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1.
Nanotechnology ; 34(33)2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323424

ABSTRACT

The temperature-dependent external quantum efficiency (EQE) droops of 265 nm, 275 nm, 280 nm, and 285 nm AlGaN-based ultraviolet-c light-emitting diodes (UVC-LEDs) differed in Al contents have been comprehensively investigated. The modifiedABCmodel (R = An+Bn2+Cn3) with the current-leakage related term,f(n)= Dn4, has been employed to analyze the recombination mechanisms in these UVC-LED samples. Experimental results reveal that, at relatively low electrical-current levels, the contribution of Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) recombination exceeds those of the Auger recombination and carrier leakage. At relatively high electrical-current levels, the Auger recombination and carrier leakage jointly dominate the EQE droop phenomenon. Moreover, the inactivation efficiencies of 222 nm excimer lamp, 254 nm portable Mercury lamp, 265 nm, 280 nm, and 285 nm UVC-LED arrays in the inactivation ofEscherichia colihave been experimentally investigated, which could provide a technical reference for fighting against the new COVID-19.

2.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 163: 114852, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315738

ABSTRACT

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prominent psychiatric disorder with a high prevalence rate. The recent COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the already high prevalence of MDD. Unfortunately, a significant proportion of patients are unresponsive to conventional treatments, necessitating the exploration of novel therapeutic strategies. Oxytocin, an endogenous neuropeptide, has emerged as a promising candidate with anxiolytic and antidepressant properties. Oxytocin has been shown to alleviate emotional disorders by modulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the central immune system. The dysfunction of the immune system has been strongly linked to the onset and progression of depression. The central immune system is believed to be a key target of oxytocin in ameliorating emotional disorders. In this review, we examine the evidence regarding the interactions between oxytocin, the immune system, and depressive disorder. Moreover, we summarize and speculate on the potential roles of the intertwined association between oxytocin and the central immune system in treating emotional disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Humans , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Oxytocin/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Hydrocortisone , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Pituitary-Adrenal System
3.
Green Energy & Environment ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2297177

ABSTRACT

Air-borne pollutants in particulate matter (PM) form, produced either physically during industrial processes or certain biological routes, have posed a great threat to human health. Particularly during the current COVID-19 pandemic, effective filtration of the virus is an urgent matter worldwide. In this review, we first introduce some fundamentals about PM, including its source and classification, filtration mechanisms, and evaluation parameters. Advanced filtration materials and their functions are then summarized, among which polymers and MOFs are discussed in detail together with their antibacterial performance. The discussion on the application is divided into end-of-pipe treatment and source control. Finally, we conclude this review with our prospective view on future research in this area. Graphical Image 1

4.
BMJ Open ; 13(4): e068179, 2023 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298181

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of leflunomide (L) added to the standard-of-care (SOC) treatment in COVID-19 patients hospitalised with moderate/critical clinical symptoms. DESIGN: Prospective, open-label, multicentre, stratified, randomised clinical trial. SETTING: Five hospitals in UK and India, from September 2020 to May 2021. PARTICIPANTS: Adults with PCR confirmed COVID-19 infection with moderate/critical symptoms within 15 days of onset. INTERVENTION: Leflunomide 100 mg/day (3 days) followed by 10-20 mg/day (7 days) added to standard care. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: The time to clinical improvement (TTCI) defined as two-point reduction on a clinical status scale or live discharge prior to 28 days; safety profile measured by the incidence of adverse events (AEs) within 28 days. RESULTS: Eligible patients (n=214; age 56.3±14.9 years; 33% female) were randomised to SOC+L (n=104) and SOC group (n=110), stratified according to their clinical risk profile. TTCI was 7 vs 8 days in SOC+L vs SOC group (HR 1.317; 95% CI 0.980 to 1.768; p=0.070). Incidence of serious AEs was similar between the groups and none was attributed to leflunomide. In sensitivity analyses, excluding 10 patients not fulfilling the inclusion criteria and 3 who withdrew consent before leflunomide treatment, TTCI was 7 vs 8 days (HR 1.416, 95% CI 1.041 to 1.935; p=0.028), indicating a trend in favour of the intervention group. All-cause mortality rate was similar between groups, 9/104 vs 10/110. Duration of oxygen dependence was shorter in the SOC+L group being a median 6 days (IQR 4-8) compared with 7 days (IQR 5-10) in SOC group (p=0.047). CONCLUSION: Leflunomide, added to the SOC treatment for COVID-19, was safe and well tolerated but had no major impact on clinical outcomes. It may shorten the time of oxygen dependence by 1 day and thereby improve TTCI/hospital discharge in moderately affected COVID-19 patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: EudraCT Number: 2020-002952-18, NCT05007678.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Male , Leflunomide/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Oxygen
5.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 15: 1034376, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270097

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: The Movement Disorder Society's Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III (MDS-UPDRS III) is mostly common used for assessing the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). In remote circumstances, vision-based techniques have many strengths over wearable sensors. However, rigidity (item 3.3) and postural stability (item 3.12) in the MDS-UPDRS III cannot be assessed remotely since participants need to be touched by a trained examiner during testing. We developed the four scoring models of rigidity of the neck, rigidity of the lower extremities, rigidity of the upper extremities, and postural stability based on features extracted from other available and touchless motions. Methods: The red, green, and blue (RGB) computer vision algorithm and machine learning were combined with other available motions from the MDS-UPDRS III evaluation. A total of 104 patients with PD were split into a train set (89 individuals) and a test set (15 individuals). The light gradient boosting machine (LightGBM) multiclassification model was trained. Weighted kappa (k), absolute accuracy (ACC ± 0), and Spearman's correlation coefficient (rho) were used to evaluate the performance of model. Results: For model of rigidity of the upper extremities, k = 0.58 (moderate), ACC ± 0 = 0.73, and rho = 0.64 (moderate). For model of rigidity of the lower extremities, k = 0.66 (substantial), ACC ± 0 = 0.70, and rho = 0.76 (strong). For model of rigidity of the neck, k = 0.60 (moderate), ACC ± 0 = 0.73, and rho = 0.60 (moderate). For model of postural stability, k = 0.66 (substantial), ACC ± 0 = 0.73, and rho = 0.68 (moderate). Conclusion: Our study can be meaningful for remote assessments, especially when people have to maintain social distance, e.g., in situations such as the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

6.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 220: 114847, 2023 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2239673

ABSTRACT

Existing public health emergencies due to fatal/infectious diseases such as coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and monkeypox have raised the paradigm of 5th generation portable intelligent and multifunctional biosensors embedded on a single chip. The state-of-the-art 5th generation biosensors are concerned with integrating advanced functional materials with controllable physicochemical attributes and optimal machine processability. In this direction, 2D metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes), owing to their enhanced effective surface area, tunable physicochemical properties, and rich surface functionalities, have shown promising performances in biosensing flatlands. Moreover, their hybridization with diversified nanomaterials caters to their associated challenges for the commercialization of stability due to restacking and oxidation. MXenes and its hybrid biosensors have demonstrated intelligent and lab-on-chip prospects for determining diverse biomarkers/pathogens related to fatal and infectious diseases. Recently, on-site detection has been clubbed with solution-on-chip MXenes by interfacing biosensors with modern-age technologies, including 5G communication, internet-of-medical-things (IoMT), artificial intelligence (AI), and data clouding to progress toward hospital-on-chip (HOC) modules. This review comprehensively summarizes the state-of-the-art MXene fabrication, advancements in physicochemical properties to architect biosensors, and the progress of MXene-based lab-on-chip biosensors toward HOC solutions. Besides, it discusses sustainable aspects, practical challenges and alternative solutions associated with these modules to develop personalized and remote healthcare solutions for every individual in the world.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Internet of Things , Humans , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitals
7.
Heart ; 2022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241190

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare cryoballoon pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) with standard radiofrequency cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI) ablation as first-line treatment for typical atrial flutter (AFL). METHODS: Cryoballoon Pulmonary Vein Isolation as First-Line Treatment for Typical Atrial Flutter was an international, multicentre, open with blinded assessment trial. Patients with CTI-dependent AFL and no documented atrial fibrillation (AF) were randomised to either cryoballoon PVI alone or radiofrequency CTI ablation. Primary efficacy outcome was time to first recurrence of sustained (>30 s) symptomatic atrial arrhythmia (AF/AFL/atrial tachycardia) at 12 months as assessed by continuous monitoring with an implantable loop recorder. Primary safety outcome was a composite of death, stroke, tamponade requiring drainage, atrio-oesophageal fistula, pacemaker implantation, serious vascular complications or persistent phrenic nerve palsy. RESULTS: Trial recruitment was halted at 113 of the target 130 patients because of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (PVI, n=59; CTI ablation, n=54). Median age was 66 (IQR 61-71) years, with 98 (86.7%) men. At 12 months, the primary outcome occurred in 11 (18.6%) patients in the PVI group and 9 (16.7%) patients in the CTI group. There was no significant difference in the primary efficacy outcome between the groups (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.46 to 2.67). AFL recurred in six (10.2%) patients in the PVI arm and one (1.9%) patient in the CTI arm (p=0.116). Time to occurrence of AF of ≥2 min was significantly reduced with cryoballoon PVI (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.85). The composite safety outcome occurred in four patients in the PVI arm and three patients in the CTI arm (p=1.000). CONCLUSION: Cryoballoon PVI as first-line treatment for AFL is equally effective compared with standard CTI ablation for preventing recurrence of atrial arrhythmia and better at preventing new-onset AF. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03401099.

8.
Front Psychol ; 13: 1061851, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163114

ABSTRACT

Background: Primary healthcare professionals were overworked and psychologically overwhelmed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Resilience is an important shield for individuals to cope with psychological stress and improve performance in crises. This study aims to explore the association of individual resilience with organizational resilience, perceived social support and job performance among healthcare professionals in township health centers of China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Data from 1,266 questionnaires were collected through a cross-sectional survey conducted in December 2021 in Shandong Province, China. Descriptive analysis of individual resilience, organizational resilience, perceived social support, and job performance was conducted. Pearson correlation analysis was used to examine the correlations among these variables, and structural equation modeling was performed to verify the relationships between these variables. Results: The score of individual resilience was 101.67 ± 14.29, ranging from 24 to 120. Organizational resilience (ß = 0.409, p < 0.01) and perceived social support (ß = 0.410, p < 0.01) had significant direct effects on individual resilience. Individual resilience (ß = 0.709, p < 0.01) had a significant direct effect on job performance. Organizational resilience (ß = 0.290, p < 0.01) and perceived social support (ß = 0.291, p < 0.01) had significant indirect effects on job performance. Conclusion: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the individual resilience of healthcare professionals in township health centers was at a moderate level. Organizational resilience and perceived social support positively affected individual resilience, and individual resilience positively affected job performance. Furthermore, individual resilience mediated the effect of organizational resilience and perceived social support on job performance. It is recommended that multiple stakeholders work together to improve the individual resilience of primary healthcare professionals.

9.
British Journal of Management ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2121152

ABSTRACT

Using policy-related uncertainty as a shock to firms' internal and external financing frictions, we find significantly lower repurchase likelihoods, short-term market reactions, and post-announcement completion rates of open market share repurchases during periods of high policy uncertainty. Firms are more likely to switch from a high- to a low-commitment repurchase technique when policy uncertainty is high. In contrast, for firms that are significantly undervalued ex ante, higher policy uncertainty leads to more repurchase activities. In addition, we show that the COVID-19 crisis is associated with a lower repurchase likelihood for financially constrained firms or those with high cash flow volatility, while undervalued firms repurchased more shares during the pandemic period. Our results are robust after controlling for potential sources of endogeneity and conducting a battery of robustness tests. Collectively, our evidence suggests that the relationship between uncertainty and share repurchases is conditional on institutional contexts. Firms' level of financial flexibility, their demand for signalling, and the credibility and magnitude of repurchase signals all significantly affect their precautionary and signalling motives.

10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(17)2022 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010058

ABSTRACT

Since the COVID-19 outbreak, the scientific community has been trying to clarify various problems, such as the mechanism of virus transmission, environmental impact, and socio-economic impact. The spread of COVID-19 in the atmospheric environment is variable and uncertain, potentially resulting in differences in air pollution. Many scholars are striving to explore the relationship between air quality, meteorological indicators, and COVID-19 to understand the interaction between COVID-19 and the atmospheric environment. In this study, we try to summarize COVID-19 studies related to the atmospheric environment by reviewing publications since January 2020. We used metrological methods to analyze many publications in Web of Science Core Collection. To clarify the current situation, hotspots, and development trends in the field. According to the study, COVID-19 research based on the atmospheric environment has attracted global attention. COVID-19 and air quality, meteorological factors affecting the spread of COVID-19, air pollution, and human health are the main topics. Environmental variables have a certain impact on the spread of SARS-CoV-2, and the prevalence of COVID-19 has improved the atmospheric environment to some extent. The findings of this study will aid scholars to understand the current situation in this field and provide guidance for future research.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Climate , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Front Psychol ; 13: 902951, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903164

ABSTRACT

The work environment of employees has been greatly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, and many limitations and risks can be seen until now. In addition to employees in firms, the faculty in colleges and universities also suffer from pressure and face challenges. For the purpose of performance assessment and promotion, the faculty not only needs to teach students, but also assumes the time pressure from academic research. This study discusses the process in which the faculty's subjective well-being is affected, in an effort to learn about the job demands of the faculty under the work environment with a high level of time pressure, and the effect of these time-related job demands on their psychological health. In this study, 347 valid questionnaires were collected from universities in coastal areas of the Chinese mainland. The results show that time-related job demands have a positive impact on time pressure; time pressure has a negative impact on subjective well-being; and time-related self-efficacy can significantly mediate the relationship among time-related job demands, time pressure, and subjective well-being. On this basis, this study proposes its theoretical and practical implications.

12.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 212: 114340, 2022 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819434
13.
J Nurs Manag ; 30(5): 1147-1156, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784703

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The aim of this study is to investigate the situation and perceptions of nursing directors about emergency nursing staff deployment in designated hospitals during the pandemic of COVID-19 in mainland China. BACKGROUND: The pandemic of COVID-19 has significantly depleted health care resources, leading to increased burden of nursing care and staffing and exacerbating the crisis in health care facilities. Currently, how to effectively plan and schedule nursing staffing in the pandemic still remains unknown. METHODS: From 14 July 2020 to 8 September 2020, 62 nursing directors of designated hospitals in mainland China were invited to participate in a cross-sectional online survey for their perceptions of nursing human-resource allocation during the pandemic of COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 55 valid questionnaires were collected, showing that 96.36% of the hospitals had emergency nursing organizations and management systems during the pandemic, 96.36% had well-established scheduling principles for nursing human resources and 54.55% of hospitals had human-resource scheduling platforms. All the hospitals had trained emergency nursing staff in infection control (55, 100%), work process (51, 92.73%) and emergency skills (50, 90.91%). Most of the participants were satisfied with the nursing staffing deployments at their institutions (52, 94.55%). However, more than two thirds of them believed that their human-resource deployment plans need further improvements (39, 70.91%). CONCLUSIONS: Most of the designated hospitals investigated had established emergency nursing organizations, and management systems, and related regulations for the epidemic. However, the contents mentioned above still need to be further standardized. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: The surge of patients in the epidemic was considerable challenge for the emergency capacity of hospitals. In the future, we should pay more attention to the following aspects: building emergency nursing staffing platforms, increasing emergency human-resource reserves, establishing reliable communication channels for emergency response teams, improving the rules and regulations of emergency human-resource management, offering more training and drills for emergency-related knowledge and skills and giving more focus on bio-psycho-social wellbeing of nurses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nursing Staff, Hospital , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling
14.
Green Energy & Environment ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1773326

ABSTRACT

Air-borne pollutants in particulate matter (PM) form, produced either physically during industrial processes or certain biological routes, have posed a great threat to human health. Particularly during the current COVID-19 pandemic, effective filtration of the virus is an urgent matter worldwide. In this review, we first introduce some fundamentals about PM, including its source and classification, filtration mechanisms, and evaluation parameters. Advanced filtration materials and their functions are then summarized, among which polymers and MOFs are discussed in detail together with their antibacterial performance. The discussion on the application is divided into end-of-pipe treatment and source control. Finally, we conclude this review with our prospective view on future research in this area.

15.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 629-638, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665837

ABSTRACT

Mounting evidence indicates that SARS-CoV-2 can infect multiple systemic tissues, but few studies have evaluated SARS-CoV-2 RNA dynamics in multiple specimen types due to their reduced accessibility and diminished performance of RT-qPCR with non-respiratory specimens. Here, we employed an ultrasensitive CRISPR-RT-PCR assay to analyze longitudinal mucosal (nasal, buccal, pharyngeal, and rectal), plasma, and breath samples from SARS-CoV-2-infected non-human primates (NHPs) to detect dynamic changes in SARS-CoV-2 RNA level and distribution among these specimens. We observed that CRISPR-RT-PCR results consistently detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in all sample types at most time points post-infection, and that SARS-CoV-2 infection dose and administration route did not markedly affect the CRISPR-RT-PCR signal detected in most specimen types. However, consistent RT-qPCR positive results were restricted to nasal, pharyngeal, and rectal swab samples, and tended to decrease earlier than CRISPR-RT-PCR results, reflecting lower assay sensitivity. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detectable in both pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens from early to late infection by CRISPR-RT-PCR, albeit with different abundance and kinetics, with SARS-CoV-2 RNA increases detected in plasma and rectal samples trailing those detected in upper respiratory tract samples. CRISPR-RT-PCR assays for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in non-respiratory specimens may thus permit direct diagnosis of suspected COVID-19 cases missed by RT-PCR, while tracking SARS-CoV-2 RNA in minimally invasive alternate specimens may better evaluate the progression and resolution of SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans , Primates , RNA, Viral/analysis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests
16.
Mikrochim Acta ; 188(10): 352, 2021 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432545

ABSTRACT

Extracellular ATP as a purinergic signaling molecule, together with ATP receptor, are playing an important role in tumor growth, therapy resistance, and host immunity suppression. Meanwhile ATP is a crucial indicator for cellular energy status and viability, thus a vital variable for tissue regeneration and in vitro tissue engineering. Most recent studies on COVID-19 virus suggest infection caused ATP deficit and release as a major characterization at the early stage of the disease and major causes for disease complications. Thus, imaging ATP molecule in both cellular and extracellular contexts has many applications in biology, engineering, and clinics. A sensitive and selective fluorescence "signal-on" probe for ATP detection was constructed, based on the base recognition between a black hole quencher (BHQ)-labeled aptamer oligonucleotide and a fluorophore (Cy5)-labeled reporter flare. The probe was able to detect ATP in solution with single digit µM detection limit. With the assistance of lipofectamine, this probe efficiently entered and shined in the model cells U2OS within 3 h. Further application of the probe in specific scenery, cardio-tissue engineering, was also tested where the ATP aptamer complex was able to sense cellular ATP status in a semi-quantitative manner, representing a novel approach for selection of functional cardiomyocytes for tissue engineering. At last a slight change in probe configuration in which a flexible intermolecular A14 linker was introduced granted regeneration capability. These data support the application of this probe in multiple circumstances where ATP measurement or imaging is on demand.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate/analysis , Aptamers, Nucleotide , Carbocyanines , Fluorescent Dyes , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Cell Line , Fluorescence , Humans , Myocytes, Cardiac , Rats
17.
N Engl J Med ; 382(18): 1708-1720, 2020 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, when coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China, data have been needed on the clinical characteristics of the affected patients. METHODS: We extracted data regarding 1099 patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 from 552 hospitals in 30 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in mainland China through January 29, 2020. The primary composite end point was admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), the use of mechanical ventilation, or death. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 47 years; 41.9% of the patients were female. The primary composite end point occurred in 67 patients (6.1%), including 5.0% who were admitted to the ICU, 2.3% who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation, and 1.4% who died. Only 1.9% of the patients had a history of direct contact with wildlife. Among nonresidents of Wuhan, 72.3% had contact with residents of Wuhan, including 31.3% who had visited the city. The most common symptoms were fever (43.8% on admission and 88.7% during hospitalization) and cough (67.8%). Diarrhea was uncommon (3.8%). The median incubation period was 4 days (interquartile range, 2 to 7). On admission, ground-glass opacity was the most common radiologic finding on chest computed tomography (CT) (56.4%). No radiographic or CT abnormality was found in 157 of 877 patients (17.9%) with nonsevere disease and in 5 of 173 patients (2.9%) with severe disease. Lymphocytopenia was present in 83.2% of the patients on admission. CONCLUSIONS: During the first 2 months of the current outbreak, Covid-19 spread rapidly throughout China and caused varying degrees of illness. Patients often presented without fever, and many did not have abnormal radiologic findings. (Funded by the National Health Commission of China and others.).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Disease Outbreaks , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Child , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
18.
iScience ; 24(8): 102892, 2021 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397402

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emerging new type of coronavirus that is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic and the unprecedented global health emergency. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of SARS-CoV-2 plays a critical role in understanding the disease. Performance variation exists across SARS-CoV-2 viral WGS technologies, but there is currently no benchmarking study comparing different WGS sequencing protocols. We compared seven different SARS-CoV-2 WGS library protocols using RNA from patient nasopharyngeal swab samples under two storage conditions with low and high viral inputs. We found large differences in mappability and genome coverage, and variations in sensitivity, reproducibility, and precision of single-nucleotide variant calling across different protocols. For certain amplicon-based protocols, an appropriate primer trimming step is critical for accurate single-nucleotide variant calling. We ranked the performance of protocols based on six different metrics. Our findings offer guidance in choosing appropriate WGS protocols to characterize SARS-CoV-2 and its evolution.

19.
Ther Clin Risk Manag ; 17: 841-850, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360685

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Information regarding the epidemiology and clinical features of mild to moderate patients caused by COVID-19 in Fangcang Hospital is scarce. Through a retrospective cohort study, the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients in Dongxihu Fangcang shelter hospitals were analyzed, and the factors that affected the disease progression of COVID-19 patients were explored. METHODS: The clinical characteristics of 714 patients with COVID-19 were retrospectively analyzed at Dongxihu Fangcang Hospital between February 7 and March 8, 2020. We described the clinical characteristics and distribution of discharge or transfer times for each patient. According to the disease progression of COVID-19 patients, we divided all patients into Non-Deteriorated group and Deteriorated group. Furthermore, binary logistic regression was used for a single outcome and multiple response variables. RESULTS: We treated 789 patients with mild and moderate COVID-19, of which 714 were included in this study, which included 326 (45.66%) deteriorated patients and 388 (54.34%) non-deteriorated patients. The mean age of the study population was 48.16±12.44 years. Of all patients, 319 (44.7%) were men and 395 (55.3%) were women. The average length of the patient's stay was 16.08±5.13 days. The most common clinical feature on admission was fever (593 of 714, 83.05%). It is worth noting that 80 (11.20%) of the 714 patients were asymptomatic from exposure to admission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that gender, age, diabetes, respiratory system disease, fever, dyspnea, and nasal congestion were risk factors associated with deterioration in cases with COVID-19 patients, and asymptomatic (OR: 0.058; 95% CI: 0.022-0.155; P<0.001) was the protective factor for deterioration of COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: Accompanied by chronic diseases, old age, fever, nasal congestion, and dyspnea were factors that influenced the aggravation of COVID-19 patients, and more attention and treatment should be given to these patients.

20.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 16(9): 1039-1044, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322483

ABSTRACT

Plasma SARS-CoV-2 RNA may represent a viable diagnostic alternative to respiratory RNA levels, which rapidly decline after infection. Quantitative PCR with reverse transcription (RT-qPCR) reference assays exhibit poor performance with plasma, probably reflecting the dilution and degradation of viral RNA released into the circulation, but these issues could be addressed by analysing viral RNA packaged into extracellular vesicles. Here we describe an assay approach in which extracellular vesicles directly captured from plasma are fused with reagent-loaded liposomes to sensitively amplify and detect a SARS-CoV-2 gene target. This approach accurately identified patients with COVID-19, including challenging cases missed by RT-qPCR. SARS-CoV-2-positive extracellular vesicles were detected at day 1 post-infection, and plateaued from day 6 to the day 28 endpoint in a non-human primate model, while signal durations for 20-60 days were observed in young children. This nanotechnology approach uses a non-infectious sample and extends virus detection windows, offering a tool to support COVID-19 diagnosis in patients without SARS-CoV-2 RNA detectable in the respiratory tract.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Liposomes/therapeutic use , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Kinetics , Liposomes/metabolism , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tetraspanin 28/immunology , Tetraspanin 28/metabolism
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