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J Med Virol ; 94(8): 3540-3547, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767364


Low temperature and certain humidity are conducive to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) for long-time survival and long-distance spread during logistics and trades. Contaminated cold-chain or frozen products and outer packaging act as the carrier of SARS-CoV-2, that infects the high-risk population who works in the ports, cold storage or seafood market. Since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic worldwide, multiple localized outbreaks caused by SARS-CoV-2 contaminated imported cold-chain products have been reported in China, which brought challenges to COVID-19 prevention and control. Here, we review the evidences of SARS-CoV-2 cold-chain transmission from six confirmed cold-chain related COVID-19 outbreaks in China, especially in terms of SARS-CoV-2 whole-genome sequencing and virus isolation. In addition, we summarize the characteristics and mode of SARS-CoV-2 cold-chain transmission from both six COVID-19 outbreaks in China and the outbreaks suspected cold-chain transmission in other countries. Finally, we analyze the underlying risks of SARS-CoV-2 cold-chain transmission and propose the preventive countermeasures.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk Factors
China CDC Wkly ; 3(30): 637-644, 2021 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317436


What is already known about this topic? Though coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has largely been controlled in China, several outbreaks of COVID-19 have occurred from importation of cases or of suspected virus-contaminated products. Though several outbreaks have been traced to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) isolated on the outer packaging of cold chain products, live virus has not been obtained. What is added by this report? In September 2020, two dock workers were detected as having asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection using throat swabs during routine screening in Qingdao, China. Epidemiological information showed that the two dock workers were infected after contact with contaminated outer packaging, which was confirmed by genomic sequencing. Compared to the Wuhan reference strain, the sequences from the dock workers and the package materials differed by 12-14 nucleotides. Furthermore, infectious virus from the cold chain products was isolated by cell culture, and typical SARS-CoV-2 particles were observed under electron microscopy. What are the implications for public health practice? The international community should pay close attention to SARS-CoV-2 transmission mode through cold chain, build international cooperative efforts in response, share relevant data, and call on all countries to take effective prevention and control measures to prevent virus contamination in cold-chain food production, marine fishing and processing, transportation, and other operations.

Biosaf Health ; 2(4): 202-205, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739785


After 56 days without coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases, reemergent cases were reported in Beijing, China on June 11, 2020. Here, we report the genetic characteristics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) sequenced from the clinical specimens of 4 human cases and 2 environmental samples. The nucleotide similarity among six SARS-CoV-2 genomes ranged from 99.98% to 99.99%. Compared with the reference strain of SARS-CoV-2 (GenBank No. NC_045512), all six genome sequences shared the same substitutions at nt241 (C â†’ T), nt3037 (C â†’ T), nt14408 (C â†’ T), nt23403 (A â†’ G), nt28881 (G â†’ A), nt28882 (G â†’ A), and nt28883 (G â†’ C), which are the characteristic nucleotide substitutions of L-lineage European branch I. This was also proved by the maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree based on the full-length genome of SARS-CoV-2. They also have a unique shared nucleotide substitution, nt6026 (C â†’ T), which is the characteristic nucleotide substitution of SARS-CoV-2 in Beijing's Xinfadi outbreak. It is noteworthy that there is an amino acid D614G mutation caused by nt23403 substitution in all six genomes, which may enhance the virus's infectivity in humans and help it become the leading strain of the virus to spread around the world today. It is necessary to continuously monitor the genetic variation of SARS-CoV-2, focusing on the influence of key mutation sites of SARS-CoV-2 on viral transmission, clinical manifestations, severity, and course of disease.