-mutilating or suicidal thoughts (OR, 3.97, 95% CI, 2.07-7.63 [P < 0.001]), somatic symptoms (OR, 2.06, 95% CI, 1.20-3.55 [P = 0.009]) and insomnia (OR, 1.66, 95% CI, 1.04-2.65 [P = 0.033]). Those with suspected infected family members displayed a higher prevalence of anxiety than those without infected family members (OR, 1.61, 95% CI, 1.1-2.37 [P = 0.015]). Patients at the age of 18-44 years old had fewer somatic symptoms than those aged over 45 years old (OR, 1.91, 95% CI, 1.3-2.81 [P = 0.001]). In conclusion, COVID-19 patients tended to have a high prevalence of adverse psychological events. Early identification and intervention should be conducted to avoid extreme events such as self-mutilating or suicidal impulsivity for COVID-19 patients, especially for those with low education levels and females who have undergone divorce or bereavement.

2.
Cell Res ; 2021 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091494

ABSTRACT

The upcoming flu season in the Northern Hemisphere merging with the current COVID-19 pandemic raises a potentially severe threat to public health. Through experimental coinfection with influenza A virus (IAV) and either pseudotyped or live SARS-CoV-2 virus, we found that IAV preinfection significantly promoted the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 in a broad range of cell types. Remarkably, in vivo, increased SARS-CoV-2 viral load and more severe lung damage were observed in mice coinfected with IAV. Moreover, such enhancement of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity was not observed with several other respiratory viruses, likely due to a unique feature of IAV to elevate ACE2 expression. This study illustrates that IAV has a unique ability to aggravate SARS-CoV-2 infection, and thus, prevention of IAV infection is of great significance during the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; 37(1):209-211, 2021.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-1082549

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a major threat to global public health In addition to injury in the respiratory system, some patients may have varying degrees of liver injury With reference to related articles, this article analyzes the etiological characteristics and pathogenesis of COVID-19 and diseases the possible causes of COVID-19 with liver injury, including the direct effect of virus, inflammatory cytokine storm, drug-induced liver injury, hypoxic liver injury, and immune dysfunction It is suggested that reasonable drugs should be selected in clinical practice to protect the liver and reduce the incidence rate of liver injury

5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 866, 2021 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069107

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly become a global public health threat. The efficacy of several repurposed drugs has been evaluated in clinical trials. Among these drugs, a second-generation antiandrogen agent, enzalutamide, was proposed because it reduces the expression of transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), a key component mediating SARS-CoV-2-driven entry, in prostate cancer cells. However, definitive evidence for the therapeutic efficacy of enzalutamide in COVID-19 is lacking. Here, we evaluated the antiviral efficacy of enzalutamide in prostate cancer cells, lung cancer cells, human lung organoids and Ad-ACE2-transduced mice. Tmprss2 knockout significantly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection in vivo. Enzalutamide effectively inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection in human prostate cells, however, such antiviral efficacy was lacking in human lung cells and organoids. Accordingly, enzalutamide showed no antiviral activity due to the AR-independent TMPRSS2 expression in mouse and human lung epithelial cells. Moreover, we observed distinct AR binding patterns between prostate cells and lung cells and a lack of direct binding of AR to TMPRSS2 regulatory locus in human lung cells. Thus, our findings do not support the postulated protective role of enzalutamide in treating COVID-19 through reducing TMPRSS2 expression in lung cells.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Organ Specificity/genetics , Phenylthiohydantoin/analogs & derivatives , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , /genetics , Animals , /virology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cells, Cultured , Gene Expression/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Male , Mice, Knockout , Pandemics , Phenylthiohydantoin/pharmacology , Prostatic Neoplasms/metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/virology , Protein Binding/drug effects , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
6.
Science ; 2021 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061088

ABSTRACT

Following initial declines, in mid 2020 a resurgence in transmission of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) occurred in the US and Europe. As COVID19 disease control efforts are re-intensified, understanding the age demographics driving transmission and how these affect the loosening of interventions is crucial. We analyze aggregated, age-specific mobility trends from more than 10 million individuals in the US and link these mechanistically to age-specific COVID-19 mortality data. We estimate that as of October 2020, individuals aged 20-49 are the only age groups sustaining resurgent SARS-CoV-2 transmission with reproduction numbers well above one, and that at least 65 of 100 COVID-19 infections originate from individuals aged 20-49 in the US. Targeting interventions - including transmission-blocking vaccines - to adults aged 20-49 is an important consideration in halting resurgent epidemics and preventing COVID-19-attributable deaths.

8.
Biosci Trends ; 2021 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055232

ABSTRACT

The first case of COVID-19 in Japan was reported on 16 January 2020. The total number of the infected has reached 313,844 and the number of deaths has reached 4,379 as of 16 January 2021. This article reviews the characteristics of and responses to the three waves of COVID-19 in Japan during 2020-2021 in order to provide a reference for the next step in epidemic prevention and control. The Japanese Government declared a state of emergency on 7 April 2020, which suppressed the increase in the number of the infected by curtailing economic activity. The first wave peaked at 701 new cases a day and it decreased to 21 new cases on May 25 when the state of emergency was lifted. However, the number of the infected increased again due to the resumption of economic activity, with a peak of 1,762 new cases a day during the second wave. Although the situation was worse than that during the first wave, the government succeeded in limiting the increase without declaring a state of emergency again, and that may be attributed to a decrease in crowd activities and an increase in the number of inspections. During the third wave, the number of the infected continued to exceed the peak during previous waves for two months. Major factors for this rise include the government's implementation of further policies to encourage certain activities, relaxed immigration restrictions, and people not reducing their level of activity. An even more serious problem is the bed usage for patients with COVID-19; bed usage exceeds 50% not only in major cities but also in various areas. On 7 January 2021, 5,953 new cases were reported a day; this greatly exceeded the previous peak, and the state of emergency was declared again. Although Japan has been preparing its medical system since the first wave, maintaining that system has imposed a large economic burden on medical facilities, hence stronger measures and additional support are urgently needed to combat COVID-19 in the coming few months.

9.
Biomedical Journal ; 2021.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-1051494

ABSTRACT

Background s: While severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection presents with mild or no symptoms in most cases, a significant number of patients become critically ill Remdesivir has been approved for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in several countries, but its use as monotherapy has not substantially lowered mortality rates Because agents from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have been successfully utilized to treat pandemic and endemic diseases, we designed the current study to identify novel anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents from TCM Materials and methods We initially used an antivirus-induced cell death assay to screen a panel of herbal extracts The inhibition of the viral infection step was investigated through a time-of-drug-addition assay, whereas a plaque reduction assay was carried out to validate the antiviral activity Direct interaction of the candidate TCM compound with viral particles was assessed using a viral inactivation assay Finally, the potential synergistic efficacy of remdesivir and the TCM compound was examined with a combination assay Results The herbal medicine Perilla leaf extract (PLE, approval number 022427 issued by the Department of Health and Welfare of Taiwan) had EC50 of 0 12 ± 0 06 mg/mL against SARS-CoV-2 in Vero E6 cells – with a selectivity index of 40 65 Non-cytotoxic PLE concentrations were capable of blocking viral RNA and protein synthesis In addition, they significantly decreased virus-induced cytokine release and viral protein/RNA levels in the human lung epithelial cell line Calu-3 PLE inhibited viral replication by inactivating the virion and showed additive-to-synergistic efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 when used in combination with remdesivir Conclusions Our results demonstrate for the first time that PLE is capable of inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 replication by inactivating the virion Our data may prompt additional investigation on the clinical usefulness of PLE for preventing or treating COVID-19

10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(3)2021 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052504

ABSTRACT

Urban resilience in the context of COVID-19 epidemic refers to the ability of an urban system to resist, absorb, adapt and recover from danger in time to hedge its impact when confronted with external shocks such as epidemic, which is also a capability that must be strengthened for urban development in the context of normal epidemic. Based on the multi-dimensional perspective, entropy method and exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) are used to analyze the spatiotemporal evolution characteristics of urban resilience of 281 cities of China from 2011 to 2018, and MGWR model is used to discuss the driving factors affecting the development of urban resilience. It is found that: (1) The urban resilience and sub-resilience show a continuous decline in time, with no obvious sign of convergence, while the spatial agglomeration effect shows an increasing trend year by year. (2) The spatial heterogeneity of urban resilience is significant, with obvious distribution characteristics of "high in east and low in west". Urban resilience in the east, the central and the west are quite different in terms of development structure and spatial correlation. The eastern region is dominated by the "three-core driving mode", and the urban resilience shows a significant positive spatial correlation; the central area is a "rectangular structure", which is also spatially positively correlated; The western region is a "pyramid structure" with significant negative spatial correlation. (3) The spatial heterogeneity of the driving factors is significant, and they have different impact scales on the urban resilience development. The market capacity is the largest impact intensity, while the infrastructure investment is the least impact intensity. On this basis, this paper explores the ways to improve urban resilience in China from different aspects, such as market, technology, finance and government.


Subject(s)
Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Urban Renewal , China , Cities , Humans , Pandemics
11.
Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space ; : 0308518X20984165, 2021.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-1039953

ABSTRACT

Since late January 2020 when the first coronavirus case reached England, United Kingdom, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly and widely across all local authorities (LAs) in England In this featured graphic, we visualise how COVID-19 severity changes nationally and locally from 30 January to 23 November 2020 The geo-visualisation shows that there have been large regional disparities in the severity of the outbreak, and the epicentres have shifted from Greater London, Leicester, to the North of England and remained in the North during pre-lockdown, post-lockdown, easing lockdown and second national lockdown phases We further find that the increase in the testing capacity may partially explain the sharp increase in the confirmed cases during the second wave of the pandemic However, the disparities in the severity of COVID-19 (i e , confirmed cases and deaths) among LAs in England become more significant over time It further sheds light on the necessity of establishing decisive and timely responses to cope with local pandemic situations

12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(2): e23923, 2021 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039765

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; no specific effective medication to treat the disease has been identified to date. We aimed to investigate the administered medications and intervention times for patients who completely recovered from COVID-19.This single-center, retrospective, observational study included 55 patients with COVID-19 who were transferred to Shenyang Sixth People's Hospital between January 20 and March 15, 2020. Data on demographics, symptoms, laboratory indicators, treatment processes, and clinical outcomes were collected. Administered drugs and intervention times were compared in 47 and 8 patients with mild and severe symptoms, respectively.All 55 patients recovered. Fifty-three patients (96.36%) received antiviral therapy, including 45 in the mild group (median treatment: 14 days; 17 received umifenovir) and all 8 severe-group patients (median treatment: 17.5 days; 4 received lopinavir/ritonavir). Twenty-nine patients (52.72%) were administered antibiotics, including 21 in the mild group (median treatment: 13.5 days; 15 received moxifloxacin) and all 8 in the severe group (median treatment: 9 days; 2 received linezolid). Moreover, 7 patients (12.72%) were treated with glucocorticoids and 9 (16.36%) with immunomodulators.Given the 100% recovery rate, early administration of antiviral drugs can be considered. Umifenovir may benefit patients with mild symptoms, while lopinavir/ritonavir may benefit those with severe symptoms. Prophylactic administration of common antibiotics may reduce the risk of co-infection. The use of glucocorticoids is usually not necessary. Randomized, double-blind, and controlled trials remain necessary for more accurate conclusions.


Subject(s)
/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , China , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Indoles/therapeutic use , Linezolid/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Moxifloxacin/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use
13.
Anal Chem ; 93(4): 2191-2199, 2021 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1019731

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to substantial infections and mortality around the world. Fast screening and diagnosis are thus crucial for quick isolation and clinical intervention. In this work, we showed that attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT-IR) can be a primary diagnostic tool for COVID-19 as a supplement to in-use techniques. It requires only a small volume (∼3 µL) of the serum sample and a shorter detection time (several minutes). The distinct spectral differences and the separability between normal control and COVID-19 were investigated using multivariate and statistical analysis. Results showed that ATR-FT-IR coupled with partial least squares discriminant analysis was effective to differentiate COVID-19 from normal controls and some common respiratory viral infections or inflammation, with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.9561 (95% CI: 0.9071-0.9774). Several serum constituents including, but not just, antibodies and serum phospholipids could be reflected on the infrared spectra, serving as "chemical fingerprints" and accounting for good model performances.


Subject(s)
/diagnosis , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods , Case-Control Studies , Diagnosis, Differential , Discriminant Analysis , Feasibility Studies , Humans
16.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 67(6): 12-17, 2020 Dec.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-994100

ABSTRACT

Labor issues related to the nursing profession have been gaining prominence in Taiwan as well as overseas. In 2016, the United Nations highlighted the importance of societies investing sufficient funds in their professional nurses to support and promote public health, gender equality, and economic growth. Good-quality care requires that nurses have good physical and mental health, while creating and maintaining a friendly nursing work environment rely on cooperation among the government, labor unions, and hospitals. Over the past decade, the Taiwan government has increasingly promoted relevant regulations and established a friendly platform to allow nursing staffs to identify problems and report labor rights violations. In addition, nurses have formed unions to defend and advocate for their professional rights. After the outbreak of COVID-19 in late 2019, the Department of Nursing and Health Care of the Ministry of Health and Welfare actively proposed policies related to creating and maintaining good nursing work environments. The Taiwan Nursing and Medical Industries Union took a supervisory role in this process, providing feedback on policies from the perspective of Taiwan's professional nurses and arguing for the reasonable and fair subsidization of epidemic prevention facilities, implementation of mask and protective equipment, nursing labor rights, and social respect for the nursing profession. Much work still needs to be done to improve the domestic working environment for nursing staffs, including improving and expanding education, normalizing and effectively utilizing nursing staff feedback and whistleblowing information, promoting information transparency, and implementing better policies. We hope that a friendlier nursing work environment will attract many more outstanding young persons to pursue a career in nursing.

17.
Sci Adv ; 6(50)2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969082

ABSTRACT

The main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 is a key antiviral drug target. While most Mpro inhibitors have a γ-lactam glutamine surrogate at the P1 position, we recently found that several Mpro inhibitors have hydrophobic moieties at the P1 site, including calpain inhibitors II and XII, which are also active against human cathepsin L, a host protease that is important for viral entry. In this study, we solved x-ray crystal structures of Mpro in complex with calpain inhibitors II and XII and three analogs of GC-376 The structure of Mpro with calpain inhibitor II confirmed that the S1 pocket can accommodate a hydrophobic methionine side chain, challenging the idea that a hydrophilic residue is necessary at this position. The structure of calpain inhibitor XII revealed an unexpected, inverted binding pose. Together, the biochemical, computational, structural, and cellular data presented herein provide new directions for the development of dual inhibitors as SARS-CoV-2 antivirals.

18.
Cells ; 9(10)2020 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962878

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses are able to establish persistence. However, how coronaviruses react to persistence and whether the selected viruses have altered their characteristics remain unclear. In this study, we found that the persistent infection of bovine coronavirus (BCoV), which is in the same genus as SARS-COV-2, led to alterations of genome structure, attenuation of gene expression, and the synthesis of subgenomic mRNA (sgmRNA) with a previously unidentified pattern. Subsequent analyses revealed that the altered genome structures were associated with the attenuation of gene expression. In addition, the genome structure at the 5' terminus and the cellular environment during the persistence were responsible for the sgmRNA synthesis, solving the previously unanswered question regarding the selection of transcription regulatory sequence for synthesis of BCoV sgmRNA 12.7. Although the BCoV variants (BCoV-p95) selected under the persistence replicated efficiently in cells without persistent infection, its pathogenicity was still lower than that of wild-type (wt) BCoV. Furthermore, in comparison with wt BCoV, the variant BCoV-p95 was not able to efficiently adapt to the challenges of alternative environments, suggesting wt BCoV is genetically robust. We anticipate that the findings derived from this fundamental research can contribute to the disease control and treatments against coronavirus infection including SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Regulatory Sequences, Ribonucleic Acid/genetics , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Cattle , Cell Line , Computational Biology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Transcription, Genetic/genetics
19.
Ann Palliat Med ; 9(6): 4300-4307, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-961973

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has increased the risk of infection among medical staff. Anesthetists may have direct or indirect contact with COVID-19 patients' saliva droplets, blood, and other secretions in their daily work. If infection-prevention measures are not appropriate, it will not only cause individual medical staff infection, but also cross-infection among patients and other medical staff. Therefore, it is important to establish infection-control practices for COVID-19 patients during anesthesia. The aim of the present study was to review the infection-prevention measures against COVID-19 during anesthesia. Previously published studies on severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), as well as current studies on COVID-19, specifically in Wuhan, China, were analyzed. In the present study, we discuss the etiology, epidemiology, pathology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 at first. And then we discuss preoperative preparation which include the preparation of operating room, pre-operative assessment, hand hygiene and staffing and psychological counseling. We also discuss the implementation of anesthesia, including anesthesia types, induction of general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation, postoperative recovery and patient transport. Finally, we consider the proper disposal procedure for anesthetic equipment and medical devices. COVID-19 infection can be effectively reduced by infection-prevention measures during the perioperative period.

20.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 67(6):12-17, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-955103

ABSTRACT

Labor issues related to the nursing profession have been gaining prominence in Taiwan as well as overseas In 2016, the United Nations highlighted the importance of societies investing sufficient funds in their professional nurses to support and promote public health, gender equality, and economic growth Good-quality care requires that nurses have good physical and mental health, while creating and maintaining a friendly nursing work environment rely on cooperation among the government, labor unions, and hospitals Over the past decade, the Taiwan government has increasingly promoted relevant regulations and established a friendly platform to allow nursing staffs to identify problems and report labor rights violations In addition, nurses have formed unions to defend and advocate for their professional rights After the outbreak of COVID-19 in late 2019, the Department of Nursing and Health Care of the Ministry of Health and Welfare actively proposed policies related to creating and maintaining good nursing work environments The Taiwan Nursing and Medical Industries Union took a supervisory role in this process, providing feedback on policies from the perspective of Taiwan's professional nurses and arguing for the reasonable and fair subsidization of epidemic prevention facilities, implementation of mask and protective equipment, nursing labor rights, and social respect for the nursing profession Much work still needs to be done to improve the domestic working environment for nursing staffs, including improving and expanding education, normalizing and effectively utilizing nursing staff feedback and whistleblowing information, promoting information transparency, and implementing better policies We hope that a friendlier nursing work environment will attract many more outstanding young persons to pursue a career in nursing

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