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1.
Front Psychol ; 13: 902951, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903164

ABSTRACT

The work environment of employees has been greatly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, and many limitations and risks can be seen until now. In addition to employees in firms, the faculty in colleges and universities also suffer from pressure and face challenges. For the purpose of performance assessment and promotion, the faculty not only needs to teach students, but also assumes the time pressure from academic research. This study discusses the process in which the faculty's subjective well-being is affected, in an effort to learn about the job demands of the faculty under the work environment with a high level of time pressure, and the effect of these time-related job demands on their psychological health. In this study, 347 valid questionnaires were collected from universities in coastal areas of the Chinese mainland. The results show that time-related job demands have a positive impact on time pressure; time pressure has a negative impact on subjective well-being; and time-related self-efficacy can significantly mediate the relationship among time-related job demands, time pressure, and subjective well-being. On this basis, this study proposes its theoretical and practical implications.

2.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 212: 114340, 2022 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819434
3.
J Nurs Manag ; 30(5): 1147-1156, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784703

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The aim of this study is to investigate the situation and perceptions of nursing directors about emergency nursing staff deployment in designated hospitals during the pandemic of COVID-19 in mainland China. BACKGROUND: The pandemic of COVID-19 has significantly depleted health care resources, leading to increased burden of nursing care and staffing and exacerbating the crisis in health care facilities. Currently, how to effectively plan and schedule nursing staffing in the pandemic still remains unknown. METHODS: From 14 July 2020 to 8 September 2020, 62 nursing directors of designated hospitals in mainland China were invited to participate in a cross-sectional online survey for their perceptions of nursing human-resource allocation during the pandemic of COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 55 valid questionnaires were collected, showing that 96.36% of the hospitals had emergency nursing organizations and management systems during the pandemic, 96.36% had well-established scheduling principles for nursing human resources and 54.55% of hospitals had human-resource scheduling platforms. All the hospitals had trained emergency nursing staff in infection control (55, 100%), work process (51, 92.73%) and emergency skills (50, 90.91%). Most of the participants were satisfied with the nursing staffing deployments at their institutions (52, 94.55%). However, more than two thirds of them believed that their human-resource deployment plans need further improvements (39, 70.91%). CONCLUSIONS: Most of the designated hospitals investigated had established emergency nursing organizations, and management systems, and related regulations for the epidemic. However, the contents mentioned above still need to be further standardized. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: The surge of patients in the epidemic was considerable challenge for the emergency capacity of hospitals. In the future, we should pay more attention to the following aspects: building emergency nursing staffing platforms, increasing emergency human-resource reserves, establishing reliable communication channels for emergency response teams, improving the rules and regulations of emergency human-resource management, offering more training and drills for emergency-related knowledge and skills and giving more focus on bio-psycho-social wellbeing of nurses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nursing Staff, Hospital , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling
4.
Green Energy & Environment ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1773326

ABSTRACT

Air-borne pollutants in particulate matter (PM) form, produced either physically during industrial processes or certain biological routes, have posed a great threat to human health. Particularly during the current COVID-19 pandemic, effective filtration of the virus is an urgent matter worldwide. In this review, we first introduce some fundamentals about PM, including its source and classification, filtration mechanisms, and evaluation parameters. Advanced filtration materials and their functions are then summarized, among which polymers and MOFs are discussed in detail together with their antibacterial performance. The discussion on the application is divided into end-of-pipe treatment and source control. Finally, we conclude this review with our prospective view on future research in this area.

5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 629-638, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665837

ABSTRACT

Mounting evidence indicates that SARS-CoV-2 can infect multiple systemic tissues, but few studies have evaluated SARS-CoV-2 RNA dynamics in multiple specimen types due to their reduced accessibility and diminished performance of RT-qPCR with non-respiratory specimens. Here, we employed an ultrasensitive CRISPR-RT-PCR assay to analyze longitudinal mucosal (nasal, buccal, pharyngeal, and rectal), plasma, and breath samples from SARS-CoV-2-infected non-human primates (NHPs) to detect dynamic changes in SARS-CoV-2 RNA level and distribution among these specimens. We observed that CRISPR-RT-PCR results consistently detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in all sample types at most time points post-infection, and that SARS-CoV-2 infection dose and administration route did not markedly affect the CRISPR-RT-PCR signal detected in most specimen types. However, consistent RT-qPCR positive results were restricted to nasal, pharyngeal, and rectal swab samples, and tended to decrease earlier than CRISPR-RT-PCR results, reflecting lower assay sensitivity. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detectable in both pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens from early to late infection by CRISPR-RT-PCR, albeit with different abundance and kinetics, with SARS-CoV-2 RNA increases detected in plasma and rectal samples trailing those detected in upper respiratory tract samples. CRISPR-RT-PCR assays for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in non-respiratory specimens may thus permit direct diagnosis of suspected COVID-19 cases missed by RT-PCR, while tracking SARS-CoV-2 RNA in minimally invasive alternate specimens may better evaluate the progression and resolution of SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans , Primates , RNA, Viral/analysis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests
6.
Mikrochim Acta ; 188(10): 352, 2021 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432545

ABSTRACT

Extracellular ATP as a purinergic signaling molecule, together with ATP receptor, are playing an important role in tumor growth, therapy resistance, and host immunity suppression. Meanwhile ATP is a crucial indicator for cellular energy status and viability, thus a vital variable for tissue regeneration and in vitro tissue engineering. Most recent studies on COVID-19 virus suggest infection caused ATP deficit and release as a major characterization at the early stage of the disease and major causes for disease complications. Thus, imaging ATP molecule in both cellular and extracellular contexts has many applications in biology, engineering, and clinics. A sensitive and selective fluorescence "signal-on" probe for ATP detection was constructed, based on the base recognition between a black hole quencher (BHQ)-labeled aptamer oligonucleotide and a fluorophore (Cy5)-labeled reporter flare. The probe was able to detect ATP in solution with single digit µM detection limit. With the assistance of lipofectamine, this probe efficiently entered and shined in the model cells U2OS within 3 h. Further application of the probe in specific scenery, cardio-tissue engineering, was also tested where the ATP aptamer complex was able to sense cellular ATP status in a semi-quantitative manner, representing a novel approach for selection of functional cardiomyocytes for tissue engineering. At last a slight change in probe configuration in which a flexible intermolecular A14 linker was introduced granted regeneration capability. These data support the application of this probe in multiple circumstances where ATP measurement or imaging is on demand.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate/analysis , Aptamers, Nucleotide , Carbocyanines , Fluorescent Dyes , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Cell Line , Fluorescence , Humans , Myocytes, Cardiac , Rats
7.
N Engl J Med ; 382(18): 1708-1720, 2020 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, when coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China, data have been needed on the clinical characteristics of the affected patients. METHODS: We extracted data regarding 1099 patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 from 552 hospitals in 30 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in mainland China through January 29, 2020. The primary composite end point was admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), the use of mechanical ventilation, or death. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 47 years; 41.9% of the patients were female. The primary composite end point occurred in 67 patients (6.1%), including 5.0% who were admitted to the ICU, 2.3% who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation, and 1.4% who died. Only 1.9% of the patients had a history of direct contact with wildlife. Among nonresidents of Wuhan, 72.3% had contact with residents of Wuhan, including 31.3% who had visited the city. The most common symptoms were fever (43.8% on admission and 88.7% during hospitalization) and cough (67.8%). Diarrhea was uncommon (3.8%). The median incubation period was 4 days (interquartile range, 2 to 7). On admission, ground-glass opacity was the most common radiologic finding on chest computed tomography (CT) (56.4%). No radiographic or CT abnormality was found in 157 of 877 patients (17.9%) with nonsevere disease and in 5 of 173 patients (2.9%) with severe disease. Lymphocytopenia was present in 83.2% of the patients on admission. CONCLUSIONS: During the first 2 months of the current outbreak, Covid-19 spread rapidly throughout China and caused varying degrees of illness. Patients often presented without fever, and many did not have abnormal radiologic findings. (Funded by the National Health Commission of China and others.).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Disease Outbreaks , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Child , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
8.
iScience ; 24(8): 102892, 2021 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397402

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emerging new type of coronavirus that is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic and the unprecedented global health emergency. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of SARS-CoV-2 plays a critical role in understanding the disease. Performance variation exists across SARS-CoV-2 viral WGS technologies, but there is currently no benchmarking study comparing different WGS sequencing protocols. We compared seven different SARS-CoV-2 WGS library protocols using RNA from patient nasopharyngeal swab samples under two storage conditions with low and high viral inputs. We found large differences in mappability and genome coverage, and variations in sensitivity, reproducibility, and precision of single-nucleotide variant calling across different protocols. For certain amplicon-based protocols, an appropriate primer trimming step is critical for accurate single-nucleotide variant calling. We ranked the performance of protocols based on six different metrics. Our findings offer guidance in choosing appropriate WGS protocols to characterize SARS-CoV-2 and its evolution.

9.
Ther Clin Risk Manag ; 17: 841-850, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360685

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Information regarding the epidemiology and clinical features of mild to moderate patients caused by COVID-19 in Fangcang Hospital is scarce. Through a retrospective cohort study, the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients in Dongxihu Fangcang shelter hospitals were analyzed, and the factors that affected the disease progression of COVID-19 patients were explored. METHODS: The clinical characteristics of 714 patients with COVID-19 were retrospectively analyzed at Dongxihu Fangcang Hospital between February 7 and March 8, 2020. We described the clinical characteristics and distribution of discharge or transfer times for each patient. According to the disease progression of COVID-19 patients, we divided all patients into Non-Deteriorated group and Deteriorated group. Furthermore, binary logistic regression was used for a single outcome and multiple response variables. RESULTS: We treated 789 patients with mild and moderate COVID-19, of which 714 were included in this study, which included 326 (45.66%) deteriorated patients and 388 (54.34%) non-deteriorated patients. The mean age of the study population was 48.16±12.44 years. Of all patients, 319 (44.7%) were men and 395 (55.3%) were women. The average length of the patient's stay was 16.08±5.13 days. The most common clinical feature on admission was fever (593 of 714, 83.05%). It is worth noting that 80 (11.20%) of the 714 patients were asymptomatic from exposure to admission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that gender, age, diabetes, respiratory system disease, fever, dyspnea, and nasal congestion were risk factors associated with deterioration in cases with COVID-19 patients, and asymptomatic (OR: 0.058; 95% CI: 0.022-0.155; P<0.001) was the protective factor for deterioration of COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: Accompanied by chronic diseases, old age, fever, nasal congestion, and dyspnea were factors that influenced the aggravation of COVID-19 patients, and more attention and treatment should be given to these patients.

10.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 16(9): 1039-1044, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322483

ABSTRACT

Plasma SARS-CoV-2 RNA may represent a viable diagnostic alternative to respiratory RNA levels, which rapidly decline after infection. Quantitative PCR with reverse transcription (RT-qPCR) reference assays exhibit poor performance with plasma, probably reflecting the dilution and degradation of viral RNA released into the circulation, but these issues could be addressed by analysing viral RNA packaged into extracellular vesicles. Here we describe an assay approach in which extracellular vesicles directly captured from plasma are fused with reagent-loaded liposomes to sensitively amplify and detect a SARS-CoV-2 gene target. This approach accurately identified patients with COVID-19, including challenging cases missed by RT-qPCR. SARS-CoV-2-positive extracellular vesicles were detected at day 1 post-infection, and plateaued from day 6 to the day 28 endpoint in a non-human primate model, while signal durations for 20-60 days were observed in young children. This nanotechnology approach uses a non-infectious sample and extends virus detection windows, offering a tool to support COVID-19 diagnosis in patients without SARS-CoV-2 RNA detectable in the respiratory tract.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Liposomes/therapeutic use , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Kinetics , Liposomes/metabolism , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tetraspanin 28/immunology , Tetraspanin 28/metabolism
11.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 44(8): 1340-1346, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301538

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Sars-Cov-2 infection is a multisystem illness that can affect the cardiovascular system. Tachyarrhythmias have been reported but the prevalence of bradyarrhythmia is unclear. Cases have been described of transient high-degree atrioventricular (AV) block in COVID-19 that were managed conservatively. METHOD: A database of all patients requiring temporary or permanent pacing in two linked cardiac centers was used to compare the number of procedures required during the first year of the pandemic compared to the corresponding period a year earlier. The database was cross-referenced with a database of all patients testing positive for Sars-Cov-2 infection in both institutions to identify patients who required temporary or permanent pacing during COVID-19. RESULTS: The number of novel pacemaker implants was lower during the COVID-19 pandemic than the same period the previous year (540 vs. 629, respectively), with a similar proportion of high-degree AV block (38.3% vs. 33.2%, respectively, p = .069). Four patients with the Sars-Cov-2 infection had a pacemaker implanted for high-degree AV block, two for sinus node dysfunction. Of this cohort of six patients, two succumbed to the COVID-19 illness and one from non-COVID sepsis. Device interrogation demonstrated a sustained pacing requirement in all cases. CONCLUSION: High-degree AV block remained unaltered in prevalence during the COVID-19 pandemic. There was no evidence of transient high-degree AV block in patients with the Sars-Cov-2 infection. Our experience suggests that all clinically significant bradyarrhythmia should be treated by pacing according to usual protocols regardless of the COVID status.


Subject(s)
Bradycardia/epidemiology , Bradycardia/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Cardiac Pacing, Artificial , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bradycardia/etiology , Humans , Male , Prevalence
12.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 44(5): 875-882, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166232

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) causes severe illness and multi-organ dysfunction. An abnormal electrocardiogram is associated with poor outcome, and QT prolongation during the illness has been linked to pharmacological effects. This study sought to investigate the effects of the COVID-19 illness on the corrected QT interval (QTc). METHOD: For 293 consecutive patients admitted to our hospital via the emergency department for COVID-19 between 01/03/20 -18/05/20, demographic data, laboratory findings, admission electrocardiograph and clinical observations were compared in those who survived and those who died within 6 weeks. Hospital records were reviewed for prior electrocardiograms for comparison with those recorded on presentation with COVID-19. RESULTS: Patients who died were older than survivors (82 vs 69.8 years, p < 0.001), more likely to have cancer (22.3% vs 13.1%, p = 0.034), dementia (25.6% vs 10.7%, p = 0.034) and ischemic heart disease (27.8% vs 10.7%, p < 0.001). Deceased patients exhibited higher levels of C-reactive protein (244.6 mg/L vs 146.5 mg/L, p < 0.01), troponin (1982.4 ng/L vs 413.4 ng/L, p = 0.017), with a significantly longer QTc interval (461.1 ms vs 449.3 ms, p = 0.007). Pre-COVID electrocardiograms were located for 172 patients; the QTc recorded on presentation with COVID-19 was longer than the prior measurement in both groups, but was more prolonged in the deceased group (448.4 ms vs 472.9 ms, pre-COVID vs COVID, p < 0.01). Multivariate Cox-regression analysis revealed age, C-reactive protein and prolonged QTc of >455 ms (males) and >465 ms (females) (p = 0.028, HR 1.49 [1.04-2.13]), as predictors of mortality. QTc prolongation beyond these dichotomy limits was associated with increased mortality risk (p = 0.0027, HR 1.78 [1.2-2.6]). CONCLUSION: QTc prolongation occurs in COVID-19 illness and is associated with poor outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Long QT Syndrome , Azithromycin , Electrocardiography , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine , Long QT Syndrome/diagnosis , Male , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Transl Androl Urol ; 10(1): 466-474, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079883

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To introduce and determine the value of optimized strategies for the management of urological tube-related emergencies with increased incidence, complexity and operational risk during the global spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: All emergent urological patients at Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, during the period of January 23 (the beginning of lockdown in Wuhan) to March 23, 2020, and the corresponding period in 2019 were recruited to form this study's COVID-19 group and control group, respectively. Tongji Hospital has the most concentrated and strongest Chinese medical teams to treat the largest number of severe COVID-19 patients. Patients in the control group were routinely treated, while patients in the COVID-19 group were managed following the optimized principles and strategies. The case incidence for each type of tube-related emergency was recorded. Baseline characteristics and management outcomes (surgery time, secondary complex operation rate, readmission rate, COVID-19 infection rate) were analyzed and compared across the control and COVID-19 periods. RESULTS: The total emergent urological patients during the COVID-19 period was 42, whereas during the control period, it was 124. The incidence of tube-related emergencies increased from 53% to 88% (P<0.001) during the COVID-19 period. In particular, the incidence of nephrostomy tube-related (31% vs. 15%, P=0.027) and single-J stent-related problems (19% vs. 6%, P=0.009) increased significantly. The mean surgery times across the two periods were comparable. The number of secondary complex operations increased from 12 (18%) to 14 (38%) (P=0.028) during the COVID 19-period. The number of 2-week postoperative readmission decreased from 10 (15%) to 1 (3%) (P=0.049). No participants contracted during the COVID-19 period. CONCLUSIONS: Urological tube-related emergencies have been found to have a higher incidence and require more complicated and dangerous operations during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the optimized management strategies introduced in this study are efficient, and safe for both urologists and patients.

14.
Front Neurol ; 11: 573095, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069733

ABSTRACT

By engaging angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2 or Ace2), the novel pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) invades host cells and affects many organs, including the brain. However, the distribution of ACE2 in the brain is still obscure. Here, we investigated the ACE2 expression in the brain by analyzing data from publicly available brain transcriptome databases. According to our spatial distribution analysis, ACE2 was relatively highly expressed in some brain locations, such as the choroid plexus and paraventricular nuclei of the thalamus. According to cell-type distribution analysis, nuclear expression of ACE2 was found in many neurons (both excitatory and inhibitory neurons) and some non-neuron cells (mainly astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and endothelial cells) in the human middle temporal gyrus and posterior cingulate cortex. A few ACE2-expressing nuclei were found in a hippocampal dataset, and none were detected in the prefrontal cortex. Except for the additional high expression of Ace2 in the olfactory bulb areas for spatial distribution as well as in the pericytes and endothelial cells for cell-type distribution, the distribution of Ace2 in the mouse brain was similar to that in the human brain. Thus, our results reveal an outline of ACE2/Ace2 distribution in the human and mouse brains, which indicates that the brain infection of SARS-CoV-2 may be capable of inducing central nervous system symptoms in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Potential species differences should be considered when using mouse models to study the neurological effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

15.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 179: 113074, 2021 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064881

ABSTRACT

On global scale, the current situation of pandemic is symptomatic of increased incidences of contagious diseases caused by pathogens. The faster spread of these diseases, in a moderately short timeframe, is threatening the overall population wellbeing and conceivably the economy. The inadequacy of conventional diagnostic tools in terms of time consuming and complex laboratory-based diagnosis process is a major challenge to medical care. In present era, the development of point-of-care testing (POCT) is in demand for fast detection of infectious diseases along with "on-site" results that are helpful in timely and early action for better treatment. In addition, POCT devices also play a crucial role in preventing the transmission of infectious diseases by offering real-time testing and lab quality microbial diagnosis within minutes. Timely diagnosis and further treatment optimization facilitate the containment of outbreaks of infectious diseases. Presently, efforts are being made to support such POCT by the technological development in the field of internet of medical things (IoMT). The IoMT offers wireless-based operation and connectivity of POCT devices with health expert and medical centre. In this review, the recently developed POC diagnostics integrated or future possibilities of integration with IoMT are discussed with focus on emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases like malaria, dengue fever, influenza A (H1N1), human papilloma virus (HPV), Ebola virus disease (EVD), Zika virus (ZIKV), and coronavirus (COVID-19). The IoMT-assisted POCT systems are capable enough to fill the gap between bioinformatics generation, big rapid analytics, and clinical validation. An optimized IoMT-assisted POCT will be useful in understanding the diseases progression, treatment decision, and evaluation of efficacy of prescribed therapy.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Internet of Things , Point-of-Care Testing , Animals , Artificial Intelligence , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Dengue/diagnosis , Equipment Design , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/diagnosis , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Malaria/diagnosis , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis
17.
J Multidiscip Healthc ; 14: 145-149, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050536

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Currently, the "gold standard" is real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of the viral DNA for diagnosis of COVID-19 infection. However, early reports of test performance in the Wuhan outbreak showed variable sensitivities. Therefore, the simple use of RT-PCR as a discharge standard for COVID-19 patients may be risky. Early discussions suggested that CT should be the preferred modality for the diagnosis of COVID-19. However, the use of CT for COVID-19 discharge is controversial. In the Fangcang hospital, we performed multiple nucleic acid tests and chest CT examinations in all patients. For discharged patients, we performed multiple nucleic acid tests and chest CT scans on the basis of discharge standards to minimize the incidence of false negatives in nucleic acid tests. PATIENT CONCERNS: Two 42-year-old male patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 were treated in the Fangcang Hospital According to the treatment, one patient was cured and discharged, while the other patient was sent to a higher-level hospital for further treatment. DIAGNOSES: Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction amplification of the viral DNA for diagnosis of COVID-19 infection. INTERVENTIONS: The patients received Chinese medicine and antiviral treatment in the Fangcang Hospital. OUTCOMES: At follow-up, both patients were cured after treatment and returned to normal life after 2 weeks of home isolation and a negative nucleic acid test. LESSONS: The use of nucleic acid testing combined with chest CT examination can quickly diagnose patients with COVID-19 infection and evaluate their treatment in the Fangcang Hospital.

18.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4412

ABSTRACT

A review. The outbreak of the COVID-19 has raised the people′s concern of the sanitization devices. The deep UV light-emitting diodes, as its new generation, has been rapidly developing and expanding the market. This article provides a deep review on the UVC LED serving as sanitization devices. In the first part, a brief introduction on the materials, epitaxial structure as well as the device is given, in which the bottleneck problem of low quantum efficiency has been analyzed in depth. In the second part, the mechanism of the disinfection and deactivation of UVC, i.e., how high-energy photons interact with the genome, is described before the presentation of some dynamic models and some recent works on the water disinfection. In the third part, some latest applications and apparatus are listed. In the final part, the current shortcuts are pointed out with some expectations of future works on both the research end and industry prospects.

19.
Chest ; 158(1): 97-105, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-980155

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global health emergency. The cumulative number of new confirmed cases and deaths are still increasing out of China. Independent predicted factors associated with fatal outcomes remain uncertain. RESEARCH QUESTION: The goal of the current study was to investigate the potential risk factors associated with fatal outcomes from COVID-19 through a multivariate Cox regression analysis and a nomogram model. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort of 1,590 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 throughout China was established. The prognostic effects of variables, including clinical features and laboratory findings, were analyzed by using Kaplan-Meier methods and a Cox proportional hazards model. A prognostic nomogram was formulated to predict the survival of patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: In this nationwide cohort, nonsurvivors included a higher incidence of elderly people and subjects with coexisting chronic illness, dyspnea, and laboratory abnormalities on admission compared with survivors. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that age ≥ 75 years (hazard ratio [HR], 7.86; 95% CI, 2.44-25.35), age between 65 and 74 years (HR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.24-9.5), coronary heart disease (HR, 4.28; 95% CI, 1.14-16.13), cerebrovascular disease (HR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.07-8.94), dyspnea (HR, 3.96; 95% CI, 1.42-11), procalcitonin level > 0.5 ng/mL (HR, 8.72; 95% CI, 3.42-22.28), and aspartate aminotransferase level > 40 U/L (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-6.73) were independent risk factors associated with fatal outcome. A nomogram was established based on the results of multivariate analysis. The internal bootstrap resampling approach suggested the nomogram has sufficient discriminatory power with a C-index of 0.91 (95% CI, 0.85-0.97). The calibration plots also showed good consistency between the prediction and the observation. INTERPRETATION: The proposed nomogram accurately predicted clinical outcomes of patients with COVID-19 based on individual characteristics. Earlier identification, more intensive surveillance, and appropriate therapy should be considered in patients at high risk.


Subject(s)
Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections , Dyspnea , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Procalcitonin/blood , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Correlation of Data , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Nomograms , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prognosis , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis
20.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 42(4): 521-530, 2020 Aug 30.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-749147

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the optimal therapy time for the treatment of severe coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19)by traditional Chinese medicine(TCM)and its influence on the therapeutic effect and prognosis. Methods The clinical data,laboratory findings,and outcomes of 64 patients with severe COVID-19 treated with TCM and western medicine in Chongqing from January 20,2020, to March 11,2020 were retrospectively analyzed.Patients were divided into early intervention group[TCM was initiated within 3 days (including day 3) after the first diagnosis of severe type/critical type COVID-19]and late intervention group[TCM was initiated after 7 days (including day 7) after the first diagnosis of severe type /critical type COVID-19].The changes in clinical parameters during the course of disease were compared between the two groups. Results On day 14,the oxygenation index was 292.5(252.0,351.0)mmHg in the early intervention group,which was significantly higher than that in the late intervention group [246.0(170.0,292.5)mmHg](P=0.005).The length of hospital stay [(18.56±1.11)d vs.(24.87±1.64)d,P=0.001],duration of ICU stay [(14.12±0.91)d vs.(20.00±1.53)d,P=0.000] and time to negativity [(16.77±1.04)d vs.(22.48±1.66)d,P=0.001] in the early intervention group were significantly shorter than those in the late intervention group.The intubation rate(7.3%)in the early intervention group was significantly lower than that in the late intervention group(30.4%)(P=0.028). Conclusion Early TCM therapy within three days after a diagnosis of severe COVID-19 can shorten the length of hospital stay,duration of ICU stay,and time to negativity and decrease intubation rate.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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