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1.
New Media & Society ; 25(6):1432-1450, 2023.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-20237954

ABSTRACT

This article critically examines South Korea and China's COVID-19 tracking apps by bridging surveillance studies with feminist technoscience's understanding of the "politics of care". Conducting critical readings of the apps and textual analysis of discursive materials, we demonstrate how the ideological, relational, and material practices of the apps strategically deployed "care" to normalize a particular form of pandemic technogovernance in these two countries. In the ideological dimension, media and state discourse utilized a combination of vilifying and nationalist rhetoric that framed one's acquiescence to surveillance as a demonstration of national belonging. Meanwhile, the apps also performed ambivalent roles in facilitating essential care services and mobilizing self-tracking activities, which contributed to the manufacturing of pseudonormality in these societies. In the end, we argue that the Chinese and South Korean governments managed to frame their aggressive surveillance infrastructure during COVID-19 as a form of paternalistic care by finessing the blurred boundaries between care and control. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of New Media & Society is the property of Sage Publications, Ltd. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

2.
Nat Immunol ; 24(6): 979-990, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315011

ABSTRACT

Antiviral CD8+ T cell immunity depends on the integration of various contextual cues, but how antigen-presenting cells (APCs) consolidate these signals for decoding by T cells remains unclear. Here, we describe gradual interferon-α/interferon-ß (IFNα/ß)-induced transcriptional adaptations that endow APCs with the capacity to rapidly activate the transcriptional regulators p65, IRF1 and FOS after CD4+ T cell-mediated CD40 stimulation. While these responses operate through broadly used signaling components, they induce a unique set of co-stimulatory molecules and soluble mediators that cannot be elicited by IFNα/ß or CD40 alone. These responses are critical for the acquisition of antiviral CD8+ T cell effector function, and their activity in APCs from individuals infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 correlates with milder disease. These observations uncover a sequential integration process whereby APCs rely on CD4+ T cells to select the innate circuits that guide antiviral CD8+ T cell responses.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Humans , Calibration , Antigen-Presenting Cells , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD40 Antigens , Interferon-alpha , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes
3.
Front Psychol ; 13: 1016300, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089908

ABSTRACT

The declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic forced humanity to rethink how we teach and learn. The metaverse, a 3D digital space mixed with the real world and the virtual world, has been heralded as a trend of future education with great potential. However, as an emerging item, rarely did the existing study discuss the metaverse from the perspective of education. In this paper, we first introduce the visions of the metaverse, including its origin, definitions, and shared features. Then, the metaverse in education is clearly defined, and a detailed framework of the metaverse in education is proposed, along with in-depth discussions of its features. In addition, four potential applications of the metaverse in education are described with reasons and cases: blended learning, language learning, competence-based education, and inclusive education. Moreover, challenges of the metaverse for educational purposes are also presented. Finally, a range of research topics related to the metaverse in education is proposed for future studies. We hope that, via this research paper, researchers with both computer science and educational technology backgrounds could have a clear vision of the metaverse in education and provide a stepping stone for future studies. We also expect more researchers interested in this topic can commence their studies inspired by this paper.

5.
Front Nutr ; 9: 927092, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933734

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) showed worse prognosis and higher mortality in individuals with obesity. Dyslipidemia is a major link between obesity and COVID-19 severity. Statins as the most common lipid regulating drugs have shown favorable effects in various pathophysiological states. Importantly, accumulating observational studies have suggested that statin use is associated with reduced risk of progressing to severe illness and in-hospital death in COVID-19 patients. Possible explanations underlie these protective impacts include their abilities of reducing cholesterol, suppressing viral entry and replication, anti-inflammation and immunomodulatory effects, as well as anti-thrombosis and anti-oxidative properties. Despite these benefits, statin therapies have side effects that should be considered, such as elevated creatinine kinase, liver enzyme and serum glucose levels, which are already elevated in severe COVID-19. Concerns are also raised whether statins interfere with the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines. Randomized controlled trials are being conducted worldwide to confirm the values of statin use for COVID-19 treatment. Generally, the results suggest no necessity to discontinue statin use, and no evidence suggesting interference between statins and COVID-19 vaccines. However, concomitant administration of statins and COVID-19 antiviral drug Paxlovid may increase statin exposure and the risk of adverse effects, because most statins are metabolized mainly through CYP3A4 which is potently inhibited by ritonavir, a major component of Paxlovid. Therefore, more clinical/preclinical studies are still warranted to understand the benefits, harms and mechanisms of statin use in the context of COVID-19.

6.
J Clin Med ; 11(10)2022 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855682

ABSTRACT

We investigated the storage lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) before and after the first dose of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine and the association between pre-vaccinated overactive bladder (OAB) and the worsening of storage LUTS following COVID-19 vaccination. This cross-sectional study in a third-level hospital in Taiwan used the validated pre- and post-vaccinated Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Diagnosis of OAB was made using pre-vaccinated OABSS. The deterioration of storage LUTS was assessed as the increased score of OABSS following vaccination. Of 889 subjects, up to 13.4% experienced worsened storage LUTS after vaccination. OAB was significantly associated with an increased risk of worsening urinary urgency (p = 0.030), frequency (p = 0.027), and seeking medical assistance due to urinary adverse events (p < 0.001) after vaccination. The OAB group faced significantly greater changes in OABSS-urgency (p = 0.003), OABSS-frequency (p = 0.025), and total OABSS (p = 0.014) after vaccination compared to those observed in the non-OAB group. Multivariate regression revealed that pre-vaccinated OAB (p = 0.003) was a risk for the deterioration of storage LUTS. In conclusion, storage LUTS may deteriorate after vaccination. OAB was significantly associated with higher risk and greater changes in worsening storage LUTS. Storage LUTS should be closely monitored after COVID-19 vaccination, especially in those OAB patients.

7.
Front Neurol ; 13: 850337, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775723

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a high transmissible infectious disease that primarily impacts the respiratory system and leads to death as it worsens. Ever since the World Health Organization declared the disease as a global pandemic, the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and disease prognosis has been discussed in various literature. In addition to impaired respiratory health, the symptoms also indicated the involvement of the cardiovascular and neurological system after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Despite the pulmonary, cardiovascular, and neurological complications, many reports also revealed the prevalence of vestibulocochlear symptoms like dizziness, vertigo, vestibular neuritis, sudden sensorineural hearing loss, and tinnitus. Though many clinical reports and scientific reviews reported the vestibular and cochlear impairments associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, the underlying pathological mechanisms are still unclear and unexplored. In this review, we discussed the published clinical reports, research articles, and literature reviews related to vestibulocochlear manifestations following SARS-CoV-2 infections. We also summarized the current knowledge about the prevalence, epidemiological and clinical features, and potential pathological mechanisms related to vestibular and cochlear manifestations resulting from COVID-19 infections.

8.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1289-1291, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589037

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a new type of virus, coronavirus disease 2019 broke out globally and caused great harm. The virus mutates rapidly, and more research reports are urgently needed to increase our understanding of the disease. We found the reversed halo sign (RHS) occurred in the imaging manifestations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 delta variant of concern pneumonia. In the absence of pathology, the mechanism is unknown. Therefore, we reported two cases of RHS and tried to speculate the pathological mechanism through multiple computed tomography follow-up comparisons to judge the prognosis of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia/pathology , Pneumonia/virology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
9.
New Media & Society ; : 14614448211020752, 2021.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1273213

ABSTRACT

This article critically examines South Korea and China?s COVID-19 tracking apps by bridging surveillance studies with feminist technoscience?s understanding of the ?politics of care?. Conducting critical readings of the apps and textual analysis of discursive materials, we demonstrate how the ideological, relational, and material practices of the apps strategically deployed ?care? to normalize a particular form of pandemic technogovernance in these two countries. In the ideological dimension, media and state discourse utilized a combination of vilifying and nationalist rhetoric that framed one?s acquiescence to surveillance as a demonstration of national belonging. Meanwhile, the apps also performed ambivalent roles in facilitating essential care services and mobilizing self-tracking activities, which contributed to the manufacturing of pseudonormality in these societies. In the end, we argue that the Chinese and South Korean governments managed to frame their aggressive surveillance infrastructure during COVID-19 as a form of paternalistic care by finessing the blurred boundaries between care and control.

10.
J Mol Cell Biol ; 13(3): 185-196, 2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045847

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients present high incidence of kidney abnormalities, which are associated with poor prognosis and mortality. The identification of SARS-CoV-2 in the kidney of COVID-19 patients suggests renal tropism of SARS-CoV-2. However, whether there is a specific target of SARS-CoV-2 in the kidney remains unclear. Herein, by using in silico simulation, coimmunoprecipitation, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, fluorescein isothiocyanate labeling, and rational design of antagonist peptides, we demonstrate that kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM1), a molecule dramatically upregulated upon kidney injury, binds with the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 and facilitates its attachment to cell membrane, with the immunoglobulin variable Ig-like (Ig V) domain of KIM1 playing a key role in this recognition. The interaction between SARS-CoV-2 RBD and KIM1 is potently blockaded by a rationally designed KIM1-derived polypeptide AP2. In addition, our results also suggest interactions between KIM1 Ig V domain and the RBDs of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, pathogens of two severe infectious respiratory diseases. Together, these findings suggest KIM1 as a novel receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses. We propose that KIM1 may thus mediate and exacerbate the renal infection of SARS-CoV-2 in a 'vicious cycle', and KIM1 could be further explored as a therapeutic target.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 1/genetics , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Computer Simulation , Humans , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Protein Binding/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
11.
Life Sci ; 265: 118761, 2021 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919593

ABSTRACT

Outbreaks and the rapid transmission of viruses, such as coronaviruses and influenza viruses, are serious threats to human health. A major challenge in combating infectious diseases caused by viruses is the lack of effective methods for prevention and treatment. Nanotechnology has provided a basis for the development of novel antiviral strategies. Owing to their large modifiable surfaces that can be functionalized with multiple molecules to realize sophisticated designs, nanomaterials have been developed as nanodrugs, nanocarriers, and nano-based vaccines to effectively induce sufficient immunologic memory. From this perspective, we introduce various nanomaterials with diverse antiviral mechanisms and summarize how nano-based antiviral agents protect against viral infection at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels. We summarize the applications of nanomaterials for defense against emerging viruses by trapping and inactivating viruses and inhibiting viral entry and replication. We also discuss recent progress in nano-based vaccines with a focus on the mechanisms by which nanomaterials contribute to immunogenicity. We further describe how nanotechnology may improve vaccine efficacy by delivering large amounts of antigens to target immune cells and enhancing the immune response by mimicking viral structures and activating dendritic cells. Finally, we provide an overview of future prospects for nano-based antiviral agents and vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Nanotechnology , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Humans , Nanocapsules , Nanotechnology/methods , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/prevention & control
13.
Eur Radiol ; 30(10): 5455-5462, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-165338

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To characterize and interpret the CT imaging signs of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia in China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CT images of 130 patients diagnosed as COVID-19 pneumonia from several hospitals in China were collected and their imaging features were analyzed and interpreted in detail. RESULTS: Among the 130 patients, we can see (1) distribution: 14 cases with unilateral lung disease and 116 cases with bilateral disease, the distribution was mainly lobular core (99 cases) and subpleural (102 cases); (2) number: 9 cases with single lesion, 113 cases with multiple lesions, and 8 cases with diffuse distribution; (3) density: 70 cases of pure ground glass opacity (GGO), and 60 cases of GGO with consolidation; (4) accompanying signs: vascular thickening (100 cases), "parallel pleura sign" (98 cases), "paving stone sign" (100 cases), "halo sign" (18 cases), "reversed halo sign" (6 cases), pleural effusion (2 cases), and pneumonocele (2 cases). After follow-up CT examination on 35 patients, 21 cases turned better and 14 became worse. There were signs of consolidation with marginal contraction, bronchiectasis, subpleural line, or fibrous streak. CONCLUSION: GGO and consolidation are the most common CT signs of COVID-19 pneumonia, mainly with lobular distribution and subpleural distribution. The main manifestations were tissue organization and fibrosis at late stage. The most valuable features are the parallel pleura sign and the paving stone sign. KEY POINTS: • The CT signs of the COVID-19 pneumonia are mainly distributed in the lobular core, subpleural and diffused bilaterally. • The CT signs include the "parallel pleura sign," "paving stone sign," "halo sign," and "reversed halo sign." • During the follow-up, the distribution of lobular core, the fusion of lesions, and the organization changes at late stage will appear.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Non-conventional | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-272617

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes is one of the most distinct comorbidities of COVID-19. Here, we describe the clinical characteristics of and outcomes in patients with diabetes in whom COVID-19 has been confirmed or clinically diagnosed (with typical features on lung imaging and symptoms), and their association with glucose-lowering or blood pressure-lowering medications. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this retrospective study involving 904 patients with COVID-19 (136 with diabetes, mostly type 2 diabetes), clinical and laboratory characteristics were collected and compared between the group with diabetes and the group without diabetes, and between groups taking different medications. Logistic regression was used in order to explore risk factors associated with mortality or poor prognosis. RESULTS: The proportion of comorbid diabetes is similar between cases of confirmed and of clinically diagnosed COVID-19. Risk factors for higher mortality of patients with diabetes and COVID-19 were older age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.09 [95% CI 1.04, 1.15] per year increase;P = 0.001) and elevated C-reactive protein (aOR 1.12 [95% CI 1.00, 1.24];P = 0.043). Insulin usage (aOR 3.58 [95% CI 1.37, 9.35];P = 0.009) was associated with poor prognosis. Clinical outcomes of those who use an ACE inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin II type-I receptor blocker (ARB) were comparable with those of patients who do not use ACEI/ARB among patients with diabetes and hypertension who have COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: C-reactive protein may help to identify patients with diabetes who are at greater risk of dying during hospitalization. Older patients with diabetes were prone to death related to COVID-19. Attention needs to be paid to patients with diabetes and COVID-19 who use insulin. ACEI/ARB use showed no significant impact on patients with diabetes and hypertension who have COVID-19.

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