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1.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1550-1553, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860765

ABSTRACT

In order to overcome the pandemic of COVID-19, messenger RNA (mRNA)-based vaccine has been extensively researched as a rapid and versatile strategy. Herein, we described the immunogenicity of mRNA-based vaccines for Beta and the most recent Omicron variants. The homologous mRNA-Beta and mRNA-Omicron and heterologous Ad5-nCoV plus mRNA vaccine exhibited high-level cross-reactive neutralization for Beta, original, Delta, and Omicron variants. It indicated that the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines have great potential in the clinical use against different SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315367

ABSTRACT

Background: : A respiratory epidemic defined as coronavirus disease 2019 ( COVID-19 ) is becoming unstoppable and has been declared a pandemic. Patients with cancer are more likely to develop COVID-19. Based on our experience during the pandemic period, we propose some surgery strategies for gastric cancer patients under the COVID-19 situation. Methods : We defined the ‘COVID-19’ period as occurring between 2020-01-20 and 2020-03-20. All the enrolled patients were divided into two groups, pre-COVID-19 group (PCG) and COVID-19 group (CG). A total of 109 patients with gastric cancer were enrolled in this study. Results : The waiting times before admission increased by 4 days in CG(PCG:4.5 [IQR: 2, 7.8] vs. CG:8.0 [IQR: 2,20];P = 0.006). More patients had performed chest CT scan besides abdominal CT before admission during COVID-19 period(PCG:22[32%]vs. CG:30[73%], p=0.001). After admission, during COVID period, the waiting time before surgery was longer(3[IQR: 2,5] vs. 7[IQR: 5,9];P < 0.001),more laparoscopic surgery were performed(PCG: 51[75%] vs. CG: 38[92%],p=0.021), and hospital stay after surgery was longer (7[IQR: 6,8] vs.9[IQR:7,11] ;P < 0.001). The total cost of hospitalization increased during COVID period, (9.22[IQR:7.82,10.97] vs. 10.42[IQR:8.99,12.57];p=0.006). Conclusion : Since no data is available yet on the impact of COVID-19 on gastric cancer patients,our own experience with COVID-19 in gastric cancer surgery has hopefully provided an opportunity for colleagues to reflect on their own service and any contingency plans they have to tackle the crisis. Keywords: gastric cancer;coronavirus disease 2019;COVID-19;retrospective analysis;real-world data.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315366

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization. Patients with cancer are more likely to incur poor clinical outcomes. Due to the prevailing pandemic, we propose some surgical strategies for gastric cancer patients. Methods: : The ‘COVID-19’ period was defined as occurring between 2020-01-20 and 2020-03-20. The enrolled patients were divided into two groups, pre-COVID-19 group (PCG) and COVID-19 group (CG). A total of 109 patients with gastric cancer were enrolled in this study. Results: : The waiting time before admission increased by 4 days in the CG (PCG: 4.5 [IQR: 2, 7.8] vs. CG: 8.0 [IQR: 2,20];p=0.006). More patients had performed chest CT scans besides abdominal CT before admission during the COVID-19 period (PCG: 22 [32%] vs. CG: 30 [73%], p=0.001). After admission during the COVID period, the waiting time before surgery was longer (PCG: 3[IQR: 2,5] vs. CG: 7[IQR: 5,9];p<0.001), more laparoscopic surgeries were performed (PCG: 51[75%] vs. CG: 38[92%], p=0.021), and hospital stay period after surgery was longer (7[IQR: 6,8] vs.9[IQR:7,11];p<0.001). In addition, the total cost of hospitalization increased during this period, (PCG: 9.22[IQR:7.82,10.97] vs. CG: 10.42[IQR:8.99,12.57];p=0.006). Conclusion: This study provides an opportunity for our surgical colleagues to reflect on their own services and any contingency plans they may have to tackle the COVID-19 crisis.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311352

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a global concern nowadays, and the psychological impact of the pandemic cannot be overlooked. People are under insurmountable pressure, which may lead to psychological problems such as anxiety and depression. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mental health of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) patients during COVID-19 pandemic and to analyze its influencing factors. We conducted an online questionnaire survey among 307 SCA patients from China. The contents of the questionnaire included general information, the self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), the self-rating depression scale (SDS). The relevant influencing factors included COVID-19 risk factors, age, gender, BMI (body mass index), educational background, disease course, and score of the scale for the assessment and rating of ataxia (SARA). Results indicate the 307 SCA patients had an anxiety rate of 34.9%, along with a depression rate of 56.7%. Their SAS and SDS scores were significantly higher than those of the Chinese norm group (SAS: 45.8±10.1 vs. 37.2±12.6, P < 0.01;SDS: 55.1±12.2 vs. 41.9±10.6, P < 0.01). Risks of exposure to COVID-19, educational level, and disease course may be factors affecting mental health status. The existence of a positive correlation among the scores of SARA, SAS and SDS scale was demonstrated, the higher the SARA score, the higher the risk of anxiety and depression. Anxiety and depression were more prevalent in SCA patients compared with the normal population, and depression was more common than anxiety during this pandemic. More psychological attention should be paid to SCA patients during COVID-19 pandemic.

5.
Genome Res ; 32(2): 228-241, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642462

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of COVID-19 is still elusive, which impedes disease progression prediction, differential diagnosis, and targeted therapy. Plasma cell-free RNAs (cfRNAs) carry unique information from human tissue and thus could point to resourceful solutions for pathogenesis and host-pathogen interactions. Here, we performed a comparative analysis of cfRNA profiles between COVID-19 patients and healthy donors using serial plasma. Analyses of the cfRNA landscape, potential gene regulatory mechanisms, dynamic changes in tRNA pools upon infection, and microbial communities were performed. A total of 380 cfRNA molecules were up-regulated in all COVID-19 patients, of which seven could serve as potential biomarkers (AUC > 0.85) with great sensitivity and specificity. Antiviral (NFKB1A, IFITM3, and IFI27) and neutrophil activation (S100A8, CD68, and CD63)-related genes exhibited decreased expression levels during treatment in COVID-19 patients, which is in accordance with the dynamically enhanced inflammatory response in COVID-19 patients. Noncoding RNAs, including some microRNAs (let 7 family) and long noncoding RNAs (GJA9-MYCBP) targeting interleukin (IL6/IL6R), were differentially expressed between COVID-19 patients and healthy donors, which accounts for the potential core mechanism of cytokine storm syndromes; the tRNA pools change significantly between the COVID-19 and healthy group, leading to the accumulation of SARS-CoV-2 biased codons, which facilitate SARS-CoV-2 replication. Finally, several pneumonia-related microorganisms were detected in the plasma of COVID-19 patients, raising the possibility of simultaneously monitoring immune response regulation and microbial communities using cfRNA analysis. This study fills the knowledge gap in the plasma cfRNA landscape of COVID-19 patients and offers insight into the potential mechanisms of cfRNAs to explain COVID-19 pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids , RNA/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/genetics , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e053403, 2022 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633982

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the symptoms of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases as compared with laboratory-confirmed negative individuals and to the untested general population among all participants who reported symptoms within a large prospective cohort study. SETTING AND DESIGN: This work was conducted within the framework of the Arizona CoVHORT, a longitudinal prospective cohort study conducted among Arizona residents. PARTICIPANTS: Eligible participants were any individual living in Arizona and were recruited from across Arizona via COVID-19 case investigations, participation in testing studies and a postcard mailing effort. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was a comparison of the type and frequency of symptoms between COVID-19-positive cases, tested but negative individuals and the general untested population who reported experiencing symptoms consistent with COVID-19. RESULTS: Of the 1335 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases, 180 (13.5%) reported having no symptoms. Of those that did report symptoms, the most commonly reported were fatigue (82.2%), headache (74.6%), aches, pains or sore muscles (66.3%), loss of taste or smell (62.8) and cough (61.9%). In adjusted logistic regression models, COVID-19-positive participants were more likely than negative participants to experience loss of taste and smell (OR 12.1; 95% CI 9.6 to 15.2), bone or nerve pain (OR 3.0; 95% CI 2.2 to 4.1), headache (OR 2.6; 95% CI 2.2 to 3.2), nausea (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.9 to 3.1) or diarrhoea (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.7 to 2.6). Fatigue (82.9) and headache (74.9) had the highest sensitivities among symptoms, while loss of taste or smell (87.2) and bone or nerve pain (92.9) had the high specificities among significant symptoms associated with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: When comparing confirmed COVID-19 cases with either confirmed negative or untested participants, the pattern of symptoms that discriminates SARS-CoV-2 infection from those arising from other potential circulating pathogens may differ from general reports of symptoms among cases alone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Arizona/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Innovation in aging ; 5(Suppl 1):1020-1020, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601950

ABSTRACT

Prejudice, discrimination, and negative stereotypes based on age (ageism) are long-standing and strongly implicated in poor health outcomes and limited access to health care for older adults. Recent writings suggest the COVID-19 pandemic raised the specter of ageism to an entirely new level. Do these observations reflect an exaggeration of “usual” ageism or a unique manifestation of intergenerational tension rooted in resentments of younger people concerning COVID-related disruptions in their lives believed to be primarily a function of older people’s vulnerability to the disease phenomenon? To address this question, the purpose of this study was to develop and test an instrument to measure ageist tendencies associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. Scale items, written to reflect attitudes about paternalism, inconvenience, and sacrifice, were assessed for content validity. Then the 12-item scale was administered to 227 undergraduate and graduate students in the health and social sciences. Analysis showed items have strong internal consistency and concurrent and discriminant validity. Importantly the scale explained unique variance over and above other standard measures of ageism. Ageism is deeply embedded in global and U.S. culture and strongly related to negative outcomes. This scale will assist researchers investigating the ageist consequences of the current pandemic and help us to monitor what could be long-term residual ageist effects of the COVID pandemic.

9.
Innovation in Aging ; 5(Supplement_1):24-24, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1584875

ABSTRACT

This study investigates how older Black and Hispanic adults’ work engagement is impacted by the effects of COVID-19. Using intersectionality and cumulative (dis)advantage as complementing theoretical frameworks, data from the Health and Retirement Study, and series of logistic regression models, we measure work engagement changes pre- and post- COVID-19. Preliminary findings suggest that net of other controls, there were no substantial or significant reductions in resilience as the result of COVID-19 itself for any racial/ethnic group. White older adults, and to some degree Hispanics older adults, experienced erosion in resilience related to financial hardships, but the resilience of Black older adults remained stable in the face of increased hardship. Future work in this area will improve our limited understanding of older Black and Hispanic adults’ experiences of managing and coping with COVID-19- related work and financial risks– information that will be critical for planning intervention and support services.

10.
Innovation in Aging ; 5(Supplement_1):64-65, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1584843

ABSTRACT

Burgeoning research on the effects of COVID-19 and university experiences in the U.S. tends to focus on transmission of COVID-19 virus or student-related consequences of COVID-19. However, none to our knowledge examine the effects on older university employees. Universities employ a higher percentage of older adults with diverse job responsibilities and socioeconomic status, presenting a unique closed community for understanding the pandemic’s consequences for older adults. Our aims are to: 1) understand older university employees’ concerns related to COVID-19, 2) develop intervention strategies to mitigate the adverse impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the health and wellbeing of older employees, and 3) test the interventions within the target population to help reduce stress and promote wellbeing. Using a community participatory approach, we sought input from employees aged 50 and older at the University of Arizona. Mixed methods were used to collect qualitative (six focus groups;N= 24) and quantitative (online survey;N=1030) data. We conducted and evaluated a set of interventions (i.e., virtual Tai Chi and Qigong, walking exercises, and meditation) using focus group feedback, process evaluation, and outcome assessment with validated questionnaires on sleep quality, mindfulness and psychological wellbeing. Findings show that a significant percentage of older employees worried about getting COVID-19 and had experienced undesirable changes in sleep quality, weight, and physical activity, and concerns about caregiving;however, we also observed psychological resilience in this population. The study highlights the importance of developing immediate and effective programs for promoting health and wellbeing for older employees during the pandemic.

11.
Innovation in Aging ; 5(Supplement_1):65-65, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1584841

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine COVID-19-related concerns and risk perceptions among older employees aged 50+ related to reopening a large state university campus during the COVID-19 pandemic. Recruitment focused on older employees from diverse backgrounds and job classifications. Six focus group interviews, with a total of 24 participants, were conducted using Zoom video conferencing. Interviews were transcribed using Zoom and were double-checked for accuracy. Transcripts were coded and analyzed using ATLAS.ti 9 after establishing inter-rater reliability among two coders. During the campus reopening, older employees reported several concerns and perceptions of risk focused on COVID-19 exposure and transmission to others, individual health and health of other household members, mental health and stress, and job security. Findings were used to inform the development of intervention strategies and resources to promote the health and well-being among older employees during the pandemic.

12.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 65, 2021 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569241

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, poses a serious public health threat. Effective therapeutic and prophylactic treatments are urgently needed. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a functional receptor for SARS-CoV-2, which binds to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Here, we developed recombinant human ACE2-Fc fusion protein (hACE2-Fc) and a hACE2-Fc mutant with reduced catalytic activity. hACE2-Fc and the hACE2-Fc mutant both efficiently blocked entry of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and HCoV-NL63 into hACE2-expressing cells and inhibited SARS-CoV-2 S protein-mediated cell-cell fusion. hACE2-Fc also neutralized various SARS-CoV-2 strains with enhanced infectivity including D614G and V367F mutations, as well as the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.351 (Beta), B.1.617.1 (Kappa), and B.1.617.2 (Delta), demonstrating its potent and broad-spectrum antiviral effects. In addition, hACE2-Fc proteins protected HBE from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Unlike RBD-targeting neutralizing antibodies, hACE2-Fc treatment did not induce the development of escape mutants. Furthermore, both prophylactic and therapeutic hACE2-Fc treatments effectively protected mice from SARS-CoV-2 infection, as determined by reduced viral replication, weight loss, histological changes, and inflammation in the lungs. The protection provided by hACE2 showed obvious dose-dependent efficacy in vivo. Pharmacokinetic data indicated that hACE2-Fc has a relative long half-life in vivo compared to soluble ACE2, which makes it an excellent candidate for prophylaxis and therapy for COVID-19 as well as for SARS-CoV and HCoV-NL63 infections.

13.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 12(12)2021 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542671

ABSTRACT

With the rising demand for wearable, multifunctional, and flexible electronics, plenty of efforts aiming at wearable devices have been devoted to designing sensors with greater efficiency, wide environment tolerance, and good sustainability. Herein, a thin film of double-network ionic hydrogel with a solution replacement treatment method is fabricated, which not only possesses excellent stretchability (>1100%) and good transparency (>80%), but also maintains a wide application temperature range (-10~40 °C). Moreover, the hydrogel membrane further acts as both the flexible electrode and a triboelectric layer, with a larger friction area achieved through a micro-structure pattern method. Combining this with a corona-charged fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) film, an electret/hydrogel-based tactile sensor (EHTS) is designed and fabricated. The output performance of the EHTS is effectively boosted by 156.3% through the hybrid of triboelectric and electrostatic effects, which achieves the open-circuit peak voltage of 12.5 V, short-circuit current of 0.5 µA, and considerable power of 4.3 µW respectively, with a mentionable size of 10 mm × 10 mm × 0.9 mm. The EHTS also demonstrates a stable output characteristic within a wide range of temperature tolerance from -10 to approximately 40 °C and can be further integrated into a mask for human breath monitoring, which could provide for a reliable healthcare service during the COVID-19 pandemic. In general, the EHTS shows excellent potential in the fields of healthcare devices and wearable electronics.

14.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; 42(8):1129-1134, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1502927

ABSTRACT

Objective: To gain a better understanding of the emotional and behavioral problems associated determinants of primary and middle school students from Guangdong Province during the COVID-19 pandemic, so as to provide a basis for developing targeted intervention strategies.

15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 724763, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399141

ABSTRACT

Characterizing the serologic features of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection is imperative to improve diagnostics and control of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. In this study, we evaluated the antibody profiles in 272 plasma samples collected from 59 COVID-19 patients, consisting of 18 asymptomatic patients, 33 mildly ill patients and 8 severely ill patients. We measured the IgG against five viral structural proteins, different isotypes of immunoglobulins against the Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) protein, and neutralizing antibodies. The results showed that the overall antibody response was lower in asymptomatic infections than in symptomatic infections throughout the disease course. In contrast to symptomatic patients, asymptomatic patients showed a dominant IgG-response towards the RBD protein, but not IgM and IgA. Neutralizing antibody titers had linear correlations with IgA/IgM/IgG levels against SARS-CoV-2-RBD, as well as with IgG levels against multiple SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins, especially with anti-RBD or anti-S2 IgG. In addition, the sensitivity of anti-S2-IgG is better in identifying asymptomatic infections at early time post infection compared to anti-RBD-IgG. These data suggest that asymptomatic infections elicit weaker antibody responses, and primarily induce IgG antibody responses rather than IgA or IgM antibody responses. Detection of IgG against the S2 protein could supplement nucleic acid testing to identify asymptomatic patients. This study provides an antibody detection scheme for asymptomatic infections, which may contribute to epidemic prevention and control.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Asymptomatic Infections , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Structural Proteins/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/physiology , Binding Sites, Antibody , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/classification , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Young Adult
16.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 155, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189204

ABSTRACT

Disease progression prediction and therapeutic drug target discovery for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are particularly important, as there is still no effective strategy for severe COVID-19 patient treatment. Herein, we performed multi-platform omics analysis of serial plasma and urine samples collected from patients during the course of COVID-19. Integrative analyses of these omics data revealed several potential therapeutic targets, such as ANXA1 and CLEC3B. Molecular changes in plasma indicated dysregulation of macrophage and suppression of T cell functions in severe patients compared to those in non-severe patients. Further, we chose 25 important molecular signatures as potential biomarkers for the prediction of disease severity. The prediction power was validated using corresponding urine samples and plasma samples from new COVID-19 patient cohort, with AUC reached to 0.904 and 0.988, respectively. In conclusion, our omics data proposed not only potential therapeutic targets, but also biomarkers for understanding the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , Lipidomics , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Humans , Male
17.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(3): 385-395, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1162009

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) remains of global public health concern. Dromedary camels are the source of zoonotic infection. Over 70% of MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV)-infected dromedaries are found in Africa but no zoonotic disease has been reported in Africa. We aimed to understand whether individuals with exposure to dromedaries in Africa had been infected by MERS-CoV. METHODS: Workers slaughtering dromedaries in an abattoir in Kano, Nigeria, were compared with abattoir workers without direct dromedary contact, non-abattoir workers from Kano, and controls from Guangzhou, China. Exposure to dromedaries was ascertained using a questionnaire. Serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were tested for MERS-CoV specific neutralising antibody and T-cell responses. FINDINGS: None of the participants from Nigeria or Guangdong were MERS-CoV seropositive. 18 (30%) of 61 abattoir workers with exposure to dromedaries, but none of 20 abattoir workers without exposure (p=0·0042), ten non-abattoir workers or 24 controls from Guangzhou (p=0·0002) had evidence of MERS-CoV-specific CD4+ or CD8+ T cells in PBMC. T-cell responses to other endemic human coronaviruses (229E, OC43, HKU-1, and NL-63) were observed in all groups with no association with dromedary exposure. Drinking both unpasteurised camel milk and camel urine was significantly and negatively associated with T-cell positivity (odds ratio 0·07, 95% CI 0·01-0·54). INTERPRETATION: Zoonotic infection of dromedary-exposed individuals is taking place in Nigeria and suggests that the extent of MERS-CoV infections in Africa is underestimated. MERS-CoV could therefore adapt to human transmission in Africa rather than the Arabian Peninsula, where attention is currently focused. FUNDING: The National Science and Technology Major Project, National Institutes of Health.


Subject(s)
Camelus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Camelus/virology , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Young Adult , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology
18.
J Clin Neurosci ; 88: 39-46, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157516

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently a global concern, and the psychological impact cannot be overlooked. Our purpose was to evaluate the anxiety and depression in spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) patients during the pandemic and to analyse the influencing factors. We conducted an online questionnaire survey among 307 SCA patients from China and selected 319 healthy people matched by sex and age as the control group. The questionnaire included general information, the self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), and the self-rating depression scale (SDS). The relevant factors included COVID-19 risk factors, age, sex, body mass index (BMI), educational background, disease course, score on the scale for the assessment and rating of ataxia (SARA), Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) and International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS). The proportion of SCA patients with anxiety was 34.9%, and the proportion with depression was 56.7%. The SAS and SDS scores of the SCA patients were significantly higher than those of the control group (SAS: 45.8 ± 10.1 vs. 40.6 ± 8.9, P < 0.01; SDS: 55.1 ± 12.2 vs. 43.6 ± 11.9, P < 0.01). In SCA3, the risk of exposure to COVID-19, educational level, disease course and the severity of ataxia may be factors affecting patients' mental health. More attention should be paid to the mental health of SCA patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19 , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Pandemics , Spinocerebellar Ataxias/complications , Spinocerebellar Ataxias/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Body Mass Index , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Self Report , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
19.
Fundamental Research ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1116731

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) represents a major public health threat worldwide. Insight into protective and pathogenic aspects of SARS-CoV-2 immune responses is critical to work out effective therapeutics and develop vaccines for controlling the disease. Here, we review the present literature describing the innate and adaptive immune responses including innate immune cells, cytokine responses, antibody responses and T cell responses against SARS-CoV-2 in human infection, as well as in AEC2-humanized mouse infection. We also summarize the now known and unknown about the role of the SARS-CoV-2 immune responses. By better understanding the mechanisms that drive the immune responses, we can tailor treatment strategies at specific disease stages and improve our response to this worldwide public health threat.

20.
Front Public Health ; 9: 620060, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110366

ABSTRACT

This study is a prospective, population-based cohort of individuals with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection and those without past infection through multiple recruitment sources. The main study goal is to track health status over time, within the diverse populations of Arizona and to identify the long-term consequences of COVID-19 on health and well-being. A total of 2,881 study participants (16.2% with a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection) have been enrolled as of December 22, 2020, with a target enrollment of 10,000 participants and a planned follow-up of at least 2 years. This manuscript describes a scalable study design that utilizes a wide range of recruitment sources, leveraging electronic data collection to capture and link longitudinal participant data on the current and emerging issues associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. The cohort is built within a collaborative infrastructure that includes new and established partnerships with multiple stakeholders, including the state's public universities, local health departments, tribes, and tribal organizations. Challenges remain for ensuring recruitment of diverse participants and participant retention, although the electronic data management system and timing of participant contact can help to mitigate these problems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Status , Population Health , Program Development , Adolescent , Adult , Arizona , Chronic Disease , Cultural Diversity , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Stress, Psychological , Young Adult
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