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1.
20th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, AIME 2022 ; 13263 LNAI:412-415, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1971535

ABSTRACT

The Data Atlas is the centerpiece of the PERISCOPE project’s data-driven research. The Atlas constitutes a centralized access point for the exploration, visualization and analysis of the original data produced by PERISCOPE partners, integrated with the most relevant information about the COVID-19 pandemic and its effects on health, economics, policy-making, and society at large. The Atlas interfaces and tools make such data readily available to the research community, decision makers and the general public, providing the means to amplify its reach and impact. The present demo, showcases the features of v1.2 release of the Atlas, 18 months from the project kick-off, and some of the planned enhancements to be delivered until project month 24. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

2.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-591-S-592, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967332

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Ozanimod, a sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor S1P1 and S1P5 modulator, is approved in the United States for moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (UC) and in multiple countries for relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS). We describe COVID-19 outcomes in ozanimod-treated UC or MS patients in active phase 3 open-label extension studies. Methods: A database search identified COVID-19 infection reports in ozanimodtreated patients with UC in the True North open-label extension and MS in the DAYBREAK open-label extension. The analysis period was November 1, 2019 to either August 31, 2021 (UC) or May 10, 2021 (MS). The last COVID-19 event from all patients with ³1 event was analyzed. Results: Among 2792 ozanimod-treated patients with UC or MS, 258 developed COVID-19 (confirmed: 215);thus, the incidence in these clinical trial settings was 9.2% during the analysis periods. Most patients with confirmed cases (193/215 [89.8%]) had nonserious infections not requiring hospitalization or meeting other International Conference on Harmonisation criteria for a serious event. Of 611 ozanimod-treated patients with UC, 68 (11.1%) developed COVID-19 (confirmed: 55;Figure 1). A majority of UC patients with confirmed cases (45/55 [81.8%]) had nonserious COVID-19;most (54/55 [98.2%]) recovered (2 with sequalae) and 1 was recovering at data cutoff. One UC patient with confirmed COVID-19 discontinued ozanimod (1.8%), 23 temporarily interrupted it (41.8%), and 31 had no change to treatment (56.4%). No COVID-19-related deaths were reported in UC patients. Of 2181 ozanimod-treated pts with MS, 190 (8.7%) developed COVID-19 (confirmed: 160;Figure 2). Most MS patients with confirmed COVID-19 (148/160 [92.5%]) had nonserious cases;most (158/160 [98.8%]) recovered (5 with sequelae) (Figure 1). No MS patients with confirmed cases discontinued ozanimod, 61 temporarily interrupted it (38.1%), and 99 had no change to treatment (61.9%). Outcomes in 13 additional UC patients (Figure 1) and 30 additional MS patients (Figure 2) with suspected COVID-19 were similar to those with confirmed cases. There were 3 COVID-19-related deaths in the MS program. Conclusion: In the UC and MS open-label extension studies, most patients with confirmed COVID-19 had nonserious infections, recovered, and did not require ozanimod discontinuation. There were 3 deaths in MS patients (case-fatality rate 1.6% in MS, 1.2% overall). (Figure Presented)(Figure Presented)

4.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):67, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1879932

ABSTRACT

Background: A promising approach to tackle the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) could be small interfering (si)RNAs. However, it is unclear so far, which viral replication steps can be efficiently inhibited with siRNAs. Here we report the first-ever in-depth analysis of RNAi-accessible SARS-CoV-2 replication steps. Methods: siRNAs were designed against four genomic regions of SARS-CoV-2. Initial screening of siRNA activity was performed with a dual luciferase reporter assay. Efficacy of siRNAs to terminate various viral replication steps was analyzed by infecting VeroE6 cells with wildtype SARS-CoV-2 or a GFP expressing recombinant SARS-CoV-2 and monitoring viral spread in real-time by time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. Positive and negative sense viral RNA transcripts were distinctly quantified via sense specific cDNA synthesis and reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR. Finally, the antiviral activity of the siRNAs was primarily evaluated in a highly relevant model, SARS-CoV-2 infected human lung explants. Results: When applied in a prophylactic fashion, siRNAs were able to target genomic RNA (gRNA) of SARS-CoV-2 after cell entry, terminating replication before start of transcription, thereby preventing cytopathic effects. Surprisingly, siRNAs were not active against intermediate negative sense transcripts formed during replication. Targeting sequences that are commonly shared by all viral transcripts indeed allowed a simultaneous suppression of gRNA and subgenomic (sg)RNAs by a single siRNA. However, siRNAs that targeted ORF1 which is solely part of gRNA, presented an enhanced antiviral activity. We show that the reason for this was that siRNAs that targeted the common regions of transcripts were outcompeted by the highly abundant sgRNAs. Based on these findings, we developed a chemically stabilized siRNA, which targets a highly conserved region of ORF1, and which inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication by >90% ex vivo in explants of the human lung. Conclusion: Our work strongly encourages the development of siRNA-based therapies for COVID-19 and suggests that early therapy start, or prophylactic application, together with targeting ORF1, might be key for high antiviral efficacy.

5.
Springer Series in Design and Innovation ; 19:339-352, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1877709

ABSTRACT

Background: In the context of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, there is a recognized need to investigate the roles of mobile social media in disseminating up-to-date information. Several attempts have been made to analyze the hot topics which have been circulated across social media platforms and public information needs during the wave of COVID-19. In addition, user engagement behaviors have been the focus of much investigation in the search to strengthen communication efforts as well. There has also been substantial research undertaken on the roles of WeChat in terms of fighting COVID-19 in China. However, no known research has focused on official accounts which deliver posts about Portuguese news to Chinese living in Portugal during the COVID-19 crisis. Methods: By employing content analysis after recruiting 895 posts published by four official accounts, the present study seeks to explore its topic categories, follower information demands and the engagement level. Conclusions: The findings show that the topical categories of local news, updated data and policies and vaccination dominate the total of COVID-19-related posts during the period of observation. These four official accounts address urgent concerns of Chinese residents in Portugal by providing the latest news and reliable information sources. This paper also represents further strategies toward driving follower engagement by increasing media richness, regular posting, interaction and media convergence. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

7.
Expert Systems with Applications ; 203, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1859551

ABSTRACT

Soft set theory is a map of a set of parameters to the subsets of a universe which can be utilized to parametrically model the uncertainty. On the other hand, Graph (hypergraph) theory is used to simplify some practical problems. Inspired by these concepts, the notion of “soft hypergraph” is developed as the generalization of both soft graph and hypergraph for important application in social media networking. Based on the structure of soft hypergraph, various techniques and operations are provided including soft sub-hypergraph, extended union, extended intersection, cartesian product and complement with elucidatory examples. As per the current global spread of COVID, most of the national and international interactions and social affairs have been virtually conducted via social media networks, such as Skype, Microsoft Teams, WhatsApp, Telegram, Zoom, Instagram, WeChat, etc. For the purpose of Intelligent management of network systems, we use the “generalized soft hypergraph” to model the global e-communication networking of individuals in online platforms. © 2022 Elsevier Ltd

8.
Security and Communication Networks ; 2022:10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1799181

ABSTRACT

It is an important research field related to the national economy and the people's livelihood to establish and improve the crisis early warning management of public health emergencies and improve the timeliness and accuracy of prediction and early warning. The outbreak and spread of infectious diseases is a typical complex system composed of etiology, host, and environment. From the perspective of complex network, this paper combines infectious disease dynamics with biostatistics and simulation, analyze the transmission characteristics and process of infectious diseases on complex networks, and simulate the implementation effect of various prevention and control measures. It seeks the optimal strategy for its prevention and control, so as to provide decision-making basis for the study of infectious disease emergencies. And it simulates the evolution process of social contact network driven by people's daily behavior. The results show that the transmission speed of infectious diseases in home networks is significantly lower than that in public networks. Through simulation analysis and effect evaluation, good results have been achieved, which can provide accurate and rapid decision-making for emergency managers. It proves the feasibility of the model. This study provides a new research perspective for infectious disease prevention and control.

9.
AMIA ... Annual Symposium Proceedings/AMIA Symposium ; 2021:285-294, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1749340

ABSTRACT

Since the COVID-19 pandemic began, the United States's case fatality rate (CFR) has plummeted. Using national and Florida data, we unpack the drop in CFR between April and December 2020, accounting for such confounders as expanded testing, age distribution shift, and detection-to-death lags. Guided by the insight that treatment improvements in this period should correspond to decreases in hospitalization fatality rate (HFR), and using a block-bootstrapping procedure to quantify uncertainty, we find that although treatment improvements do not follow the same trajectory in Florida and nationally (with Florida undergoing a comparatively severe second peak), by December, significant improvements are observed both in Florida and nationally (at least 17% and 55% respectively). These estimates paint a more realistic picture of improvements than the drop in aggregate CFR (70.8%-91.1%). We publish a website where users can apply our analyses to selected demographics, regions, and dates of interest.

10.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S16-S17, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746815

ABSTRACT

Background. mRNA vaccines for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) illicit strong humoral and cellular responses and have high efficacy for preventing and reducing the risk of severe illness from COVID-19. Since solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients were excluded from the phase 3 trials, the efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine remains unknown. Understanding the serological responses to COVID vaccines among SOT recipients is essential to better understand vaccine protection for this vulnerable population. Methods. In this prospective cohort study, a subset of SOT recipients who were part of our center's larger antibody study were enrolled prior to receipt of two doses of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer, Inc) vaccine for high resolution immunophenotyping. To date, plasma has been collected for 10 participants on the day of their first dose (baseline), day of their second dose, and 28 days post second dose. 23 healthy participants planning to receive either BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 (ModernaTX, Inc) were also enrolled, providing plasma at the same timepoints. Ultrasensitive single-molecule array (Simoa) assays were used to detect SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S), S1, receptor-binding domain (RBD) and Nucleocapsid (N) IgG antibodies. Results. Participant demographics and SOT recipient characteristics are summarized in Table 1. Low titers of anti-N IgG at all timepoints indicate no natural infection with COVID-19 during the study (Fig 1A). There were significantly lower magnitudes for anti-S (p< 0.0001), anti-S1 (p< 0.0001), and anti-RBD (p< 0.0001) IgG titers on the day of dose 2 and day 28 post second dose for SOT recipients compared to healthy controls (Fig 1B,C,D). Using the internally validated threshold of anti-S IgG >1.07 based on pre-pandemic controls, only 50% of the SOT sub-cohort responded to vaccine after series completion (Fig 2). There was a positive trend between months from transplant and anti-S IgG titer (Fig 3). Black error bars denote median and 95% CI. The dotted line on panel B denotes an internally validated cutoff of 1.07;anti-S IgG titers greater than 1.07 denote a positive response. SOT recipients further out from transplant tend to have a higher anti-S IgG response. The dotted line denotes an internally validated cutoff, with anti-S IgG titers greater than 1.07 indicating a positive response. Conclusion. SOT recipients had a significantly decreased humoral response to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines compared to the healthy cohort, with those further out from transplant more likely to respond. Further research is needed to evaluate T-cell responses and clinical efficacy to maximize the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine response among SOT recipients.

11.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S17-S18, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746814

ABSTRACT

Background. Allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) recipients are at an increased risk of poor outcomes from COVID-19. While the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) and BNT162b2 (Pfizer) COVID-19 mRNA vaccines are highly immunogenic in the general population, the immune response in SCT recipients is poorly understood. We characterized the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines in a cohort of SCT patients. Methods. We performed a prospective cohort study of 16 allogeneic SCT patients and 23 healthy controls. Blood samples for both cohorts were collected prior to first vaccination (baseline), at the time of second vaccination, and approximately 28 days post-second vaccination. Anti-Spike (S), anti-S1, anti-receptor binding domain (RBD), and anti-Nucleocapsid (N) IgG levels were measured quantitatively from plasma using a multiplexed single molecule array (Simoa) immunoassay. Reactogenicity was captured for the SCT cohort via a self-reported post-vaccination diary for 7 days after each dose. Results. Demographics and SCT recipients' characteristics are shown in Table 1. In the SCT cohort, we observed a significantly lower anti-S (p< 0.0001), S1 (p< 0.0001), and RBD (p< 0.0001) IgG responses as compared to healthy controls, both at the time of dose 2 and 28 days post-vaccine series (Fig 1). Overall, 62.5% of SCT recipients were responders after vaccine series completion, as compared to 100% of healthy controls (Fig 2). While no patients had a reported history of COVID-19 diagnosis, 2 patients in the SCT cohort had elevated anti-S IgG levels and 1 showed elevated anti-N at baseline. 10/16 participants in the SCT cohort completed at least one post-vaccination diary. Local and systemic reactions were reported by 67% and 22% of participants, respectively, after dose 1, and 63% and 50% after dose 2 (Figure 3). All reported events were mild. Anti-Spike (A), anti-S1 (B), anti-RBD (C), and anti-nucleocapsid (D) IgG titers were measured at baseline, time of second dose, and approximately 28 days after second vaccination. IgG levels were measured quantitatively using multiplexed single molecule array (Simoa) immunoassays, and are reported as Normalized Average Enzymes per Bead (AEB). Allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients (mauve) showed significantly lower anti-S, S1, and RBD IgG responses as compared to healthy controls (mint). Low titers of anti-N IgG demonstrates no history of COVID-19 natural infection during the course of the study. 10 allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients completed at least one diary for 7 days after vaccination. Reactions after dose 1 are shown in light blue, and reactions after dose 2 are shown in dark blue. Local reactions (A) were reported by 67% (6/9) of participants after dose 1, and 63% (5/8) after dose 2. Systemic reactions (B) were reported by 22% (2/9) of participants after dose 1, and 50% (4/8) after dose 2. All reported events were mild (Grade 1). Conclusion. Among SCT recipients, mRNA COVID-19 vaccines were well-tolerated but less immunogenic than in healthy controls. Further study is warranted to better understand heterogeneous characteristics that may affect the immune response in order to optimize COVID-19 vaccination strategies for SCT recipients. Figure 2: Response Rate to COVID-19 Vaccination An internally validated threshold for responders was established using pre-pandemic sera from healthy adults. A positive antibody response was was defined as individuals with anti-Spike IgG levels above the 1.07 Normalized AEB threshold.

12.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S395-S396, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746412

ABSTRACT

Background. Patients with lymphoid malignancies are at high risk of severe COVID-19 disease and were not included in the phase 3 mRNA vaccine trials. Many patients with lymphoid malignancies receive immunosuppressive therapies, including B-cell depleting agents, that may negatively impact humoral response to vaccination. Methods. We recruited patients with lymphoid malignancies and healthy participants who planned to receive two doses of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273). Blood was drawn at baseline, prior to second dose of vaccine, and 28 days after last vaccination. Disease characteristics and therapies were extracted from patients' electronic medical record. An ultrasensitive, single molecule array (Simoa) assay detected anti-Spike (S), anti-S1, anti-receptor binding domain (RBD), and anti-Nucleocapsid (N) IgG from plasma at each timepoint. Results. 23 healthy participants and 37 patients with lymphoid malignancies were enrolled (Table 1). Low titers of anti-N (Fig 1A) demonstrate no prior exposure or acquisition of COVID-19 before vaccination or during the study. 37.8% of the lymphoid malignancy cohort responded to the vaccine, using an internally validated AEB cutoff of 1.07. A significantly higher magnitude of anti-S (p< 0.0001), anti-S1 (p< 0.0001) and anti-RBD (p< 0.0001) are present in the healthy as compared to lymphoid malignancy cohort at the second dose and day 28 post-series (Fig 1B, Fig 1C and Fig 1D). Anti-S IgG titers were compared between the healthy cohort, treatment naI&Die;ve, and treatment experienced groups (Fig 2). The treatment naI&Die;ve cohort had high titers by series completion which were not significantly different from the healthy cohort (p=0.2259), although the treatment experienced group had significantly decreased titers (p< 0.0001). Of the 20 patients who had received CD20 therapy, there was no clear correlation of anti-S IgG response with time from CD20 therapy, although most patients who received CD20 therapies within 12 months from the vaccine had no response (Figure 3). Conclusion. The vaccine-induced immune response was poor among treatment-experienced patients with lymphoid malignancies, especially among those who received CD20 therapies within 12 months.

13.
Asia Policy ; 17(1):35-44, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1724739
14.
Journal of Crohn's and Colitis ; 16:i452, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1722338

ABSTRACT

Background: Ozanimod, a sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor S1P1 and S1P5 modulator, is approved in the United States for moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (UC) and in multiple countries for relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS). We describe COVID-19 outcomes in ozanimod-treated UC or MS patients (pts) in active phase 3 openlabel extension (OLE) studies. Methods: A database search identified COVID-19 infection reports in ozanimod-treated pts with UC in the True North OLE and MS in the DAYBREAK OLE. The analysis period was November 1, 2019 to either August 31, 2021 (UC) or May 10, 2021 (MS). The last COVID-19 event from all pts with ≥1 event was analyzed. Results: Among 2792 ozanimod-treated pts with UC or MS, 258 developed COVID-19 (confirmed: 215);thus, the incidence in these clinical trial settings was 9.2% during the analysis periods. Most pts with confirmed cases (193/215 [89.8%]) had nonserious infections not requiring hospitalization or meeting other International Conference on Harmonisation criteria for a serious event. Of 611 ozanimod-treated pts with UC, 68 (11.1%) developed COVID-19 (confirmed: 55;Fig 1). A majority of UC pts with confirmed cases (45/55 [81.8%]) had nonserious COVID-19;most (54/55 [98.2%]) recovered (2 with sequalae) and 1 was recovering at data cutoff. One UC pt with confirmed COVID-19 discontinued ozanimod (1.8%), 23 temporarily interrupted it (41.8%), and 31 had no change to treatment (56.4%). No COVID-19-related deaths were reported in UC pts. Of 2181 ozanimod-treated pts with MS, 190 (8.7%) developed COVID-19 (confirmed: 160;Fig 2). Most MS pts with confirmed COVID-19 (148/160 [92.5%]) had nonserious cases;most (158/160 [98.8%]) recovered (5 with sequelae) (Fig 1). No MS pts with confirmed cases discontinued ozanimod, 61 temporarily interrupted it (38.1%), and 99 had no change to treatment (61.9%). Outcomes in 13 additional UC pts (Fig 1) and 30 additional MS pts (Fig 2) with suspected COVID-19 were similar to those with confirmed cases. There were 3 COVID-19-related deaths in the MS program. One pt died from a presumed pulmonary embolism;this pt had received high-dose corticosteroids for MS relapse immediately before COVID-19 symptom onset. Another pt died from suspected COVID-19-related respiratory failure. One tetraplegic, cachectic pt died from a lung abscess following COVID-19 infection. Conclusion: In the UC and MS OLE studies, most pts with confirmed COVID-19 had nonserious infections, recovered, and did not require ozanimod discontinuation. There were 3 deaths in MS patients (casefatality rate 1.6% in MS, 1.2% overall).

15.
16.
2021 International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies for Disaster Management, ICT-DM 2021 ; : 65-71, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1714061

ABSTRACT

In April 2020, with the development of the nationwide epidemic prevention and control work, the epidemic situation of New Coronavirus has entered a stable stage. However, the resumption of production and recovery is crucial to maintain the stable development of economy and society. Imminent. Therefore, how to co-ordinate the epidemic prevention and control and return to work has become another major challenge for governments at all levels. The joint prevention and control mechanism of the State Council issued a document requiring all localities to 'conduct accurate prevention and control in different regions and levels, and coordinate the prevention and control of epidemic situation and the restoration of economic and social order'. In this context, China Unicom gives full play to the unique advantages of multi-source, massive and integrated big data of operators, and helps enterprises to resume work and production from four aspects: real-time insight of regional return to work rate, grid risk index assessment, risk analysis of regional population inflow, and risk analysis of employees' travel mode, so as to provide support for enterprise decision makers and formulate scientific policies and means, gradually realize the full return to work. © 2021 IEEE.

17.
International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1713857

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Consumers prefer to choose restaurants that value hygiene and safety;therefore, appropriate epidemic prevention measures could restore 30% of lost customers and enhance a restaurant’s reputation during infectious disease outbreaks. Providing customers with safe epidemic prevention service quality is an important mission of the restaurant industry during an epidemic. This study aims to construct an epidemic prevention service quality scale for restaurants (REP-SERV scale). Design/methodology/approach: The REP-SERV scale was constructed through internet big data analytics and qualitative and quantitative research procedures. Findings: A total of 16 key service factors for restaurant epidemic prevention were extracted through internet big data analytics. The REP-SERV scale contained 28 items in six dimensions, including hygiene, empathy, flexible service, support service, personnel management and body temperature and seating arrangement. Practical implications: The REP-SERV scale can help many restaurant operators clearly determine the deficiencies and risks of restaurant epidemic prevention services. Originality/value: The findings can provide references to effectively measure and improve the epidemic prevention service quality in restaurants, thereby providing customers with a comfortable and safe dining environment. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

18.
8th IEEE International Conference on Behavioural and Social Computing, BESC 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1685058

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has been becoming a vital challenge for human society. With the outbreaks of the COVID-19 epidemic, the governments of multiple countries announced and enacted various anti-epidemic policies to deal with it. The present research proposed that cultural tightness, which is a basic cultural dimension to evaluate how strictly the social norms are abided by people in a society, could accelerate the effects of the anti-epidemic policies on constraints of the transmission of COVID-19. In specific, the new confirmed cases would be reduced by anti-epidemic policies in the tighter societies much earlier than the looser ones. In this work, we used cross-correlation analysis to investigate and analyze the leading and lagging associations between the stringency of anti-epidemic policies and the number of new confirmed cases among the usual tight and loose countries. The findings revealed that the severity of anti-epidemic policies is negatively correlated with the number of new confirmed cases in general. Moreover, cultural tightness does impact the effectiveness of the anti-epidemic policies on the constraints of COVID-19;that is, the lag weeks of new confirmed cases predicted by the stringency of anti-epidemic policies in the tight countries are significantly shorter than that of the loose countries. The control and prevention of COVID-19 around the world is far from optimistic, meanwhile the findings of the current research highlighted the role of cultural factors in the encounter with the century epidemic of human mankind. © 2021 IEEE

19.
8th IEEE International Conference on Behavioural and Social Computing, BESC 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1685056

ABSTRACT

With the outbreaks of the COVID-19 pandemic, anti-Asian attacks and hate crimes have burgeoned in many areas of the United States. It is obvious that the emerging of anti-Asian attacks was not geographically evenly distributed. To elucidate the underlying causes of hate crimes against American Asians, we utilized the archival and pandemic data to establish the model to predict the variations in anti-Asian attacks across the 50 U.S. states. Several indicators, i.e., real GDP per capita, unpredictable environment, unemployment rates of African-Americans and Latinos, honor culture, and COVID-19 severity, together predicted the statewide differences in anti-Asian attacks of U.S. with the explanatory power of 96.8%. Finally, the implications of findings are discussed. © 2021 IEEE

20.
Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control ; 10(SUPPL 2), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1636582

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In view of the latest covid-19 pandemic condition worldwide, it affects greatly on paramedical colleagues daily practice especially on the suspected or not yet confirmed case transfer or evacuation. Unlike those server deadly infectious diseases case which goanna to have strict isolation devices, and most patients condition are ambulatory or transfer for isolation purposes only. Objectives: To develop a head to abdomen enclosed well covered jacket for transfer purposes in order to reduce the chance of droplets and aerosols spread whilst patient transfer to strict isolation areas. Thus, patient should feel comfortable and acceptable during the process. Methods: Soft plastic core shell on back and with hard transparent front was built;and loosely tight seal on all sides via elastic wrapper. Besides, airs will be sucked through HEPA filter to eliminate any infectious droplets or aerosols leak out to open air and infect those paramedical colleagues who simply escort the case to major Hospitals or strict isolation facility. Results: Laboratory test conducted for its antimicrobial activities against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa (ATCC No. 9027), Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli ATCC No. 8739);Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC No. 6538P);ISO 22196: 2011 Measurement of antibacterial activity on plastics and other non-porous surfaces methodology adopted and result indicated with its compliance of the antimicrobial activities. Trial run successfully with the simulated patient transfer and the safety standards as HEPA filter efficiency minimal standard well-kept in order to maintain the air seal internal environment via HEPA suctioning. In order to maintain the front shape for easy observation and comfort, it remodeled into hard shell. Jacket shell is used environmental friendly materials for disposable, combustible as of non-polyvinylchloride material. Conclusion: Transfer Jacket enhances safety for health care providers as well as transportation vehicles immediate environment plus peoples nearby with an extra protection. Besides comfort of the evacuee can be enhanced and safety ranges and aspects consideration are also being well taken care of.

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