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1.
Infect Drug Resist ; 15: 2469-2474, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855195

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To evaluate the response and safety of an inactivated vaccine (Sinovac Life Sciences Co., Ltd., Beijing, China) for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in liver transplant (LTx) recipients from China. Patients and Methods: Thirty-five recipients post LTx from the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine who received inactivated vaccine from June to October 2021 were screened. Information regarding vaccine side effects and clinical data were collected. Results: Thirty-five LTx recipients were enrolled, with a mean age of 46 years, and most patients were male (30, 85.71%). All the participants had a negative history of COVID-19 infection. Predictors for negative response in the recipients were interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) induction during LTx, shorter time post LTx and application of a derivative from mycophenolate acid (MPA). No serious adverse events were observed during the progress of vaccination or after the vaccination. Conclusion: LTx recipients have a substantially partial immunological response to the inactivated vaccine for COVID-19. IL-2R induction during LTx, a shorter time post LTx and the application of a derivative from MPA seem to be predictors for a negative serological immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response in recipients. The findings require booster vaccination in these LTx recipients.

2.
Nutrients ; 14(8)2022 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792588

ABSTRACT

For older adults, self-care begins with daily health behaviors (DHB), which refers to a series of basic behaviors beneficial to health in daily life; it is the foundation for promoting health, preventing disease, and maintaining health with or without the support of a healthcare provider. Thus, this study aimed to observe the changes in DHB among older adults when the COVID-19 pan-demic first erupted in China (at the beginning of 2020) and explore the impact factors on self-care routines in daily life. We applied a cross-sectional study among 1256 (83.7%) valid older Chinese from 19 February 2020 to 19 March 2020, the score of DHB changes (mean ± SD, 14.70 ± 2.140; range, 8-18) presented a significant growth (t1256 = 44.636, p < 0.001) during COVID-19. From 3 hierarchical linear regression models, the older Chinese who received a higher education include high school (ß = 0.403, 95% CI [0.009, 0.797], p = 0.045) and college degree and above (ß = 0.488, 95% CI [0.034, 0.943], p = 0.035), and lived in the eastern China (ß = 0.771, 95% CI [0.392, 1.151], p < 0.001) took DHB more frequently. However, the high-risk infection (ß = -0.740, 95% CI [-1.248, -0.231], p = 0.004), overweight/obese character (ß = -0.265, 95% CI [-0.526, -0.004], p = 0.047), and alcohol consumption (ß = -0.350, 95% CI [-0.634, -0.065], p = 0.016) are significant factors in decreasing a senior's DHB performance. For China, self-care offers a straightforward strategy among the range of measures required to combat COVID-19 and future health threats. In summary, findings in this study can build a foundation for developing healthcare policy and services for the relevant government and departments on prompting DHB and the importance of self-care among the older population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Behavior , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Care
3.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1135-1144, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764464

ABSTRACT

The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its variants is threatening public health around the world. Endocytosis functions as an important way for viral infection, and SARS-CoV-2 bears no exception. However, the specific endocytic mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 remains unknown. In this study, we used endocytic inhibitors to evaluate the role of different endocytic routes in SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection and found that the viral infection was associated with caveolar/lipid raft- and cytoskeleton-mediated endocytosis, but independent of the clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis. Meanwhile, the knockdown of CD147 and Rab5a in Vero E6 and Huh-7 cells inhibited SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection, and the co-localization of spike protein, CD147, and Rab5a was observed in pseudovirus-infected Vero E6 cells, which was weakened by CD147 silencing, illustrating that SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus entered the host cells via CD147-mediated endocytosis. Additionally, Arf6 silencing markedly inhibited pseudovirus infection in Vero E6 and Huh-7 cells, while little change was observed in CD147 knockout-Vero E6 cells. This finding indicated Arf6-mediated CD147 trafficking plays a vital role in SARS-CoV-2 entry. Taken together, our findings provide new insights into the CD147-Arf6 axis in mediating SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus entry into the host cells, and further suggest that blockade of this pathway seems to be a feasible approach to prevent the SARS-CoV-2 infection clinically.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization
4.
Research (Wash D C) ; 2022: 9802969, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761681

ABSTRACT

Despite extensive efforts, COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus is still at large. Vaccination is an effective approach to curb virus spread, but several variants (e.g., delta, delta plus, omicron, and IHU) appear to weaken or possibly escape immune protection. Thus, novel and quickly scalable approaches to restrain SARS-CoV-2 are urgently needed. Multiple evidences showed thermal sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 and negative correlation between environmental temperature and COVID-19 transmission with unknown mechanism. Here, we reveal a potential mechanism by which mild heat treatment destabilizes the wild-type RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (also known as nonstructural protein 12 (NSP12)) of SARS-CoV-2 as well as the P323L mutant commonly found in SARS-CoV-2 variants, including omicron and IHU. Mechanistically, heat treatment promotes E3 ubiquitin ligase ZNF598-dependent NSP12 ubiquitination leading to proteasomal degradation and significantly decreases SARS-CoV-2 RNA copy number and viral titer. A mild daily heat treatment maintains low levels of both wild-type and P323L mutant of NSP12, suggesting clinical potential. Collectively, this novel mechanism, heat-induced NSP12 degradation, suggests a prospective heat-based intervention against SARS-CoV-2.

5.
Sustain Cities Soc ; 81: 103840, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740174

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is deemed as the most critical world health calamity of the 21st century, leading to dramatic life loss. There is a pressing need to understand the multi-stage dynamics, including transmission routes of the virus and environmental conditions due to the possibility of multiple waves of COVID-19 in the future. In this paper, a systematic examination of the literature is conducted associating the virus-laden-aerosol and transmission of these microparticles into the multimedia environment, including built environments. Particularly, this paper provides a critical review of state-of-the-art modelling tools apt for COVID-19 spread and transmission pathways. GIS-based, risk-based, and artificial intelligence-based tools are discussed for their application in the surveillance and forecasting of COVID-19. Primary environmental factors that act as simulators for the spread of the virus include meteorological variation, low air quality, pollen abundance, and spatial-temporal variation. However, the influence of these environmental factors on COVID-19 spread is still equivocal because of other non-pharmaceutical factors. The limitations of different modelling methods suggest the need for a multidisciplinary approach, including the 'One-Health' concept. Extended One-Health-based decision tools would assist policymakers in making informed decisions such as social gatherings, indoor environment improvement, and COVID-19 risk mitigation by adapting the control measurements.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315890

ABSTRACT

Background: Early diagnostic indicators and the identification of possible progression to severe or critical COVID-19 in children are unknown. To investigate the immune characteristics of early SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and possible key prognostic factors for early identification of critical COVID-19, a retrospective study including 121 children with COVID-19 was conducted. Peripheral blood lymphocyte subset counts, T cell-derived cytokine concentrations, inflammatory factor concentrations, and routine blood counts were analyzed statistically at the initial presentation. Results: The T lymphocyte subset and natural killer cell counts decreased with increasing disease severity. Group III (critical cases) had a higher Th/Tc ratio than groups I and II (common and severe cases);group I had a higher B cell count than groups II and III. IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, SAA, and procalcitonin levels increased with disease severity. Hemoglobin concentration, and RBC and eosinophil counts decreased with disease severity. Groups II and III had significantly lower lymphocyte counts than group I. T, Th, Tc, IL-6, IL-10, RBC, and hemoglobin had relatively high contribution and area under the curve values. Conclusions: Decreased T, Th, Tc, RBC, hemoglobin and increased IL-6 and IL-10 in early SARS-CoV-2 infection in children are valuable indices for early diagnosis of disease severity. The significantly reduced Th and Tc cells and significantly increased IL-6, IL-10, ferritin, procalcitonin, and SAA at this stage in children with critical COVID-19 may be closely associated with the systemic cytokine storm caused by immune dysregulation.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308148

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To assess the psychological effects of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on medical staff and the general public. Methods: : During the outbreak of COVID-19, an internet-based questionnaire included The Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), and Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) was used to assess the impact of the epidemic situation on the mental health of medical staff and general population in Wuhan and its surrounding areas. Results: : The results suggest that the outbreak of COVID-19 has affected individuals significantly, the degree of which is related to age, sex, occupation and mental illness. There was a significant difference in PSS-10 and IES-R scores between the medical staff and the general population. The medical staff showed higher PSS-10 scores (16.813 ± 4.87) and IES-R scores (22.40 ± 12.12) compared to members of the general population PSS-10 (14.80 ± 5.60) and IES-R scores (17.89 ± 13.08). However, there was no statistically significant difference between the SDS scores of medical staff (44.52 ± 12.36) and the general public (43.08 ± 11.42). In terms of the need for psychological assistance, 50.97% of interviewees responded that they needed psychological counseling, of which medical staff accounted for 65.87% and non-medical staff accounted for 45.10%. Conclusion: During the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak, great attention should be paid to the mental health of the population, especially medical staff, and measures such as psychological intervention should be actively carried out for reducing the psychosocial effects.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324324

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a newly emerging infectious disease, which is generally susceptible to human beings and has caused huge losses to people's health. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is one of the common clinical manifestations of severe COVID-19 and it is also responsible for the current shortage of ventilators worldwide. This study aims to analyze the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 ARDS patients and establish a diagnostic system based on artificial intelligence (AI) method to predict the probability of ARDS in COVID-19 patients. We collected clinical data of 659 COVID-19 patients from 11 regions in China. The clinical characteristics of the two groups were elaborately compared and both traditional machine learning algorithms and deep learning-based methods were used to build the prediction models. Results indicated the median age of ARDS patients was 56.5 years old, which was significantly older than those with non-ARDS by 7.5 years. Male and patients with BMI>25 were more likely to develop ARDS. The clinical features of ARDS patients included cough (80.3%), polypnea (59.2%), lung consolidation (53.9%), secondary bacterial infection (30.3%), and comorbidities such as hypertension (48.7%). Abnormal biochemical indicators such as lymphocyte count, leukocyte counting, CK, NLR, AST, LDH, and CRP were all strongly related to the aggravation of ARDS. Furthermore, through various AI methods for modeling and prediction effect evaluation based on the above risk factors, decision tree achieved the best AUC, sensitivity, and specificity in identifying the mild patients who were easy to develop ARDS, which undoubtedly helps to optimize the treatment strategy, reduce mortality, and relieve the medical pressure.

9.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 115: 443-452, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599196

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has raised awareness about various environmental issues, including PM2.5 pollution. Here, PM2.5 pollution during the COVID-19 lockdown was traced and analyzed to clarify the sources and factors influencing PM2.5 in Guangzhou, with an emphasis on heavy pollution. The lockdown led to large reductions in industrial and traffic emissions, which significantly reduced PM2.5 concentrations in Guangzhou. Interestingly, the trend of PM2.5 concentrations was not consistent with traffic and industrial emissions, as minimum concentrations were observed in the fourth period (3/01-3/31, 22.45 µg/m3) of the lockdown. However, the concentrations of other gaseous pollutants, e.g., SO2, NO2 and CO, were correlated with industrial and traffic emissions, and the lowest values were noticed in the second period (1/24-2/03) of the lockdown. Meteorological correlation analysis revealed that the decreased PM2.5 concentrations during COVID-19 can be mainly attributed to decreased industrial and traffic emissions rather than meteorological conditions. When meteorological factors were included in the PM2.5 composition and backward trajectory analyses, we found that long-distance transportation and secondary pollution offset the reduction of primary emissions in the second and third stages of the pandemic. Notably, industrial PM2.5 emissions from western, southern and southeastern Guangzhou play an important role in the formation of heavy pollution events. Our results not only verify the importance of controlling traffic and industrial emissions, but also provide targets for further improvements in PM2.5 pollution.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
10.
World J Psychiatry ; 11(11): 1106-1115, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561918

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies have indicated that childhood exposure to domestic violence is a common factor in posttraumatic growth (PTG) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but it is unclear whether PTG and PTSD share a common/different underlying mechanism. AIM: To explore the common/different underlying mechanism of PTG and PTSD. METHODS: Between February 12 and 17, 2020, a nationwide cross-sectional online survey was conducted in China among 2038 university students, and a self-administered questionnaire was used for the data collection. The data included demographic characteristics, such as age, gender, and subjective social economic status, and childhood exposure to domestic violence scale that was selected from the Chinese version of revised Adverse Childhood Experiences Question, Self-compassion Scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, and the Abbreviated PTSD Checklist-Civilian version. A structural equation model was used to test the hypotheses. RESULTS: Exposure to domestic violence was significantly associated with PTG and PTSD via a 1-step indirect path of self-compassion (PTG: ß = -0.023, 95%CI: -0.44 to -0.007; PTSD: ß = 0.008, 95%CI: 0.002, 0.014) and via a 2-step indirect path from self-compassion to resilience (PTG: ß = -0.008, 95%CI: -0.018 to -0.002; PTSD: ß = 0.013, 95%CI: 0.004-0.024). However, resilience did not mediate the relationship between exposure to domestic violence and PTG and PTSD. CONCLUSION: PTG and PTSD are common results of childhood exposure to domestic violence, which may be influenced by self-compassion and resilience.

11.
Phytomedicine ; 96: 153888, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is regarded as a large database containing hundreds to thousands of chemical constituents that can be further developed as clinical drugs, such as artemisinin in Artemisia annua. However, effectively exploring novel candidates is still a challenge faced by researchers. PURPOSE: In this work, an integrated strategy combining chemical profiling, molecular networking, chemical isolation, and activity evaluation (CMCA strategy) was proposed and applied to systematically characterize and screen novel candidates, and Forsythiae fructus (FF) was used as an example. STUDY DESIGN: It contained four parts. First, the chemical compounds in FF were detected by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS) with data-dependent acquisition, and further, the targeted compounds were screened out based on an in-house database. In the meantime, the representative MS/MS fragmentation behaviors of different chemical structure types were summarized. Second, homologous constituents were grouped and organized based on feature-guided molecular networking, and the nontargeted components with homologous mass fragmentation behaviors were characterized. Third, the novel compounds were isolated and unambiguously identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Finally, the anti-angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activities of isolated chemical constituents were further evaluated by in vitro experiments. RESULTS: A total of 278 compounds were profiled in FF, including 151 targeted compounds and 127 nontargeted compounds. Among them, 16 were unambitiously identified by comparison with reference standards. Moreover, 25 were classified into potential novel compounds. Two novel compounds were unambiguously identified by using conventional chromatographic methods, and they were named phillyrigeninside D (peak 254) and forsythenside O (peak 155). Furthermore, the ACE2 activity of the compounds in FF was evaluated by modern pharmacological methods, and among them, suspensaside A was confirmed to present obvious anti-ACE2 activity. CONCLUSION: Our work provides meaningful information for revealing potential FF candidates for the treatment of COVID-19, along with new insight for exploring novel candidates from complex systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Humans , Plant Extracts , SARS-CoV-2 , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
12.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 645938, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526793

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 not only threatened the public's physical health but also brought unbearable psychological pressure, especially for those vulnerable groups like the elderly. However, studies on the psychological status of older adults during this public health emergency remained scant. This study aims to investigate the mental health status among the elderly Chinese population during COVID-19 pandemic and determine the influencing factors of psychological symptoms. Methods: From February 19 to March 19, 2020, an online survey was administered to Chinese older adults using a convenience sampling method. Information on demographic data, health status and other epidemic related factors were collected. Specifically, the study defined the psychological status as five primary disorder-depression, neurasthenia, fear, anxiety, and hypochondria-which were assessed by the Psychological Questionnaire for Emergent Event of Public Health (PQEEPH). Standard descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data. Results: Of 1,501 participants recruited from 31 provinces in China, 1,278 were valid for further analysis. Participants' scores on each sub-scale were described in median and interquartile [M(Q)]: depression [0.00 (0.33)], neurasthenia [0.00 (0.40)], fear [1.00 (0.83)], anxiety [0.00 (0.17)], hypochondria [0.00 (0.50)]. Chronic diseases (depression p = 0.001; neurasthenia p < 0.001; fear p = 0.023; anxiety p < 0.001; hypochondria p = 0.001) and the BMI index (depression p = 0.015; neurasthenia p = 0.046; fear p = 0.016; anxiety p = 0.015; hypochondria p = 0.013) had significant impacts on all of the five sub-scales. Specifically, the rural dwellers had a higher level of neurasthenia, fear, and hypochondria. Besides, education level (p = 0.035) and outbreak risk level (p = 0.004) had significant impacts on the depression. Higher household monthly income per capita (p = 0.031), and the community-level entry/exit control (p = 0.011) are factors against anxiety. Conclusions: Most elderly residents reported mild negative emotions during COVID-19 and more attention should be paid to the recognition and alleviation of fear. Our findings also identified factors associated with the mental health status of the elderly, which is of practical significance in the design and implementation of psychological interventions for this vulnerable population during COVID-19 and future emerging diseases.

13.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 22(10): 876-884, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463354

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) discovered in December 2019, the disease has emerged as a global pandemic (Shi et al., 2020; World Health Organization, 2020). Several studies have shown a higher incidence of COVID-19, as well as related poor outcomes in patients with malignancies as compared with those without them (Liang et al., 2020; Tian et al., 2020). The impact of cancer on COVID-19 may be attri­buted to the use of antitumor treatments that may disturb the host response to SARS-CoV-2 infection (Wang et al., 2020), while the current studies on this topic have drawn controversial conclusions. Some implied that anticancer treatments might elevate the risk of death (García-Suárez et al., 2020; Liu et al., 2020). On the contrary, others pointed out that this association is not significant (Brar et al., 2020; Lee et al., 2020a). Although previous systematic reviews have investigated this important issue (Wang and Huang, 2020), the heterogeneity of findings is obvious and the general conclusion has remained unclear. Considering this ambiguity, it is difficult for clinicians to make therapeutic decisions when facing patients with both cancer and COVID-19; therefore, a high-quality and accurate evaluation of the impact of anticancer treatments on COVID-19 patients is necessary. Accordingly, we conducted a pooled analysis with the original data of each patient for the first time to provide a comprehensive perspective into the association between anticancer regimens and the outcomes of cancer patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Neoplasms/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
14.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 708636, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450831

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread to become a global emergency since December 2019. Chinese herbal medicine plays an important role in the treatment of COVID-19. Chinese herbal medicine honeysuckle is an extremely used traditional edible and medicinal herb. Many trials suggest that honeysuckle has obtained a good curative effect for COVID-19; however, no systematic evaluation on the clinical efficacy of honeysuckle in the treatment of COVID-19 is reported. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine honeysuckle in the treatment of COVID-19. Methods: Seven electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Science and Technology Journal Database, Wanfang Database, and China Biology Medicine) were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of honeysuckle for adult patients (aged ≥ 18 years) with COVID-19. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was applied to assess the methodological quality of trials. Review Manager 5.3 software was used for data analysis. Results: Overall, nine RCTs involving 1,286 patients were enrolled. Our meta-analyses found that combination therapy of honeysuckle and conventional therapy was more effective than conventional therapy alone in lung computed tomography (CT) [relative risk (RR) = 1.24, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) (1.12, 1.37), P < 0.0001], clinical cure rate [RR = 1.21, 95%CI (1.12, 1.31), P < 0.00001], and rate of conversion to severe cases [RR = 0.50, 95%CI (0.33, 0.76), P = 0.001]. Besides, combination therapy can improve the symptom score of fever, cough reduction rate, symptom score of cough, and inflammatory biomarkers (white blood cell (WBC) count; C-reactive protein (CRP)) (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Honeysuckle combined with conventional therapy may be beneficial for the treatment of COVID-19 in improving lung CT, clinical cure rate, clinical symptoms, and laboratory indicators and reducing the rate of conversion to severe cases. Besides, combination therapy did not increase adverse drug events. More high-quality RCTs are needed in the future.

15.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 6803510, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443673

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently the most significant public health threat worldwide. Patients with severe COVID-19 usually have pneumonia concomitant with local inflammation and sometimes a cytokine storm. Specific components of the SARS-CoV-2 virus trigger lung inflammation, and recruitment of immune cells to the lungs exacerbates this process, although much remains unknown about the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Our study of lung type II pneumocyte cells (A549) demonstrated that ORF7, an open reading frame (ORF) in the genome of SARS-CoV-2, induced the production of CCL2, a chemokine that promotes the chemotaxis of monocytes, and decreased the expression of IL-8, a chemokine that recruits neutrophils. A549 cells also had an increased level of IL-6. The results of our chemotaxis Transwell assay suggested that ORF7 augmented monocyte infiltration and reduced the number of neutrophils. We conclude that the ORF7 of SARS-CoV-2 may have specific effects on the immunological changes in tissues after infection. These results suggest that the functions of other ORFs of SARS-CoV-2 should also be comprehensively examined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Chemotaxis , Monocytes/pathology , Neutrophils/pathology , Open Reading Frames/physiology , Pneumonia/pathology , Viral Proteins/metabolism , A549 Cells , Chemokine CCL2/metabolism , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/metabolism , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/metabolism , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Proteins/genetics
16.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 347, 2021 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437669

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 mutations contribute to increased viral transmissibility and immune escape, compromising the effectiveness of existing vaccines and neutralizing antibodies. An in-depth investigation on COVID-19 pathogenesis is urgently needed to develop a strategy against SARS-CoV-2 variants. Here, we identified CD147 as a universal receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. Meanwhile, Meplazeumab, a humanized anti-CD147 antibody, could block cellular entry of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants-alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, with inhibition rates of 68.7, 75.7, 52.1, 52.1, and 62.3% at 60 µg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, humanized CD147 transgenic mice were susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 and its two variants, alpha and beta. When infected, these mice developed exudative alveolar pneumonia, featured by immune responses involving alveoli-infiltrated macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes and activation of IL-17 signaling pathway. Mechanistically, we proposed that severe COVID-19-related cytokine storm is induced by a "spike protein-CD147-CyPA signaling axis": Infection of SARS-CoV-2 through CD147 initiated the JAK-STAT pathway, which further induced expression of cyclophilin A (CyPA); CyPA reciprocally bound to CD147 and triggered MAPK pathway. Consequently, the MAPK pathway regulated the expression of cytokines and chemokines, which promoted the development of cytokine storm. Importantly, Meplazumab could effectively inhibit viral entry and inflammation caused by SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. Therefore, our findings provided a new perspective for severe COVID-19-related pathogenesis. Furthermore, the validated universal receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and its variants can be targeted for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Basigin/antagonists & inhibitors , Basigin/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Basigin/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Humans , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , MAP Kinase Signaling System/genetics , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells
17.
《国际护理与健康》 ; 2021.
Article in Chinese | Omniscient | ID: covidwho-1411127

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To investigate the self-examination physiological health level of medical staffs under the tertiary protection, and analyze the physiological health problems and influencing factors of the medical staffs under the three-level protection. Methods: from March 19, 2020 to April 3, 2020, using snowball sampling method, a total of 103 anti epidemic medical staffs from two top three hospitals in Guangdong Province were invited to conduct a network questionnaire survey. Results: a total of 102 valid online questionnaires were analyzed. The results showed that the health status and organ function of medical staffs were 6.37% ± 77, daily life function was 10. 19 ± 63 and 9. 97 respectively ± 22 points, all above the middle level;The analysis showed that the self-examination physiological health level was affected by the gender of medical staffs, whether drinking, health status and intuitive feelings under three-level protection. Conclusion: the self-examination physiological health of medical staffs under the three-level protection is in the upper middle level, so we should pay more attention to and support the physiological health of medical staffs under the three-level protection.

18.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 711658, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359249

ABSTRACT

Background: While the lockdown strategies taken by many countries effectively limited the spread of COVID-19, those were thought to have a negative impact on older people. This study aimed to investigate the impact of lockdown on cognitive function and neuropsychiatric symptoms over a 1-year follow-up period in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Methods: We enrolled consecutive patients with MCI, probable AD or DLB who were receiving outpatient memory care before the COVID-19 pandemic and followed-up with them after 1 year by face-to-face during the COVID-19 pandemic to assess changes in physical activity, social contact, cognitive function and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS). Results: Total 105 probable AD, 50 MCI and 22 probable DLB patients were included and completed the 1-year follow-up between October 31 and November 30, 2020. Among the respondents, 42% of MCI, 54.3% of AD and 72.7% of DLB patients had a decline in MMSE scores and 54.4% of DLB patients had worsening Neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) scores. Patients with DLB showed a more rapid decline of MMSE than those with AD. Diminished physical activity and social contact might have hastened the deterioration of cognition and the worsening of NPS. Conclusion: Social isolation and physical inactivity even after strict lockdown for at least 6 months were correlated with accelerated decline of cognitive function and NPS in patients with AD and DLB.

19.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 21(5): 343-360, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352746

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection emerged in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China in December 2019. By Feb. 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) officially named the disease resulting from infection with SARS-CoV-2 as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). COVID-19 represents a spectrum of clinical manifestations that typically include fever, dry cough, and fatigue, often with pulmonary involvement. SARS-CoV-2 is highly contagious and most individuals within the population at large are susceptible to infection. Wild animal hosts and infected patients are currently the main sources of disease which is transmitted via respiratory droplets and direct contact. Since the outbreak, the Chinese government and scientific community have acted rapidly to identify the causative agent and promptly shared the viral gene sequence, and have carried out measures to contain the epidemic. Meanwhile, recent research has revealed critical aspects of SARS-CoV-2 biology and disease pathogenesis; other studies have focused on epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, management, as well as drug and vaccine development. This review aims to summarize the latest research findings and to provide expert consensus. We will also share ongoing efforts and experience in China, which may provide insight on how to contain the epidemic and improve our understanding of this emerging infectious disease, together with updated guidance for prevention, control, and critical management of this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Amino Acid Motifs , Animals , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Viral Vaccines
20.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 181, 2021 04 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190064

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early diagnostic indicators and the identification of possible progression to severe or critical COVID-19 in children are unknown. To investigate the immune characteristics of early SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and possible key prognostic factors for early identification of critical COVID-19, a retrospective study including 121 children with COVID-19 was conducted. Peripheral blood lymphocyte subset counts, T cell-derived cytokine concentrations, inflammatory factor concentrations, and routine blood counts were analyzed statistically at the initial presentation. RESULTS: The T lymphocyte subset and natural killer cell counts decreased with increasing disease severity. Group III (critical cases) had a higher Th/Tc ratio than groups I and II (common and severe cases); group I had a higher B cell count than groups II and III. IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, SAA, and procalcitonin levels increased with increasing disease severity. Hemoglobin concentration, and RBC and eosinophil counts decreased with increasing disease severity. Groups II and III had significantly lower lymphocyte counts than group I. T, Th, Tc, IL-6, IL-10, RBC, and hemoglobin had relatively high contribution and area under the curve values. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased T, Th, Tc, RBC, hemoglobin and increased IL-6 and IL-10 in early SARS-CoV-2 infection in children are valuable indices for early diagnosis of severe disease. The significantly reduced Th and Tc cells and significantly increased IL-6, IL-10, ferritin, procalcitonin, and SAA at this stage in children with critical COVID-19 may be closely associated with the systemic cytokine storm caused by immune dysregulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Adolescent , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Immunity , Infant , Killer Cells, Natural/cytology , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/cytology
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