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1.
Energies ; 15(6):2066, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1760462

ABSTRACT

This study discusses how to facilitate the barrier-free circulation of energy big data among multiple entities and how to balance the energy big data ecosystem under government supervision using dynamic game theory. First, we define the related concepts and summarize the recent studies and developments of energy big data. Second, evolutionary game theory is applied to examine the interaction mechanism of complex behaviors between power grid enterprises and third-party enterprises in the energy big data ecosystem, with and without the supervision of government. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is conducted on the main factors affecting co-opetition, such as the initial participation willingness, distribution of benefits, free-riding behavior, government funding, and punitive liquidated damages. The results show that both government supervision measures and the participants’ own will have an impact on the stable evolution of the energy big data ecosystem in the dynamic evolution process, and the effect of parameter changes on the evolution is more significant under the state of no government supervision. In addition, the effectiveness of the developed model in this work is verified by simulated analysis. The present model can provide an important reference for overall planning and efficient operation of the energy big data ecosystem.

2.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med ; 2022: 4654793, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759501

ABSTRACT

Objective: To systematically evaluate the efficacy, safety, and precision of TMTP for COVID-19. Methods: Randomized controlled trials and retrospective studies were searched in 11 electronic databases. This network meta-analysis included trials using TMTP to treat patients with COVID-19. The traditional pairwise meta-analysis was done by using Stata 15, and Bayesian network meta-analysis was done with WinBUGS. Results: 18 trials were included with 2036 participants and 7 drugs. The results showed that LHQW had the most significant effects on improving expectoration, shortness of breath, sore throat, nausea, emesis, inappetence, muscle soreness, and headache, and it could produce the least adverse reactions. XBJ was the best drug for fever, fatigue, and diarrhea, which showed great advantages in lowering WBC levels. XFBD was the most effective drug for cough and chest distress, which had the least exacerbation rate. JHQG was the most effective for rhinobyon and rhinorrhea, while QFPD was the best drug in decreasing CRP levels. Conclusion: This study was the first most large-scale and comprehensive research of TMTP for COVID-19. The results showed that LHQW had good efficacy without obvious adverse reactions. Therefore, we believe that it should be firstly recommended for COVID-19 treatment. In addition, XBJ is recommended for patients with a severe fever, fatigue, and diarrhea, and JHQG is recommended for patients with obvious rhinobyon and rhinorrhea; then, XFBD is recommended for patients with cough and chest tightness as the main manifestation. Our findings will help experts develop new COVID-19 treatment guidelines to better guide clinical medication for protecting the health of COVID-19 patients.

3.
Med Image Anal ; 78: 102421, 2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747693

ABSTRACT

Automatic diagnosis of 3D medical data is a significant goal of intelligent healthcare. By exploiting the abundant pathological information of 3D data, human experts and algorithms can provide accurate predictions for patients. Considering the high cost of collecting exhaustive annotations for 3D data, a sustainable alternative is to develop diagnosis algorithms with merely patient-level labels. Motivated by the fact that 2D slices of 3D data hold explicit diagnostic efficacy, we propose the Instance Importance-aware Graph Convolutional Network (I2GCN) under the multi-instance learning (MIL). Specifically, we first calculate the instance importance of each slice towards diagnosis using a preliminary MIL classifier, which is further utilized to promote the refined diagnosis branch. In the refined diagnosis branch, we devise the Instance Importance-aware Graph Convolutional Layer (I2GCLayer) to exploit complementary features in both importance-based and feature-based topologies. Moreover, to alleviate the deficient supervision of 3D dataset, we propose the importance-based Sub-Graph Augmentation (SGA) to effectively regularize the framework training. Extensive experiments confirm the effectiveness of our method with different organs and modals on the CC-CCII and PROSTATEx datasets, which outperforms state-of-the-art methods by a large margin. The source code is available at https://github.com/CityU-AIM-Group/I2GCN.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323571

ABSTRACT

An unexpected observation among the COVID-19 pandemic is that smokers constituted only 1.4-18.5% of hospitalized adults, calling for an urgent investigation to determine the role of smoking in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we show that cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) increase ACE2 mRNA but trigger ACE2 protein catabolism. BaP induces an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent upregulation of the ubiquitin E3 ligase Skp2 for ACE2 ubiquitination. ACE2 in lung tissues of non-smokers is higher than in smokers, consistent with the findings that tobacco carcinogens downregulate ACE2 in mice. Tobacco carcinogens inhibit SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein pseudovirions infection of the cells. These data indicate that recommendation of cessation of tobacco smoking remains valid because it is the carcinogens that are responsible for ACE2 degradation.

5.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 768740, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572296

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently the most important emerging pathogen worldwide, but its early transcriptional dynamics and host immune response remain unclear. Herein, the expression profiles of viral interactions with different types of hosts were comprehensively dissected to shed light on the early infection strategy of SARS-CoV-2 and the host immune response against infection. SARS-CoV-2 was found to exhibit a two-stage transcriptional strategy within the first 24 h of infection, comprising a lag phase that ends with the virus being paused and a log phase that starts when the viral load increases rapidly. Interestingly, the host innate immune response was found not to be activated (latent period) until the virus entered the log stage. Noteworthy, when intracellular immunity is suppressed, SARS-CoV-2 shows a correlation with dysregulation of metal ion homeostasis. Herein, the inhibitory activity of copper ions against SARS-CoV-2 was further validated in in vitro experiments. Coronavirus disease 2019-related genes (including CD38, PTX3, and TCN1) were also identified, which may serve as candidate host-restricted factors for interventional therapy. Collectively, these results confirm that the two-stage strategy of SARS-CoV-2 effectively aids its survival in early infection by regulating the host intracellular immunity, highlighting the key role of interferon in viral infection and potential therapeutic candidates for further investigations on antiviral strategies.

7.
Virology ; 566: 56-59, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550137

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recombinant protein subunit vaccination is considered to be a safe, fast and reliable technique when combating emerging and re-emerging diseases such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Typically, such subunit vaccines require the addition of adjuvants to attain adequate immunogenicity. AS01, which contains adjuvants MPL and saponin QS21, is a liposome-based vaccine adjuvant system that is one of the leading candidates. However, the adjuvant effect of AS01 in COVID-19 vaccines is not well described yet. METHODS: In this study, we utilized a mixture of AS01 as the adjuvant for an S1 protein-based COVID-19 vaccine. RESULTS: The adjuvanted vaccine induced robust immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding antibody and virus-neutralizing antibody responses. Importantly, two doses induced similar levels of IgG binding antibody and neutralizing antibody responses compared with three doses and the antibody responses weakened only slightly over time up to six weeks after immunization. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that two doses may be enough for a clinical vaccine strategy design using MPL & QS21 adjuvanted recombinant protein, especially in consideration of the limited production capacity of COVID-19 vaccine in a public health emergency.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Lipid A/analogs & derivatives , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Saponins/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/virology , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Drug Combinations , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunization , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Lipid A/administration & dosage , Lipid A/immunology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Saponins/administration & dosage
8.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 5: 1028-1033, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468135

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study examined changes in prostate disease screening (prostatic-specific antigen [PSA] testing), prostate biopsy testing, and prostate cancer diagnoses during the COVID-19 pandemic through December 2020. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This analysis included test results from men ≥ 40 years, without prior International Classification of Diseases-10 record of prostate cancer since January 2016, who received PSA or prostate biopsy testing at Quest Diagnostics during January 2018-December 2020. Monthly trends were evaluated for three periods: prepandemic (January 2018-February 2020), early-pandemic (March-May 2020), and late-pandemic (June-December 2020). RESULTS: Meeting inclusion criteria were 16,365,833 PSA and 48,819 prostate biopsy results. The average monthly number of PSA tests declined from 465,187 prepandemic to 295,786 early-pandemic (36.4% decrease; P = .01) before rebounding to 483,374 (3.9% increase; P = .23) late-pandemic. The monthly average number of PSA results ≥ 50 ng/mL (23,356; 0.14% of all PSA results) dipped from 659 prepandemic to 506 early-pandemic (23.2% decrease; P = .02) and rebounded to 674 late-pandemic (2.3% increase; P = .65). The average monthly number of prostate biopsy results decreased from 1,453 prepandemic to 903 early-pandemic (37.9% decrease; P = .01) before rebounding to 1,190 late-pandemic (18.1% decrease; P = .01). The average monthly number for Gleason score ≥ 8 (6,241; 12.8% of all prostate biopsies) declined from 182 prepandemic to 130 early-pandemic (28.6% decrease; P = .02) and decreased to 161 late-pandemic (11.5% decrease; P = .02). CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that a substantial number of prostate screening opportunities and cancer diagnoses have been missed. Efforts are needed to bring such patients back for screening and diagnostic testing and to restore appropriate care for non-COVID-19-related medical conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Prostate-Specific Antigen/analysis , Prostatic Neoplasms , Biopsy , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prostate , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology
9.
Global Media and China ; : 20594364211041683, 2021.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1390474

ABSTRACT

Using Van Gennep?s theory of Rite of Passage as its framework, this article examines the impact of Coronavirus (COVID-19) on Chinese culture as depicted through death and mourning in Wang Fang?s (penname Fang Fang) recently published Wuhan Diary: Dispatches from a Quarantined City. As part of the efforts to control the outbreak, the Chinese government took over the managing of the deceased, which triggered heated discussions on Chinese social media. Fang Fang?s diary, originally written as daily entries on Chinese social media platform Weibo, serves as a voice for those suffering during the pandemic, mediating between personal accounts, accounts of friends, family and those living in Wuhan during the pandemic. These flesh out how the virus has not only been disturbing for Chinese people?s lives but also disrupted the death rites and mourning rituals for those who have passed. Our article infuses a digital ontological reading with an anthropological twist that helps to understand how the diary mitigates the disturbances to mourning rituals inside and outside the confines of digital metaphysics. We argue that the digital diary mitigates these disruptions by allowing Chinese people to nourish their sorrow by identifying with the symbolic rites of passage and mourning rituals online at the heart of the COVID-19 pandemic in Wuhan. In doing so, this article examines three stages of rite of passage, including separation, liminality and integration as they unfold in the diary, through which discourses and subjectivities based on collective and individual traumatic experiences are built, as a form of digital mourning that could reconcile both the official and the alternative voices of anonymous narratives about the handling of this crisis.

13.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335234

ABSTRACT

The development of rapid serological detection methods re urgently needed for determination of neutralizing antibodies in sera. In this study, four rapid methods (ACE2-RBD inhibition assay, S1-IgG detection, RBD-IgG detection, and N-IgG detection) were established and evaluated based on chemiluminescence technology. For the first time, a broadly neutralizing antibody with high affinity was used as a standard for the quantitative detection of SARS-CoV-2 specific neutralizing antibodies in human sera. Sera from COVID-19 convalescent patients (N = 119), vaccinated donors (N = 86), and healthy donors (N = 299) confirmed by microneutralization test (MNT) were used to evaluate the above methods. The result showed that the ACE2-RBD inhibition assay calculated with either ACE2-RBD binding inhibition percentage rate or ACE2-RBD inhibiting antibody concentration were strongly correlated with MNT (r ≥ 0.78, p < 0.0001) and also highly consistent with MNT (Kappa Value ≥ 0.94, p < 0.01). There was also a strong correlation between the two evaluation indices (r ≥ 0.99, p < 0.0001). Meanwhile, S1-IgG and RBD-IgG quantitative detection were also significantly correlated with MNT (r ≥ 0.73, p < 0.0001), and both methods were highly correlated with each other (r ≥ 0.95, p < 0.0001). However, the concentration of N-IgG antibodies showed a lower correlation with the MNT results (r < 0.49, p < 0.0001). The diagnostic assays presented here could be used for the evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immunization effect and serological diagnosis of COVID-19 patients, and could also have guiding significance for establishing other rapid serological methods to surrogate neutralization tests for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Immunoassay/methods , Luminescent Measurements/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Serological Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(13)2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302305

ABSTRACT

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the mediating effects of individual affect and relationship satisfaction on the relationship between self-esteem and Problematic Internet Use (PIU). Affect was measured using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), relationship satisfaction was assessed using a positive and negative semantic dimension scale, self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and PIU was measured using the Problematic Internet Use scale with a sample of 507 Chinese university students (Mage = 20.41 years, SD = 2.49). The relationships between the variables were tested using structural equation modelling with a multiple mediation model. The results revealed that negative affect and the negative semantic dimensions of relationship satisfaction mediated the relationship between self-esteem and PIU. The implications of the results and the study's theoretical contributions are discussed.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , Personal Satisfaction , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Internet , Internet Use , Students
15.
EMBO J ; 40(17): e107776, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299728

ABSTRACT

Host-virus protein-protein interactions play key roles in the life cycle of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We conducted a comprehensive interactome study between the virus and host cells using tandem affinity purification and proximity-labeling strategies and identified 437 human proteins as the high-confidence interacting proteins. Further characterization of these interactions and comparison to other large-scale study of cellular responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection elucidated how distinct SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins participate in its life cycle. With these data mining, we discovered potential drug targets for the treatment of COVID-19. The interactomes of two key SARS-CoV-2-encoded viral proteins, NSP1 and N, were compared with the interactomes of their counterparts in other human coronaviruses. These comparisons not only revealed common host pathways these viruses manipulate for their survival, but also showed divergent protein-protein interactions that may explain differences in disease pathology. This comprehensive interactome of SARS-CoV-2 provides valuable resources for the understanding and treating of this disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Protein Interaction Maps/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Replication/genetics
16.
mBio ; 12(4): e0106721, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297962

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an ongoing global public crisis. Although viral RNA modification has been reported based on the transcriptome architecture, the types and functions of RNA modification are still unknown. In this study, we evaluated the roles of RNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification in SARS-CoV-2. Our methylated RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeRIP-Seq) and Nanopore direct RNA sequencing (DRS) analysis showed that SARS-CoV-2 RNA contained m6A modification. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 infection not only increased the expression of methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3) but also altered its distribution. Modification of METTL3 expression by short hairpin RNA or plasmid transfection for knockdown or overexpression, respectively, affected viral replication. Furthermore, the viral key protein RdRp interacted with METTL3, and METTL3 was distributed in both the nucleus and cytoplasm in the presence of RdRp. RdRp appeared to modulate the sumoylation and ubiquitination of METTL3 via an unknown mechanism. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that the host m6A modification complex interacted with viral proteins to modulate SARS-CoV-2 replication. IMPORTANCE Internal chemical modifications of viral RNA play key roles in the regulation of viral replication and gene expression. Although potential internal modifications have been reported in SARS-CoV-2 RNA, the function of the SARS-CoV-2 N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification in the viral life cycle is unclear. In the current study, we demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 RNA underwent m6A modification by host m6A machinery. SARS-CoV-2 infection altered the expression pattern of methyltransferases and demethylases, while the expression level of methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3) and fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) was linked to the viral replication. Further study showed that METTL3 interacted with viral RNA polymerase RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), which influenced not only the distribution but also the posttranslational modification of METTL3. Our study provided evidence that host m6A components interacted with viral proteins to modulate viral replication.


Subject(s)
Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Methyltransferases/genetics , Methyltransferases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Virus Replication/genetics , Adenosine/chemistry , Adenosine/genetics , Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase FTO/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Humans , Methylation , Protein Processing, Post-Translational/physiology , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
17.
Virol Sin ; 36(5): 934-947, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293454

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has precipitated multiple variants resistant to therapeutic antibodies. In this study, 12 high-affinity antibodies were generated from convalescent donors in early outbreaks using immune antibody phage display libraries. Of them, two RBD-binding antibodies (F61 and H121) showed high-affinity neutralization against SARS-CoV-2, whereas three S2-target antibodies failed to neutralize SARS-CoV-2. Following structure analysis, F61 identified a linear epitope located in residues G446-S494, which overlapped with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) binding sites, while H121 recognized a conformational epitope located on the side face of RBD, outside from ACE2 binding domain. Hence the cocktail of the two antibodies achieved better performance of neutralization to SARS-CoV-2. Importantly, these two antibodies also showed efficient neutralizing activities to the variants including B.1.1.7 and B.1.351, and reacted with mutations of N501Y, E484K, and L452R, indicated that it may also neutralize the recent India endemic strain B.1.617. The unchanged binding activity of F61 and H121 to RBD with multiple mutations revealed a broad neutralizing activity against variants, which mitigated the risk of viral escape. Our findings revealed the therapeutic basis of cocktail antibodies against constantly emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants and provided promising candidate antibodies to clinical treatment of COVID-19 patients infected with broad SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
18.
MAbs ; 13(1): 1930636, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258715

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), interacts with the host cell receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) via its spike 1 protein during infection. After the virus sequence was published, we identified two potent antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) from antibody libraries using a phage-to-yeast (PtY) display platform in only 10 days. Our lead antibody JMB2002, now in a Phase 1 clinical trial (ChiCTR2100042150), showed broad-spectrum in vitro blocking activity against hACE2 binding to the RBD of multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants, including B.1.351 that was reportedly much more resistant to neutralization by convalescent plasma, vaccine sera and some clinical-stage neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, JMB2002 has demonstrated complete prophylactic and potent therapeutic efficacy in a rhesus macaque disease model. Prophylactic and therapeutic countermeasure intervention of SARS-CoV-2 using JMB2002 would likely slow down the transmission of currently emerged SARS-CoV-2 variants and result in more efficient control of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antibody Specificity , Binding Sites, Antibody , CHO Cells , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetulus , Disease Models, Animal , Epitopes , Macaca mulatta , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vero Cells
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(20): e25916, 2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236279

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The outbreak and widely spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global public health concern. COVID-19 has caused an unprecedented and profound impact on the whole world, and the prevention and control of COVID-19 is a global public health challenge remains to be solved. The retrospective analysis of the large scale tests of SARS-CoV-2 RNA may indicate some important information of this pandemic. We selected 12400 SARS-CoV-2 tests detected in Wuhan in the first semester of 2020 and made a systematic analysis of them, in order to find some beneficial clue for the consistent prevention and control of COVID-19.SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in suspected COVID-19 patients with real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The patients' features including gender, age, type of specimen, source of patients, and the dynamic changes of the clinical symptoms were recorded and statistically analyzed. Quantitative and qualitive statistical analysis were carried out after laboratory detection.The positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 was 33.02% in 12,400 suspected patients' specimens in Wuhan at the first months of COVID-19 epidemics. SARS-CoV-2 RT-qPCR test of nasopharyngeal swabs might produce 4.79% (594/12400) presumptive results. The positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was significantly different between gender, age, type of specimen, source of patients, respectively (P < .05). The median window period from the occurrence of clinical symptom or close contact with COVID-19 patient to the first detection of positive PCR was 2 days (interquartile range, 1-4 days). The median interval time from the first SARS-CoV-2 positive to the turning negative was 14 days (interquartile range, 8-19.25 days).This study reveals the comprehensive characteristics of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection from multiple perspectives, and it provides important clues and may also supply useful suggestions for future work of the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Retrospective Studies
20.
Popul Health Manag ; 24(S1): S35-S42, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236196

ABSTRACT

Serologic tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) provide information on past infection and immune response. To better understand the persistence of immune response and the proportion of the population who can develop one, the authors assessed patterns of immunoglobulin G (IgG) positivity over time in individuals tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA or IgG at a large national reference laboratory. More than 2.4 million SARS-CoV-2 IgG serology (initiated April 21, 2020) and 6.6 million nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) (initiated March 9, 2020) results on persons from across the United States as of July 10, 2020 were analyzed. Additional IgG serology results through August 11, 2020 were used for one household analysis. SARS-CoV-2 IgG positivity was observed in 91% (19,434/21,452) of individuals tested after a positive NAAT result and in 10% (7,831/80,968) after a negative NAAT result. Factors associated with seropositivity include age, region of patient residence, and interval between NAAT and IgG serology. The probability of persistent IgG seropositivity declined from 98.6% after 1 week to 74.3% after 2 months, less so in individuals ages ≥55 years than in younger groups. Specimens within 2 days from pairs of same-household members showed 92% IgG antibody concordance. Household adults were more frequently IgG positive prior to household children testing positive (36% versus 8%). IgG serology testing can identify an immune response to SARS-CoV-2 that varies based on age, sex, and duration since exposure. Loss of detectable IgG seropositivity occurs, in some patients, over weeks or months. Adults may be infecting household children.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Laboratories , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serologic Tests , United States , Young Adult
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