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1.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 2021 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639244

ABSTRACT

Previous researches on the association between proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) use and the treatment and prevention of COVID-19 has generated inconsistent findings. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to clarify the outcome in patients who take PPIs. Eight articles with more than 268,683 subjects were included. PPI use was not associated with increased or decreased risk of COVID-19 infection (OR:3.16, 95% CI=0.74-13.43, P=0.12) or mortality risk of COVID-19 patients (OR=1.91, 95% CI=0.86-4.24, P=0.11). While it can add risk of severe disease (OR=1.54, 95% CI=1.20-1.99, P<0.001;) and secondary infection (OR=4.33, 95% CI=2.57-7.29). In summary, PPI use is not associated with an increased risk of infection and may not change the mortality risk of COVID-19, but appeared to be associated with an increased risk of progression to severe disease and secondary infection. However, more original studies to further clarify the relationship between PPI and COVID-19 are still urgently needed.

2.
J Med Chem ; 2022 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616927

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) is one of the most common complications in COVID-19. Elastase has been recognized as an important target to prevent ALI/ARDS in the patient of COVID-19. Cyclotheonellazole A (CTL-A) is a natural macrocyclic peptide reported to be a potent elastase inhibitor. Herein, we completed the first total synthesis of CTL-A in 24 linear steps. The key reactions include three-component MAC reactions and two late-stage oxidations. We also provided seven CTL-A analogues and elucidated preliminary structure-activity relationships. The in vivo ALI mouse model further suggested that CTL-A alleviated acute lung injury with reductions in lung edema and pathological deterioration, which is better than sivelestat, one approved elastase inhibitor. The activity of CTL-A against elastase, along with its cellular safety and well-established synthetic route, warrants further investigation of CTL-A as a candidate against COVID-19 pathogeneses.

3.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 20: 100362, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587057

ABSTRACT

Background: In early 2020, non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) were implemented in China to reduce and contain the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission. These NPIs might have also reduced the incidence of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Methods: The weekly numbers of HFMD cases and meteorological factors in 31 provincial capital cities and municipalities in mainland China were obtained from Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC) and National Meteorological Information Center of China from 2016 to 2020. The NPI data were collected from local CDCs. The incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated for the entire year of 2020, and for January-July 2020 and August-December 2020. The expected case numbers were estimated using seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average models. The relationships between kindergarten closures and incidence of HFMD were quantified using a generalized additive model. The estimated associations from all cities were pooled using a multivariate meta-regression model. Findings: Stringent NPIs were widely implemented for COVID-19 control from January to July 2020, and the IRRs for HFMD were less than 1 in all 31 cities, and less than 0·1 for 23 cities. Overall, the proportion of HFMD cases reduced by 52·9% (95% CI: 49·3-55·5%) after the implementation of kindergarten closures in 2020, and this effect was generally consistent across subgroups. Interpretation: The decrease in HFMD incidence was strongly associated with the NPIs for COVID-19. HFMD epidemic peaks were either absent or delayed, and the final epidemic size was reduced. Kindergarten closure is an intervention to prevent HFMD outbreaks. Funding: This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81973102 & 81773487), Public Health Talents Training Program of Shanghai Municipality (GWV-10.2-XD21), the Shanghai New Three-year Action Plan for Public Health (GWV-10.1-XK16), the Major Project of Scientific and Technical Winter Olympics from National Key Research and Development Program of China (2021YFF0306000), 13th Five-Year National Science and Technology Major Project for Infectious Diseases (2018ZX10725-509) and Key projects of the PLA logistics Scientific research Program (BHJ17J013).

4.
Immunology ; 2021 Dec 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583527

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to an unprecedented setback for global economy and health. Vaccination is one of the most effective interventions to substantially reduce severe disease and death due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Vaccination programmes are being rolled out globally, but most of these vaccines have been approved without extensive studies on their side-effects and efficacy. Recently, new-onset autoimmune phenomena after COVID-19 vaccination have been reported increasingly (e.g. immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia, autoimmune liver diseases, Guillain-Barré syndrome, IgA nephropathy, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus). Molecular mimicry, the production of particular autoantibodies and the role of certain vaccine adjuvants seem to be substantial contributors to autoimmune phenomena. However, whether the association between COVID-19 vaccine and autoimmune manifestations is coincidental or causal remains to be elucidated. Here, we summarize the emerging evidence about autoimmune manifestations occurring in response to certain COVID-19 vaccines. Although information pertaining to the risk of autoimmune disease as a consequence of vaccination is controversial, we merely propose our current understanding of autoimmune manifestations associated with COVID-19 vaccine. In fact, we do not aim to disavow the overwhelming benefits of mass COVID-19 vaccination in preventing COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. These reports could help guide clinical assessment and management of autoimmune manifestations after COVID-19 vaccination.

6.
Appl Soft Comput ; : 108088, 2021 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540375

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to a sharp increase in hospitalized patients with multi-organ disease pneumonia. Early and automatic diagnosis of COVID-19 is essential to slow down the spread of this epidemic and reduce the mortality of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. In this paper, we propose a joint multi-center sparse learning (MCSL) and decision fusion scheme exploiting chest CT images for automatic COVID-19 diagnosis. Specifically, considering the inconsistency of data in multiple centers, we first convert CT images into histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) images to reduce the structural differences between multi-center data and enhance the generalization performance. We then exploit a 3-dimensional convolutional neural network (3D-CNN) model to learn the useful information between and within 3D HOG image slices and extract multi-center features. Furthermore, we employ the proposed MCSL method that learns the intrinsic structure between multiple centers and within each center, which selects discriminative features to jointly train multi-center classifiers. Finally, we fuse these decisions made by these classifiers. Extensive experiments are performed on chest CT images from five centers to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can improve COVID-19 diagnosis performance and outperform the state-of-the-art methods.

7.
Front Psychol ; 12: 740575, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497147

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To explore the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and the factors influencing mental health symptoms in students aged 8-18 in Wuhan, China at 6 months after the COVID-19 pandemic was controlled. Methods: Questionnaires were distributed to students aged 8-18 in Wuhan through an online platform from September to October 2020, and 15,993 valid surveys were returned, resulting in a response rate of 75.4%. The data related to symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, depression, stress and psychological inflexibility levels, as well as demographic information about the population. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the predictive effects. Results: In total, 11.5% of the students met the criteria for clinically concerning PTSD symptoms. Psychological inflexibility was associated with PTSD symptoms, depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms (ß = 0.45, 0.63, 0.65 and 0.69, respectively, with ΔR2 = 0.16, 0.32, 0.34 and 0.39, respectively, p < 0.001) in children and adolescents. Conclusion: This study investigated the impacts of COVID-19 on the mental health status among students aged 8-18 in Wuhan. Even at 6 months after the outbreak was brought under control, some students were still affected. Psychological inflexibility was correlated with psychological symptoms in students. Therefore, methods to reduce psychological inflexibility may help improve the mental health states of students as part of psychological interventions.

8.
Zhongguo Weishengtaxixue Zazhi / Chinese Journal of Microecology ; 32(5):583-585, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1497980

ABSTRACT

Corona Virus Disease 2019(COVID-19) is a contagious disease with respiratory symptoms as the main manifestation that has recently occurred worldwide. This disease poses a major threat to the lives of people in China and the world. The contagiosity of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) is stronger than those of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, which is one of the biggest characteristics of the pathogen, and the disease progresses rapidly after infection with severe harmfulness. Scientists in China and around the world have made great efforts to understand the disease. This article aims to sort out the knowledge on the disease and improve the clinicians' initial understanding on the disease.

9.
J Biol Chem ; 295(36): 12686-12696, 2020 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387615

ABSTRACT

Type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs) are a group of enzymes participating in diverse biological processes. Some members of the TTSP family are implicated in viral infection. TMPRSS11A is a TTSP expressed on the surface of airway epithelial cells, which has been shown to cleave and activate spike proteins of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (CoVs). In this study, we examined the mechanism underlying the activation cleavage of TMPRSS11A that converts the one-chain zymogen to a two-chain enzyme. By expression in human embryonic kidney 293, esophageal EC9706, and lung epithelial A549 and 16HBE cells, Western blotting, and site-directed mutagenesis, we found that the activation cleavage of human TMPRSS11A was mediated by autocatalysis. Moreover, we found that TMPRSS11A activation cleavage occurred before the protein reached the cell surface, as indicated by studies with trypsin digestion to remove cell surface proteins, treatment with cell organelle-disturbing agents to block intracellular protein trafficking, and analysis of a soluble form of TMPRSS11A without the transmembrane domain. We also showed that TMPRSS11A was able to cleave the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. These results reveal an intracellular autocleavage mechanism in TMPRSS11A zymogen activation, which differs from the extracellular zymogen activation reported in other TTSPs. These findings provide new insights into the diverse mechanisms in regulating TTSP activation.


Subject(s)
Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Proteolysis , Serine Proteases/metabolism , A549 Cells , Cells, Cultured , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Membrane Proteins/chemistry , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Mutation , Protein Domains , Protein Transport , Respiratory Mucosa/cytology , Serine Proteases/chemistry , Serine Proteases/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Trypsin/metabolism
10.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-458951

ABSTRACT

Recently, patients co-infected by two SARS-CoV-2 lineages have been sporadically reported. Concerns are raised because previous studies have demonstrated co-infection may contribute to the recombination of RNA viruses and cause severe clinic symptoms. In this study, we have estimated the compositional lineage(s), tendentiousness, and frequency of co-infection events in population from a large-scale genomic analysis for SARS-CoV-2 patients. SARS-CoV-2 lineage(s) infected in each sample have been recognized from the assignment of within-host site variations into lineage-defined feature variations by introducing a hypergeometric distribution method. Of all the 29,993 samples, 53 (~0.18%) co-infection events have been identified. Apart from 52 co-infections with two SARS-CoV-2 lineages, one sample with co-infections of three SARS-CoV-2 lineages was firstly identified. As expected, the co-infection events mainly happened in the regions where have co-existed more than two dominant SARS-CoV-2 lineages. However, co-infection of two sub-lineages in Delta lineage were detected as well. Our results provide a useful reference framework for the high throughput detecting of SARS-CoV-2 co-infection events in the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) data. Although low in average rate, the co-infection events showed an increasing tendency with the increased diversity of SARS-CoV-2. And considering the large base of SARS-CoV-2 infections globally, co-infected patients would be a nonnegligible population. Thus, more clinical research is urgently needed on these patients.

11.
Phytomedicine ; 92: 153714, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370665

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As one of traditional Chinese medicine, mulberry leaf is abundant in diverse active ingredients and widely used for the treatment of metabolic disease and its complications. However, there are a few of reports on its application in the prevention and treatment of obesity. And the molecular mechanism on the anti-obesity of mulberry leaf are unknown till now. PURPOSE: The present study aimed to evaluate the potential ingredients and targets of mulberry leaf and uncover the anti-obesity mechanisms by using the network pharmacology tactics and verify its effect by biological experiments. STUDY DESIGN: Active ingredients and key targets of mulberry leaf, genes related to obesity were screened through public database. Based on the results of network pharmacology, the flavonoids-enriched fraction of mulberry leaf (MLF) was extracted and composition of this fraction was identified. After that, HepG2 cells model of lipid accumulation was established for verifying the effect of MLF and related mechanisms. RESULTS: A total of 37 active ingredients in mulberry leaf, 192 predicted biological targets and 8813 obesity-related targets were determined, of which 180 overlapping targets might have obvious curative effects on obesity. The networks showed that mulberry leaf might play a role through key targets, such as AKT, MAPK and IL-6, and regulated PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. Based on HPLC-ESI-QQQ-MS analysis, 13 constituents of MLF were identified, including 9 flavonoids. Furthermore, HepG2 cells model of lipid accumulation was established. The results indicated that MLF treatment could down-regulate the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, as well as clearly inhibited lipid droplets formation and alleviated TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C levels. Positive effect was observed on hypolipidemic efficacy due to the regulation of PI3K/Akt/Bcl-xl pathway, as indicated by the amelioration of PI3K, Akt and Bcl-xl gene and protein expression. CONCLUSION: This study firstly systematically disclose the multi-ingredients, multi-targets mechanisms of mulberry leaf on obesity by using network pharmacology approach, and validate in HepG2 cells that the protective effect of MLF against obesity involved both inflammation response and lipid metabolism involving PI3K/Akt/Bcl-xl signaling pathway. It provides indications for further mechanistic research of mulberry leaf and also for the development as a potential candidate for the therapy for obese patients.


Subject(s)
Morus , Humans , Molecular Biology , Obesity/drug therapy , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Plant Leaves
12.
Virol Sin ; 2021 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359969

ABSTRACT

The sudden emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has caused global panic in 2003, and the risk of SARS-CoV outbreak still exists. However, no specific antiviral drug or vaccine is available; thus, the development of therapeutic antibodies against SARS-CoV is needed. In this study, a nanobody phage-displayed library was constructed from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of alpacas immunized with the recombinant receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV. Four positive clones were selected after four rounds of bio-panning and subjected to recombinant expression in E. coli. Further biological identification demonstrated that one of the nanobodies, S14, showed high affinity to SARS-CoV RBD and potent neutralization activity at the picomole level against SARS-CoV pseudovirus. A competitive inhibition assay showed that S14 blocked the binding of SARS-CoV RBD to either soluble or cell-expressed angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). In summary, we developed a novel nanobody targeting SARS-CoV RBD, which might be useful for the development of therapeutics against SARS.

13.
Arch Med Res ; 2021 Aug 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347493

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: During the current Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, patients with diabetes face disproportionately more. This study was performed to clarify anti-inflammatory effects of anti-diabetic agents on COVID-19 in patients with diabetes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Relevant literature was searched on 15 databases up to November 14, 2020 and was updated on April 13, 2021. The pooled ORs along with 95% CIs were calculated to evaluate combined effects. 31 studies with 66,914 patients were included in qualitative and quantitative synthesis. Meta-analysis showed that metformin was associated with a statistically significant lower mortality (pooled OR = 0.62, 95% CI, 0.50-0.76, p = 0.000) and poor composite outcomes (pooled OR = 0.83, 95% CI, 0.71-0.97, p = 0.022) in diabetic patients with COVID-19. Significance of slight lower mortality remained in sulfonylurea/glinides (pooled OR = 0.93, 95% CI, 0.89-0.98, p = 0.004), but of poor composite outcomes was not (pooled OR = 1.48, 95% CI, 0.61-3.60, p = 0.384). Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4 inhibitors) were associated with statistically non-significant lower mortality (pooled OR = 0.95, 95% CI, 0.72-1.26, p = 0.739) or poor composite outcomes (pooled OR = 1.27, 95% CI, 0.91-1.77, p = 0.162) of COVID-19 in diabetic patients. CONCLUSION: Metformin might be beneficial in decreasing mortality and poor composite outcomes in diabetic patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. DPP-4 inhibitors, sulfonylurea/glinides, SGLT-2 inhibitors, and GLP-1RA would not seem to be adverse. There was insufficient evidence to conclude effects of other anti-diabetic agents. Limited by retrospective characteristics, with relative weak capability to verify causality, more prospective studies, especially RCTs are needed. Registration number: PROSPERO-CRD42020221951.

14.
Chinese Journal of Nosocomiology ; 30(24):3701-3705, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1318606

ABSTRACT

Human ACE2 receptors on cells binding to Spike(S) protein on the surface of SARS-CoV-2 may be the main cause of the viruses entering into human cells. In this article, the current situation of the research on the S protein related SARS-CoV-2 infection and its mechanisms were summarized. We focused on the effect of structure of S protein on the infection, the binding sites of S proteins on ACE2 receptors in various tissues and other proteins which may regulate the process of binding, in order to elucidate the mechanisms of the infection of SARS-CoV-2. The variation of the gene of S protein can affect the transmission and virulence of SARS-CoV-2, which may give some useful references to the comprehensive understanding of the new virus of SARS-CoV-2.

15.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1370, 2021 07 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304398

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 related lockdown and home confinement might have an important impact on the quality of life in enterprise workers. We investigated the quality of life during the epidemic in enterprise workers who just returned to work, and assessed its potential influencing factors to have a better understanding of the impact of COVID-19 epidemic lockdown and home confinement. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of enterprise workers conducted in Deqing and Taizhou, Zhejiang Province, China. The Chinese version of EQ5D was used to assess life quality, and information about general characteristics and COVID-19 related factors was collected by a structured questionnaire, which was distributed through the social application "WeChat". Multiple liner regression was used to investigate potential influencing factors. RESULTS: A total of 2420 participants were enrolled, 59.5% of which worked in Deqing. About 50% of the participants reported worries about the COVID-2019 epidemic and 40.2% had a centralized or home quarantine during the epidemic. The mean EQ-5D score and VAS were 0.990 and 93.5. Multiple liner regression showed that the quality of life measures was related to physical activities (ß = 0.006) and keeping home ventilation (ß = 0.063) in Deqing, and were related to wearing a mask when going out (ß = 0.014), keeping home ventilation (ß = 0.061), other marital status (ß = - 0.011), worry about the epidemic (ß = - 0.005) and having a centralized or home quarantine (ß = - 0.005) in Taizhou. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of life for returning enterprise workers in areas with different risks of COVID-19 was affected by different factors. Associated factors identified from this study would help develop proper intervention measures for enterprise workers to reduce the impact of large-scale public health events like the COVID-19 on their quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 481, 2021 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has been largely controlled in China, to the point where case fatality rate (CFR) data can be comprehensively evaluated. METHODS: Data on confirmed patients, with a final outcome reported as of 29 March 2020, were obtained from official websites and other internet sources. The hospitalized CFR (HCFR) was estimated, epidemiological features described, and risk factors for a fatal outcome identified. RESULTS: The overall HCFR in China was estimated to be 4.6% (95% CI 4.5-4.8%, P < 0.001). It increased with age and was higher in males than females. Although the highest HCFR observed was in male patients ≥70 years old, the relative risks for death outcome by sex varied across age groups, and the greatest HCFR risk ratio for males vs. females was shown in the age group of 50-60 years, higher than age groups of 60-70 and ≥ 70 years. Differential age/sex HCFR patterns across geographical regions were found: the age effect on HCFR was greater in other provinces outside Hubei than in Wuhan. An effect of longer interval from symptom onset to admission was only observed outside Hubei, not in Wuhan. By performing multivariate analysis and survival analysis, the higher HCFR was associated with older age (both P < 0.001), and male sex (both P < 0.001). Only in regions outside Hubei, longer interval from symptom onset to admission, were associated with higher HCFR. CONCLUSIONS: This up-to-date and comprehensive picture of COVID-19 HCFR and its drivers will help healthcare givers target limited medical resources to patients with high risk of fatality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Time-to-Treatment
17.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 58, 2021 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Shanghai had a local outbreak of COVID-19 from January 21 to 24. Timely and precise strategies were taken to prevent further spread of the disease. We discussed and shared the experience of COVID-19 containment in Shanghai. PROCESS: The first two patients worked at two hospitals but no staff from the two hospitals were infected. The suspected case and his two close contacts were confirmed to be infected within 12 h. The testing rate of individuals was low. The scope of screening was minimized to two related districts and the close contact tracing was completed within 12 h, which were precise and cost-effective. CONCLUSIONS: Active monitoring, precise epidemiological investigation and timely nucleic acid testing help discover new cases, minimize the scope of screening, and interrupt the transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Diabetes Complications , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Quarantine/standards
18.
Environ Res ; 198: 111182, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188560

ABSTRACT

Whether meteorological factors influence COVID-19 transmission is an issue of major public health concern, but available evidence remains unclear and limited for several reasons, including the use of report date which can lag date of symptom onset by a considerable period. We aimed to generate reliable and robust evidence of this relationship based on date of onset of symptoms. We evaluated important meteorological factors associated with daily COVID-19 counts and effective reproduction number (Rt) in China using a two-stage approach with overdispersed generalized additive models and random-effects meta-analysis. Spatial heterogeneity and stratified analyses by sex and age groups were quantified and potential effect modification was analyzed. Nationwide, there was no evidence that temperature and relative humidity affected COVID-19 incidence and Rt. However, there were heterogeneous impacts on COVID-19 risk across different regions. Importantly, there was a negative association between relative humidity and COVID-19 incidence in Central China: a 1% increase in relative humidity was associated with a 3.92% (95% CI, 1.98%-5.82%) decrease in daily counts. Older population appeared to be more sensitive to meteorological conditions, but there was no obvious difference between sexes. Linear relationships were found between meteorological variables and COVID-19 incidence. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of the association and the results based on report date were biased. Meteorological factors play heterogenous roles on COVID-19 transmission, increasing the possibility of seasonality and suggesting the epidemic is far from over. Considering potential climatic associations, we should maintain, not ease, current control measures and surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Humans , Humidity , Incidence , Meteorological Concepts , SARS-CoV-2 , Temperature
20.
Dig Dis Sci ; 66(11): 3929-3937, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1098958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Famotidine was reported to potentially provide benefits to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. However, it remains controversial whether it is effective in treating COVID-19. AIMS: This study aimed to explore whether famotidine use is associated with reduced risk of the severity, death, and intubation for COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This study was registered on International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) (ID: CRD42020213536). A comprehensive search was performed to identify relevant studies up to October 2020. I-squared statistic and Q-test were utilized to assess the heterogeneity. Pooled risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated through the random effects or fixed effects model according to the heterogeneity. Subgroup analyses, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias assessment were also conducted. RESULTS: Five studies including 36,635 subjects were included. We found that famotidine use was associated with a statistically non-significant reduced risk of progression to severe disease, death, and intubation for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients (pooled RR was 0.82, 95% CI = 0.52-1.30, P = 0.40). CONCLUSION: Famotidine has no significant protective effect in reducing the risk of developing serious illness, death, and intubation for COVID-19 patients. More original studies are needed to further clarify whether it is associated with reduced risk of the severity, death, and intubation for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Famotidine/therapeutic use , Intubation, Intratracheal , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/mortality , Histamine H2 Antagonists/therapeutic use , Humans
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