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Journal of the Formosan Medical Association ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2159259


Background Studies correlating reactogenicity and immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines are limited to BNT162b2, with inconsistent results. We investigated whether adverse reactions after other COVID-19 vaccines reliably predict humoral responses. Methods Adult volunteers were recruited for homologous or heterologous prime-boost vaccinations with adenoviral (ChAdOx1, AstraZeneca) and/or mRNA (mRNA-1273, Moderna) vaccines administered either 4 or 8 weeks apart. Adverse effects were routinely solicited and recorded by subjects in a standard diary card for up to 84 days post booster vaccination. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG titers were measured pre- (visit 1), and post-booster dose at days 14 (visit 2) and 28 (visit 3). Results A total of 399 participants (75% women) with a median age of 41 (interquartile range, 33-48 IQR) years were included. Vaccine-induced antibody titers at days 14 and 28 were significantly higher among subjects who reported local erythema, swelling, pain, as well as systemic fever, chills, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, fatigue compared to those who did not experience local or systemic reactogenicity. Post-vaccination humoral responses did not correlate with the occurrence of skin rash and correlated weakly with gastrointestinal symptoms. A significant correlation between post-vaccination peak body temperature and anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG at Day 14, independent of vaccine type and schedule, was found. Conclusions Specific symptoms of reactogenicity such as post-vaccination injection site pain, swelling, erythema and fever, myalgia and fatigue are significantly predictive of the magnitude of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody response.

Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852986


Binding levels and neutralization activity of anti-type 1 interferon (T1IFN) autoantibodies peaked during acute COVID-19 and markedly decreased thereafter. Most patients maintained some ability to neutralize T1IFN into convalescence despite lower levels of binding IgG. Identifying these autoantibodies in healthy individuals before they develop critical viral disease may be challenging.

Nat Med ; 28(5): 1050-1062, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701612


Pediatric Coronavirus Disease 2019 (pCOVID-19) is rarely severe; however, a minority of children infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) might develop multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), with substantial morbidity. In this longitudinal multi-institutional study, we applied multi-omics (analysis of soluble biomarkers, proteomics, single-cell gene expression and immune repertoire analysis) to profile children with COVID-19 (n = 110) and MIS-C (n = 76), along with pediatric healthy controls (pHCs; n = 76). pCOVID-19 was characterized by robust type I interferon (IFN) responses, whereas prominent type II IFN-dependent and NF-κB-dependent signatures, matrisome activation and increased levels of circulating spike protein were detected in MIS-C, with no correlation with SARS-CoV-2 PCR status around the time of admission. Transient expansion of TRBV11-2 T cell clonotypes in MIS-C was associated with signatures of inflammation and T cell activation. The association of MIS-C with the combination of HLA A*02, B*35 and C*04 alleles suggests genetic susceptibility. MIS-C B cells showed higher mutation load than pCOVID-19 and pHC. These results identify distinct immunopathological signatures in pCOVID-19 and MIS-C that might help better define the pathophysiology of these disorders and guide therapy.

COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/genetics , T-Lymphocytes