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1.
Frontiers in pharmacology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1812767

ABSTRACT

Treatment choices for the “severe acute respiratory syndrome‐related coronavirus‐2 (SARS‐CoV‐2)” are inadequate, having no clarity on efficacy and safety profiles. Currently, no established intervention has lowered the mortality rate in the “coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19)” patients. Recently, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) has evaluated as a polypharmacological agent for COVID-19 therapy owing to its influence on the glycolytic pathway, interaction with viral proteins, and anti-inflammatory action. In May 2020, the Indian drug regulatory authority approved 2-DG as an emergency adjunct therapy in mild to severe COVID-19 patients. Clinical studies of 2-DG corroborate that it aids in faster recovery of hospitalized patients and decreases supplemental oxygen. Herein, we describe the development process, synthesis, mechanism of viral eradication, and preclinical and clinical development of 2-DG and its derivatives as molecularly targeted therapeutics for COVID-19 treatment.

2.
Renew Energy ; 191: 261-277, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805067

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has brought significant changes to the power sector. This study proposes general and coherent methodological steps to explore the future impact of lockdown measures on the power sector. In a case study from the Netherlands, two lockdown levels were defined and simulated to identify the influence of the pandemic upon the sector. Moreover, four renewable scenarios were developed to represent the green transition of the Netherlands' power sector up to 2035. For this future power sector, the results show that the green transition can achieve a reduction of 65% in CO2 emissions and 20% in power sector cost. Under the implementation of a simulated lockdown level, electricity demand decreased by 6.3% under Level 1 and 11.9% under Level 2 in 2035. The influences of lockdowns on future power sectors differ with respect to scenario. In addition, Lockdown Level 1 leads to a reduction of 8-12% in emissions and a reduction of 6-8% in cost, and Lockdown Level 2 expands this reduction to 15-21% in emissions and 11-13% in cost. The findings of this exploratory study can elucidate what may happen in the future green power sector if such event arises.

3.
Res Sq ; 2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786457

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 RNA genome contains a 5'-cap that facilitates translation of viral proteins, protection from exonucleases and evasion of the host immune response1-4. How this cap is made is not completely understood. Here, we reconstitute the SARS-CoV-2 7MeGpppA2'-O-Me-RNA cap using virally encoded non-structural proteins (nsps). We show that the kinase-like NiRAN domain5 of nsp12 transfers RNA to the amino terminus of nsp9, forming a covalent RNA-protein intermediate (a process termed RNAylation). Subsequently, the NiRAN domain transfers RNA to GDP, forming the cap core structure GpppA-RNA. The nsp146 and nsp167 methyltransferases then add methyl groups to form functional cap structures. Structural analyses of the replication-transcription complex bound to nsp9 identified key interactions that mediate the capping reaction. Furthermore, we demonstrate in a reverse genetics system8 that the N-terminus of nsp9 and the kinase-like active site residues in the NiRAN domain are required for successful SARS-CoV-2 replication. Collectively, our results reveal an unconventional mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 caps its RNA genome, thus exposing a new target in the development of antivirals to treat COVID-19.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315319

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging global medical challenge and glucocorticoids remain the most promising therapy. Osteonecrosis (ON) is a disease caused by reduced blood flow to bones in the joints, which will rapidly induce joint destroy. ON had been frequently identified among convalescent patients after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). Considering the similarity of SARS and COVID-19 on their pathogen, clinical characteristics and therapeutic strategies, it is particularly worrying whether ON will be a common sequela among convalescent COVID-19 patient.Methods: This multi-strategy study integrating different research methods, such as meta-analysis, systematic review and cross-sectional investigation. At first, two meta-analyses were performed on the incidence of osteonecrosis among SARS patients and the clinical data of glucocorticoid exposure among COVID-19 patients. Then, a systematic review of low-dosage glucocorticoid associated osteonecrosis and a real-world cross-sectional investigation of glucocorticoid exposure of COVID-19 patients in China Wuhan were also provided. Moreover, the pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment options for osteonecrosis after COVID-19 infection were further described.Findings: Our meta-analysis showed that 32% of SARS patients had developed ON after receiving glucocorticoid treatment with high dose, and our system review also supported that low level glucocorticoid exposure may lead to the occurrence of ON. Similarly, 40% of COVID-19 patients had undergone glucocorticoid treatment according to our meta-analysis. The cross-sectional investigation in China Wuhan found that the average of cumulative glucocorticoid exposure level was 504 mg calculated by the dosage of methylprednisolone. Notably, a confirmed osteonecrosis case after COVID-19 was identified during our investigation. Preventive management of ON shall better start with regular clinical followup observation.Interpretation: Growing evidence of the glucocorticoid therapy for COVID-19 patients prompts us to put forward the risk-classification-based early screening and early prevention protocol of ON, which may be of clinical significance in favorable prognosis of this disease.Registration Details: PROSPERO, registration number CRD42020203536.Funding Information: This study was supported by the Special Project For COVID-19 Prevention and Management of Ministry of Education of China (2020-JYB-YJ-023), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2019ZX09731-002) and the State Key Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China (82030122).Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: The protocol for the investigation study has been registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR), (URL: http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=61769, No. ChiCTR2000038333). This study was approved by the Ethics Institutional Review Board of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine (No. BZYSY-2020KYKTPJ-06), and informed consent was obtained from every participant patient.

5.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327492

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 RNA genome contains a 5’-cap that facilitates translation of viral proteins, protection from exonucleases and evasion of the host immune response 1-4 . How this cap is made is not completely understood. Here, we reconstitute the SARS-CoV-2 7Me GpppA 2’-O-Me -RNA cap using virally encoded non-structural proteins (nsps). We show that the kinase-like NiRAN domain 5 of nsp12 transfers RNA to the amino terminus of nsp9, forming a covalent RNA-protein intermediate (a process termed RNAylation). Subsequently, the NiRAN domain transfers RNA to GDP, forming the cap core structure GpppA-RNA. The nsp14 6 and nsp16 7 methyltransferases then add methyl groups to form functional cap structures. Structural analyses of the replication-transcription complex bound to nsp9 identified key interactions that mediate the capping reaction. Furthermore, we demonstrate in a reverse genetics system 8 that the N-terminus of nsp9 and the kinase-like active site residues in the NiRAN domain are required for successful SARS-CoV-2 replication. Collectively, our results reveal an unconventional mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 caps its RNA genome, thus exposing a new target in the development of antivirals to treat COVID-19.

6.
Interdiscip Sci ; 14(2): 471-484, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1681959

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of COVID-19 sweeping the globe in 2020 has caused widespread fear and threatened global health security. Compared to SARS and MERS, COVID-19 also causes severe respiratory diseases and even fatal diseases but have many differences, such as the unidentified gene sequence and replication mechanism. From SARS to MERS, and then to COVID-19, coronaviruses have significant variations in host adaptation, virus evolution, infectivity, spread, and pathogenicity due to its unique replication mechanism. METHODS: A field of research for the coronavirus replication in humans was visualized with a database covering 9177 kinds of literature in Web of Science from 2002 through October 2021 to provide cognitive direction for the epidemic situation of virus infection. Knowledge Mapping by CiteSpace and Bibliometrix Package in R Software was drawn to depict the underlying features of viral replication and changing trends of studies, with these analyses including co-citation, density visualization, keyword clustering, and time zone. RESULTS: The keyword frequencies of "replication," ''infection," and ''spike protein" repeatedly appeared in published papers. Coronavirus can promote or inhibit apoptosis, depending on the balance between viral protein and apoptotic factors. When the living environment of cells is irreversibly damaged by the virus, cells have to start the apoptosis mechanism to prevent the replication, transmission, and spread of the virus. The replication, assembly and transmission of coronavirus can inhibit cells from entering the apoptosis prematurely with the fusion of spike protein and cell receptor in human. CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that "viral infection," spike protein," and "mutation" might be future research hotspots on coronavirus replication in humans. The attention should be paid to the mutations of S protein and these mutants carrying mutations.

7.
J Drug Target ; 30(3): 244-258, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684258

ABSTRACT

Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent cell death pathway and participates in various diseases. Current evidence suggests that ferroptosis can obviously affect the function of blood cells. This paper aims to elaborate the role of ferroptosis in blood cells and related diseases. First, abnormal ferroptosis damages the developing red blood cells by breaking systemic iron homeostasis, leading to erythropoiesis suppression and anaemia. Ferroptosis mediates neutrophils recruitment and neutrophil extracellular trap formation (NETosis). In T-cells, ferroptosis induces a novel point of synergy between immunotherapy and radiotherapy. Additionally, ferroptosis may mediate B cells differentiation, antibody responses and lymphoma. Nevertheless, increased ferroptosis can ameliorate acute myeloid leukaemia and T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma by inducing iron-dependent cancer cells death. Besides, ferroptosis activates platelets by increasing P-selectin, thus causing thromboembolism. Ferroptosis mediates virus infection and parasite infection by driving T-cell death and preventing T-cell immunity. Interestingly, ferroptosis is also considered as a critical player in COVID-19 infections, while targetting ferroptosis may also improve thromboembolism and prognosis in patients with COVID-19 infection. Overall, the crucial role of ferroptosis in blood cells will show a new therapeutic potential in blood cell-related diseases.HighlightsFerroptosis shows a new therapeutic potential for blood cell-related diseases.Ferroptosis damages erythropoiesis and thus induces anaemia.Ferroptosis induces platelet activation and leads to thromboembolism.Ferroptosis regulates T-cell and B-cell immunity, which participant in infectious diseases.Inversely, ferroptosis ameliorates acute myeloid leukaemia and T-cell leukaemia.


Subject(s)
Blood Cells/drug effects , Blood Cells/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Drug Delivery Systems , Ferroptosis/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans
8.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 732403, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559069

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan (China) in December 2019, the epidemic has rapidly spread to many countries around the world, posing a huge threat to global public health. In response to the pandemic, a number of clinical studies have been initiated to evaluate the effect of various treatments against COVID-19, combining medical strategies and clinical trial data from around the globe. Herein, we summarize the clinical evaluation about the drugs mentioned in this review for COVID-19 treatment. This review discusses the recent data regarding the efficacy of various treatments in COVID-19 patients, to control and prevent the outbreak.

9.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 142: 333-370, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509964

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to systematically identify and critically assess the clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for the management of critically ill patients with COVID-19 with the AGREE II instrument. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We searched Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, CNKI, CBM, WanFang, and grey literature from November 2019 - November 2020. We did not apply language restrictions. One reviewer independently screened the retrieved titles and abstracts, and a second reviewer confirmed the decisions. Full texts were assessed independently and in duplicate. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. We included any guideline that provided recommendations on the management of critically ill patients with COVID-19. Data extraction was performed independently and in duplicate by two reviewers. We descriptively summarized CPGs characteristics. We assessed the quality with the AGREE II instrument and we summarized relevant therapeutic interventions. RESULTS: We retrieved 3,907 records and 71 CPGs were included. Means (Standard Deviations) of the scores for the 6 domains of the AGREE II instrument were 65%(SD19.56%), 39%(SD19.64%), 27%(SD19.48%), 70%(SD15.74%), 26%(SD18.49%), 42%(SD34.91) for the scope and purpose, stakeholder involvement, rigor of development, clarity of presentation, applicability, editorial independence domains, respectively. Most of the CPGs showed a low overall quality (less than 40%). CONCLUSION: Future CPGs for COVID-19 need to rely, for their development, on standard evidence-based methods and tools.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/standards , Evidence-Based Medicine/standards , Consensus , Databases, Factual , Humans , Internationality , Practice Guidelines as Topic
10.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(41): 869-877, 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498479

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Assessing the effects of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) and vaccines on controlling the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is key for each government to optimize the anti-contagion policy according to their situation. METHODS: We proposed the Braking Force Model on Virus Transmission to evaluate the validity and efficiency of NPIs and vaccines. This model classified the NPIs and the administration of vaccines at different effectiveness levels and forecasted the duration required to control the pandemic, providing an indication of the future trends of the pandemic wave. RESULTS: This model was applied to study the effectiveness of the most commonly used NPIs according to the historic pandemic waves in different countries and regions. It was found that when facing an outbreak, only strict lockdown would give efficient control of the pandemic; the other NPIs were insufficient to promptly and effectively reduce virus transmission. Meanwhile, our results showed that NPIs would likely only slow down the pandemic's progression and maintain a low transmission level but fail to eradicate the disease. Only vaccination would likely have had a better chance of success in ending the pandemic. DISCUSSION: Based on the Braking Force Model, a pandemic control strategy framework has been devised for policymakers to determine the commencement and duration of appropriate interventions, with the aim of obtaining a balance between public health risk management and economic recovery.

11.
J Orthop Translat ; 31: 1-9, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472066

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disaster in human medical history and glucocorticoids remain the most promising therapy. Osteonecrosis is a disease caused by reduced intraosseous blood flow to bones in the joints, which will rapidly induce joint destruction. Approximately one-third patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) who received high cumulative doses and long treatment durations of glucocorticoids occurred osteonecrosis. Considering the similarity of SARS and COVID-19 on their pathogen, clinical characteristics, and therapeutic strategies, it is particularly desirable to investigate whether osteonecrosis will become a common sequela among convalescent COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This multi-strategy study was designed by integrating different research methods, such as meta-analysis, systematic review, and cross-sectional investigations to address above study objectives. At first, two meta-analyses were performed on the osteonecrosis incidence among SARS patients and the clinical data of glucocorticoid exposure among COVID-19 patients. Then, a systematic review of low-dosage glucocorticoid associated osteonecrosis and a cross-sectional investigation of glucocorticoid exposure of COVID-19 patients in Wuhan city of China were also conducted. Moreover, the pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment options for osteonecrosis patients with COVID-19 infection were further presented and discussed. RESULTS: Our meta-analysis showed that 32% of SARS patients had developed osteonecrosis after receiving glucocorticoid treatment with high dose, and our system review supported that low level glucocorticoid exposure might also lead to the occurrence of osteonecrosis. Similarly, 40% of COVID-19 patients had undergone glucocorticoid treatment according to our meta-analysis. The cross-sectional investigation in Wuhan city of China found that the average of cumulative glucocorticoid exposure level was 504 â€‹mg calculated by the dosage of methylprednisolone. Notably, a confirmed osteonecrosis case was identified from 1406 patients with COVID-19 during our cross-sectional investigation, implying that preventive management of osteonecrosis should be better started with regular clinical follow-up observation. CONCLUSION: Growing evidence of the glucocorticoid therapy for COVID-19 patients prompts us to establish risk-classification-based early screening and to introduce early prevention protocol of its associated osteonecrosis that will be of clinical significance in favor of improved prognosis of this disease. THE TRANSLATIONAL POTENTIAL OF THIS ARTICLE: To establish risk-classification-based early screening and to introduce early prevention protocol of glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis will be of clinical significance in favor of improved prognosis of COVID-19.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291172

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, the COVID-19 infection broke out in many parts of the world with confirmed and death cases rapidly increasing, which posed a great threat to human life and health. Current nucleic acid detection and antibody testing for the SARS-CoV-2 were the main methods for diagnosis of COVID-19, but not so sensitive, with high false negative rate and missed diagnosis rate. Imaging changes of COVID-19 not only precede symptomatic changes, but also have different imaging characteristics in different periods. We conducted 74 days of dynamic chest CT imaging observation on COVID-19 patients in Hebei province, aiming to understand the dynamic characteristics of the chest CT changes of COVID-19, so as to find the source of infection early, take early intervention measures, and judge the prognosis. Methods: Chest CT examinations at intervals 1 to 4 days were conducted for 11 patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19. On the 74th day after onset, chest CT was reexamined to analyze the characteristics of chest CT in each stage. Results: Of the 11 cases, 1 case was imported from Wuhan, 10 cases were infected for family clustering after close contact with confirmed COVID-19 cases. There were 3 ordinary cases, 3 severe cases and 5 critical cases. Among them, 2 critical cases died for old age and complications of underlying diseases, while 9 cases were cured by April 7, 2020. The changes of chest CT imaging in 1 child appeared prior to the clinical symptoms. 1–4 days after onset of the initial symptom were the early stages: Chest CT was mainly characterized by single lung quasi-circular ground glass shadow and fine mesh shadow. 5–10 days were the progressive stages: The lesion spread along the axial interstitium of the bronchi and gradually diffused to the whole lung, and reach the peak on day 6 to 9, which was characterized by consolidation, paving stone sign, halo sign, reversed halo sign, and even ‘white lung’ for the critical patients. The recovery stages began on day 11 after onset: The fiber cord, ground glass and consolidation shadow were gradually absorbed. After 74 days of follow-up, no serious permanent lung injury was found. Conclusion: Chest CT could determine the different stages of COVID-19. Dynamic follow-up chest CT showed a good prognosis of COVID-19 in Hebei Province, China

13.
Energy (Oxf) ; 239: 122166, 2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446606

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic affects all the aspects of modern society worldwide, especially in the power sector. Measures of flexibility enhancement are regarded as solutions to guarantee reliable and flexible electricity supply in such an emergency. This study aims at investigating the impact of flexibility enhancement measures (electricity storage and flexible demand) in different situations of the preliminary COVID-19 pandemic. Case studies in different regions (Denmark, the Netherlands, and the Sichuan province of China) are conducted and assessed using the hourly simulation tool EnergyPLAN. These regions own different electricity supply mix and level of renewable electricity. It is found that the flexible demand measure within one day or one week can hardly eliminate the electricity imbalance caused by either the pandemic or the increasing renewable electricity. The monthly flexible demand is effective for balancing, but its potential in these regions is not enough. However, electricity storage measure enhances the electricity balance even during the most extreme situation of the pandemic. From the economic perspective, electricity storage measure leads to an increase of up to 15% in total system costs, while flexible demand measure has a negligible effect on costs. This study serves as the first step to understand the performance of flexibility enhancement measures in the power sector under the shock of a pandemic.

14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 805, 2021 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440907

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the COVID-19 pandemic, several therapeutic agents have been used in COVID-19 management. However, the results were controversial. Here, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ)/chloroquine (CQ) in COVID-19. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of patients with COVID-19 admitted to an inpatient ward in Wuhan from 2020/Feb/08 to 2020/Mar/05. Patients with HCQ/CQ and age, gender, disease severity matched ones without HCQ/CQ were selected at a 1:2 ratio. The clinical, laboratory and imaging findings were compared between these two groups. The multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to identify the factors that might influence patients' virus shedding periods (VSPs). RESULTS: A total of 14 patients with HCQ/CQ and 21 matched ones were analyzed. The HCQ/CQ treatment lasted for an average of 10.36 ± 3.12 days. The mean VSPs were longer in the HCQ/CQ treatment group (26.57 ± 10.35 days vs. 19.10 ± 7.80 days, P = 0.020). There were 3 patients deceased during inpatient period, two patients were with HCQ/CQ treatment (P = 0.551). In the multivariate linear regression analysis, disease durations at admission (t = 3.643, P = 0.001) and HCQ/CQ treatment (t = 2.637, P = 0.013) were independent parameters for patients' VSPs. One patient with CQ had recurrent first-degree atrioventricular block (AVB) and obvious QTc elongation, another one complained about dizziness and blurred vision which disappeared after CQ discontinuation. One patient with HCQ had transient AVB. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we identify that the HCQ/CQ administration is not related to less mortality cases at later phase of COVID-19. More studies are needed to explore whether HCQ/CQ treatment would lead to SARS-Cov-2 RNA clearance delay or not.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydroxychloroquine , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Integr Med Res ; 10: 100774, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406276

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A large number of protocols for Systematic Reviews (SR) of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO). This study aimed to analyze the innovativeness and rigorousness of the SR protocols and make recommendations for the design and implementation of future SRs on TCM for COVID-19. This effort is likely to enhance the value of the produced information and prevent the futility of the research. METHODS: PROSPERO was searched comprehensively for identifying SRs of TCM for COVID-19 from the inception of the database to August 2020. Two researchers independently screened the literature, extracted the data, and cross-checked the retrieved information for consistency. The following details were recorded: database, registration time, organizations, types of research included, participants, interventions, and outcome measures. All extracted data were analyzed by an overview. The "P - participants, I - interventions, C - controls, and O - outcomes (PICO)" included in the protocols were compared for similarity. The outcomes of the included SR protocols were compared with the newly published Core Outcome Sets (COSs). RESULTS: A total of 80 protocols of SR related to TCM for COVID-19 were obtained after a primary search, and finally 71 protocols were included. The majority of the protocols were from China. Thirty-two organizations participated in the protocol registrations, including 11 hospitals and 21 universities/colleges. However, some protocols were not innovative or rigorous enough, as the PICO of some protocols were similar and non-specific, and the searched literature was incomprehensive. In addition, COS is not commonly adopted. CONCLUSIONS: Registering a protocol of SR is an effective way to ensure the usefulness of the produced information, and to avoid the duplication of research and the wastage of resources. In future SR protocols, it is important to focus on and solve the methodological problems such as non-specific PICO, incomprehensive literature retrieval, and improper outcome measures.

16.
Disease Surveillance ; 36(6):561-565, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1395023

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics of imported coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases from Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries in China from January 1, 2020 to February 28, 2021, and provide evidence for the improvement of China's strategy of COVID-19 control towards travelers from ASEAN countries.

18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 708184, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346403

ABSTRACT

There is a worldwide pandemic of Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection; yet our understanding remains limited on the characteristic of antibodies, especially for dynamic long-term tracking. Sequential serum samples were collected up to 416 days post onset of symptoms (POS) from 102 patients who were hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgM, and IgA levels targeting SARS-CoV-2 spike 1 receptor-binding domain (S1-RBD), spike 2 extracellular domain (S2-ECD), and nucleocapsid protein (N) were quantified as well as neutralizing activity. We were pleasantly surprised to find that the antibody remained detective and effective for more than a year POS. We also found the varied reactions of different antibodies as time passed: N-IgA rose most rapidly in the early stage of infection, while S2-IgG was present at a high level in the long time of observation. This study described the long traceable antibody response of the COVID-19 and offered hints about targets to screen for postinfectious immunity and for vaccination development of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/immunology , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroconversion , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
19.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 644724, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337644

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak has brought great challenges to healthcare resources around the world. Patients with COVID-19 exhibit a broad spectrum of clinical characteristics. In this study, the Factor Analysis of Mixed Data (FAMD)-based cluster analysis was applied to demographic information, laboratory indicators at the time of admission, and symptoms presented before admission. Three COVID-19 clusters with distinct clinical features were identified by FAMD-based cluster analysis. The FAMD-based cluster analysis results indicated that the symptoms of COVID-19 were roughly consistent with the laboratory findings of COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, symptoms for mild patients were atypical. Different hospital stay durations and survival differences among the three clusters were also found, and the more severe the clinical characteristics were, the worse the prognosis. Our aims were to describe COVID-19 clusters with different clinical characteristics, and a classifier model according to the results of FAMD-based cluster analysis was constructed to help provide better individualized treatments for numerous COVID-19 patients in the future.

20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 658519, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317222

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly pathogenic novel virus that has caused a massive pandemic called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide. Wuhan, a city in China became the epicenter of the outbreak of COVID-19 in December 2019. The disease was declared a pandemic globally by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11 March 2020. SARS-CoV-2 is a beta CoV of the Coronaviridae family which usually causes respiratory symptoms that resemble common cold. Multiple countries have experienced multiple waves of the disease and scientific experts are consistently working to find answers to several unresolved questions, with the aim to find the most suitable ways to contain the virus. Furthermore, potential therapeutic strategies and vaccine development for COVID-19 management are also considered. Currently, substantial efforts have been made to develop successful and safe treatments and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Some vaccines, such as inactivated vaccines, nucleic acid-based, and vector-based vaccines, have entered phase 3 clinical trials. Additionally, diverse small molecule drugs, peptides and antibodies are being developed to treat COVID-19. We present here an overview of the virus interaction with the host and environment and anti-CoV therapeutic strategies; including vaccines and other methodologies, designed for prophylaxis and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection with the hope that this integrative analysis could help develop novel therapeutic approaches against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity , Mutation Rate , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Small Molecule Libraries/therapeutic use , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/therapeutic use , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/therapeutic use
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