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1.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To well control the pandemic of COVID-19, herd immunity should be achieved. However, people, especially those with better physical conditions (e.g., young adults), may not accept COVID-19 vaccines. Understanding university students' willingness or reluctance to uptake COVID-19 vaccination is important. AIM: This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the DrVac-COVID19S, an instrument that helps assess motivations/drivers of COVID-19 vaccination uptake among university students. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using convenience sampling and cross-sectional design, university students (930 from Taiwan [38.0% males] and 1,244 from Ghana [63.3% males]) completed the DrVac-COVID19S using an online survey (Taiwanese students) or paper-and-pen method (Ghanaian students). Rasch analysis was used to examine the psychometric properties of the DrVac-COVID19S. RESULTS: All 12 items in the DrVac-COVID19S had a satisfactory fit in the Rasch models (infit MnSq=0.74 to 1.49; outfit MnSq=0.72 to 1.42). Moreover, the seven-point Likert scale used in the DrVac-COVID19S demonstrated monotonically increasing in their difficulties, which indicated the ordered category. Additionally, no differential item functioning was displayed in the DrVacCOVID-19S across Taiwanese and Ghanaian students. CONCLUSIONS: The DrVacCOVID-19S has good psychometric features to help healthcare providers assess individuals' (especially university students) motivations or drivers to get the COVID-19 vaccination.

2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534246

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed (1) to identify distinct latent classes of motivation to get vaccinated against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and previous seasonal influenza vaccination among people in Taiwan and (2) to examine the roles of sources of information, risk perception, and cognitive appraisals of vaccination against COVID-19 in these classes. We recruited 1047 participants through a Facebook advertisement. The participants' motivation to get vaccinated against COVID-19, previous seasonal influenza vaccination, sources of information about COVID-19 vaccination, risk perception of COVID-19, and cognitive appraisals of vaccination against COVID-19 were determined. We examined the participants' motivation for COVID-19 vaccination and previous seasonal influenza vaccination through latent profile analysis. Four latent classes of motivation were identified: participants with high motivation for COVID-19 vaccination and high seasonal influenza vaccination, those with high motivation for COVID-19 vaccination but low seasonal influenza vaccination, those with low motivation for COVID-19 vaccination but high seasonal influenza vaccination, and those with low motivation for COVID-19 vaccination and low seasonal influenza vaccination. Compared with participants in the latent class of high motivation for COVID-19 vaccination and high seasonal influenza vaccination, those in the other three latent classes had lower levels of positive appraisals of COVID-19 vaccination; participants in the latent class of low motivation for COVID-19 vaccination and low seasonal influenza vaccination had lower risk perception of COVID-19 and were also less likely to obtain information about COVID-19 vaccination from the internet, friends, and family members. The various motivations and behaviors for vaccination, sources of information, risk perception, and cognitive appraisals of vaccination against COVID-19 should be considered in intervention programs aiming to increase people's motivation to get vaccinated against COVID-19.

3.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(9)2021 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430991

ABSTRACT

Vaccination appears to be one of the effective strategies to control the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the challenge of vaccine hesitancy may lower the uptake rate and affect overall vaccine efficacy. Being a low-risk group in terms of serious consequences of infection, university students may possess low motivation to get vaccinated. Therefore, an expanded Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) incorporating perceived knowledge, adaptive response, and maladaptive response was proposed to investigate the COVID-19 vaccination intention among Taiwanese university students. University students (n = 924; 575 males; mean age = 25.29 years) completed an online survey during January to February 2021. The proposed expanded PMT model was examined using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results showed that perceived knowledge was significantly associated with coping appraisal (standardized coefficient (ß) = 0.820; p < 0.001), and coping appraisal was significantly associated with adaptive response (ß = 0.852; p < 0.001), maladaptive response (ß = 0.300; p < 0.001) and intention (ß = 0.533; p = 0.009). Moreover, maladaptive response (ß = -0.173; p = 0.001) but not adaptive response (ß = 0.148; p = 0.482) was significantly and negatively associated with intention. The present study's results demonstrated a positive path between perceived knowledge, coping appraisal, and intention among university students. Therefore, improving knowledge among this population may increase the intention to uptake the vaccine.

4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(18)2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409601

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has thrown out a challenge to caregivers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present study examined the factors related to the poor general mental health state of the caregivers of children with ADHD during the COVID-19 pandemic, including (1) difficulties of caregivers in asking their child to adopt protective behaviors against COVID-19, (2) difficulties of caregivers in managing the child's daily performance, and (3) worsened psychological symptoms in children. In total, 161 caregivers completed an online questionnaire to provide data regarding their general mental health state and difficulties in asking their child with ADHD to adopt protective behaviors against COVID-19 and in managing the child's after-school learning, sleep routine, and internet use, as well as worsened psychological symptoms. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that caregivers' difficulties in managing ADHD children's self-protective behaviors and after-school learning and the children's worsened emotional symptoms were significantly associated with poor caregiver general mental health state. An intervention that enhances the mental health of caregivers of children with ADHD during the COVID-19 pandemic by addressing their difficulties in managing the children's behaviors and psychological problems is warranted.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , COVID-19 , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Caregivers , Child , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(9)2021 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390811

ABSTRACT

The aims of this study were to examine the proportion of caregivers who were hesitant to vaccinate their children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the factors related to caregiver intentions to vaccinate their children against COVID-19. In total, 161 caregivers of children with ADHD were recruited in this study. The caregivers completed an online questionnaire to provide data regarding their intention to vaccinate their children against COVID-19, concerns about the effectiveness and safety of vaccines, unfavorable family attitudes toward vaccines, and children's medication use for ADHD and comorbid psychopathology. The factors related to caregiver intentions to vaccinate their child were examined using linear regression analysis. The results indicated that 25.5% of caregivers were hesitant to vaccinate their children with ADHD, and 11.8% refused to vaccinate their children against COVID-19. The caregivers' concerns about the safety of vaccines and children's regular use of medication for ADHD were negatively associated with caregiver intentions to vaccinate, whereas the children's comorbid conduct or oppositional defiant problems were positively associated with the caregiver intentions to vaccinate. An intervention that enhances caregiver intentions to vaccinate their children with ADHD against COVID-19 by addressing the related factors found in this study is warranted.

6.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360797

ABSTRACT

Hesperidin (HD) is a common flavanone glycoside isolated from citrus fruits and possesses great potential for cardiovascular protection. Hesperetin (HT) is an aglycone metabolite of HD with high bioavailability. Through the docking simulation, HD and HT have shown their potential to bind to two cellular proteins: transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which are required for the cellular entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Our results further found that HT and HD suppressed the infection of VeroE6 cells using lentiviral-based pseudo-particles with wild types and variants of SARS-CoV-2 with spike (S) proteins, by blocking the interaction between the S protein and cellular receptor ACE2 and reducing ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression. In summary, hesperidin is a potential TMPRSS2 inhibitor for the reduction of the SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Hesperidin/chemistry , Hesperidin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Serine Endopeptidases/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells
7.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 615837, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334941

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the correlation between serum uric acid, prealbumin levels, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and the severity of COVID-19. Methods: The data from 135 patients with COVID-19 was collected, and the patients were divided into a non-severe group (110 cases) and a severe group (25 cases), according to the severity of illness. Sixty cases with normal physical examinations over the same period and 17 cases diagnosed with other viral pneumonia in the past five years were selected as the control group to analyze the correlation between the detection index and the severity of COVID-19. Results: Serum albumin and prealbumin in the severe group were significantly lower than those in the non-severe group (p < 0.01); serum uric acid in the severe group was lower than that in the non-severe group (p < 0.05). LDH and C-reaction protein (CRP) in the severe group were higher than those in non-severe group (p < 0.01); the levels of albumin, prealbumin, serum uric acid, and LDH in the severe group were significantly different from those in healthy control group (p < 0.01) and the levels of prealbumin, serum uric acid, LDH, and CRP in the severe group were significantly different from those in the other viral pneumonia group (p < 0.01). Serum albumin and prealbumin were positively correlated with the oxygenation index (p < 0.001), while LDH was negatively correlated with oxygenation index (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Serum albumin, prealbumin, the oxygenation index, and LDH are risk factors of COVID-19.

8.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(8)2021 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325809

ABSTRACT

The aims of the present study were (1) to identify the variables related to denying the justification for vaccination during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Taiwan and (2) to examine the associations of such denial with perceived risk of COVID-19 and the extrinsic and intrinsic intentions to get vaccinated against COVID-19. We recruited 1047 participants by using a Facebook advertisement. We investigated whether the participants denied justification for vaccination as well as their sociodemographic characteristics, mental health status, sources of information about COVID-19 vaccination, perceived risk of COVID-19, and extrinsic and intrinsic intentions to get vaccinated against COVID-19. The results indicated that 20.0% of the participants denied justification for vaccination. Participants who were older, had an educational level below college, were not health care workers, were in poor general mental health state, or did not obtain information about COVID-19 vaccination from the Internet were more likely to deny justification for vaccination. Denial was negatively associated with both extrinsic and intrinsic intentions to get vaccinated against COVID-19 but not associated with the perceived risk of COVID-19. Multiple variables related to denying the justification for vaccination; the denial was negatively associated with the intention to get vaccinated against COVID-19.

9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(14)2021 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302327

ABSTRACT

The present study compared the levels of explicit and intrinsic intention to receive COVID-19 vaccination among sexual minority and heterosexual individuals and examined the association of explicit and intrinsic intentions with sexual orientation. We enrolled 171 sexual minority and 876 heterosexual individuals through a Facebook advertisement. The participants' explicit and intrinsic intentions to receive COVID-19 vaccination and their risk perception of COVID-19 were measured. We discovered that sexual minority individuals had higher levels of explicit and intrinsic intention to receive vaccination relative to heterosexual individuals. Intrinsic intention was positively associated with explicit intention after the effects of demographic characteristics and risk perception of COVID-19 were controlled for. Sexual orientation did not moderate the association between explicit and intrinsic intentions. The present study determined the relationship between sexual orientation and intention to receive COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sexual and Gender Minorities , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Heterosexuality , Humans , Intention , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior , Taiwan , Vaccination
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(13)2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295826

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to identify the distinct classes of motivations to get vaccinated and to adopt preventive behaviors against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among people in Taiwan and to examine the roles of Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) cognitive constructs in these unique classes of motivations to get vaccinated and to adopt preventive behaviors. We recruited 1047 participants by using a Facebook advertisement. Participants' motivations to get vaccinated and to adopt preventive behaviors against COVID-19, PMT constructs of threat appraisal (perceived severity and perceived vulnerability), and PMT constructs of coping appraisal (self-efficacy, response efficacy, response cost, knowledge, and previous vaccination for seasonal influenza) were determined. We analyzed participants' motivations to get vaccinated and to adopt preventive behaviors against COVID-19 by using latent profile analysis. The present study identified three latent classes, including the participants with high motivation for vaccination and preventive behaviors (the class of Both High), those with low motivation for vaccination and preventive behaviors (the class of Both Low), and those with high motivation for vaccination but low motivation for preventive behaviors (the class of High Vaccination but Low Preventive Behaviors). Compared with the participants in the class of Both High, participants in the class of Both Low had lower levels of perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, self-efficacy to have vaccination, response efficacy of vaccination, knowledge about vaccination, and previous vaccination for seasonal influenza; participants in the class of High Vaccination but Low Preventive Behaviors had lower levels of perceived vulnerability and perceived severity but higher levels of response cost of vaccination. We concluded that varieties of motivations, threat, and coping appraisals should be considered in intervention programs aiming to increase motivation to adopt recommended protective behaviors against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Motivation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taiwan , Vaccination
11.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(10): 3413-3420, 2021 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281831

ABSTRACT

Objective: The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) is one of the most robust models in explaining health-related behavior. In this study, we tested the extended TPB to predict university students' intentions to uptake COVID-19 vaccination.Methods: An online cross-sectional survey was developed to investigate students' intention to uptake the COVID-19 vaccine based on the components of the TPB (i.e., attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control) and extended components (i.e., knowledge about COVID-19, risk perception of COVID-19, and past influenza vaccination behavior). Non-probability sampling was used to collect data from 3145 students from 43 universities in mainland China in January 2021. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to examine the proposed model. Enrolled students were relatively young (mean age = 20.80 years; SD = 2.09), half of them are female (50.2%), and most of them were studying in undergraduate programs (n = 3026; 96.2%).Results: The results showed that students' knowledge of the COVID-19 vaccine and risk perception of COVID-19 positively influenced their attitude toward the uptake of a COVID-19 vaccine. Also, students' attitude toward COVID-19 vaccination uptake and their past influenza vaccination uptake behaviors were positively associated with the intention to uptake COVID-19 vaccination. Subjective norm and perceived behavioral control were not significant predictors for the intention to uptake COVID-19 vaccination (R2 = 0.49).Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that the extended TPB appears to be an efficient model with the focus on attitude, knowledge, risk perception, and past influenza vaccination uptake behaviors in explaining students' intention for COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Intention , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Vaccination , Young Adult
12.
Vaccine ; 39(32): 4510-4515, 2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275754

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 continues to ravage the world with economies and life significantly and negatively affected. Fortunately, there has been significant progress in the production of vaccines to stem the infection. However, with controversies and myths surrounding vaccinations, it is timely to examine individuals' willingness to vaccinate. The present study adapted the Motors of Influenza Vaccination Acceptance Scale (MoVac-Flu Scale) into the Motors of COVID-19 Vaccination Acceptance Scale (MoVac-COVID19S) for validation and assessed the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination utilizing the cognitive model of empowerment (CME). METHODS: A total of 3145 university students (mean age = 20.80 years; SD = 2.09) were recruited for the present study between January 5 and 16, 2021. Two MoVac-COVID19S scales (9-item and 12-item) were adapted from the MoVac-Flu Scale, an instrument developed using CME. Psychometric tests were conducted to ascertain reliability and validity properties. RESULTS: The findings indicated that the MoVac-COVID19S had high internal consistency in both the 9-item version (ω = 0.921) and 12-item version (ω = 0.898). The factor structure of the MoVac-COVID19S (9-item and 12-item versions) corresponded well with CME theory. All the fit indices were satisfactory (comparative fit index = 0.984, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.971, root mean square error of approximation = 0.088, standardized root mean square residual = 0.058) but the 9-item MoVac-COVID had better fit indices than the 12-item MoVac-COVID due to the negative wording effects existing in the 12-item MoVac-COVID19S. The scale had satisfactory known-group validity in both 9-item and 12-item versions. CONCLUSIONS: The MoVac-COVID19S has promising psychometric properties based on internal consistency, factor structure, and known-group validity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Vaccination , Young Adult
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(11)2021 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266725

ABSTRACT

Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are commonly affected by medical illness. The aim of the present study was to explore the risks of contracting respiratory infectious diseases (RIDs), including upper and lower RIDs and influenza, in children with ADHD. We also examined whether methylphenidate has a protective effect regarding the risk of contracting RIDs among children with ADHD who have a history of methylphenidate treatment. Children in the Taiwan Maternal and Child Health Database from 2004 to 2016 were included in the present study. Upper and lower RIDs, influenza, ADHD, age, sex, and records of methylphenidate prescription were identified. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the significance of the risk of RIDs among children with ADHD in comparison with that among children without ADHD after adjustment for sex and age. The self-controlled case series analysis was conducted to examine the protective effect of methylphenidate treatment against RIDs. In total, 85,853 children with ADHD and 1,458,750 children without ADHD were included in the study. After controlling for sociodemographic variables, we observed that children with ADHD had significantly higher risks of upper RIDs, lower RIDs, and influenza infection than did those without ADHD. Among the children with ADHD who had a history of methylphenidate treatment, the risk of contracting RIDs was lower during the methylphenidate treatment period than during the nontreatment period. Children with ADHD had a higher RID risk than those without ADHD. Methylphenidate might reduce the risk of RIDs among children with ADHD who have a history of methylphenidate treatment.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Central Nervous System Stimulants , Communicable Diseases , Methylphenidate , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Stimulants/therapeutic use , Child , Cohort Studies , Humans , Methylphenidate/therapeutic use , Taiwan/epidemiology
14.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(5)2021 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244153

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to compare the differences in motivation to receive a COVID-19 vaccination between frontline physicians and nurses and the Taiwanese public. The associations of threat and coping appraisals, as described in Protection Motivation Theory (PMT), with motivation to receive COVID-19 vaccination were compared between these groups, too. We recruited 279 frontline physicians and nurses and 768 members of the public by a Facebook advertisement. Participants' motivation to receive COVID-19 vaccination, perceived severity of and vulnerability to COVID-19, self-efficacy and response efficacy of COVID-19 vaccination, response cost of COVID-19 vaccination, and knowledge about the mechanism of COVID-19 vaccination in light of PMT were determined. The results demonstrated that frontline health workers had higher motivation to receive COVID-19 vaccination than the public. Response efficacy and knowledge of COVID-19 vaccination were positively associated with motivation to receive COVID-19 vaccination in both frontline health workers and the public, whereas perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, and response cost of COVID-19 vaccination were positively associated with motivation in the public but not in frontline physicians and nurses. The factors related to motivation to receive COVID-19 vaccination should be considered when designing programs to increase motivation to receive COVID-19 vaccination among frontline health workers and the public.

15.
Artif Intell Med ; 117: 102082, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213041

ABSTRACT

During pandemics (e.g., COVID-19) physicians have to focus on diagnosing and treating patients, which often results in that only a limited amount of labeled CT images is available. Although recent semi-supervised learning algorithms may alleviate the problem of annotation scarcity, limited real-world CT images still cause those algorithms producing inaccurate detection results, especially in real-world COVID-19 cases. Existing models often cannot detect the small infected regions in COVID-19 CT images, such a challenge implicitly causes that many patients with minor symptoms are misdiagnosed and develop more severe symptoms, causing a higher mortality. In this paper, we propose a new method to address this challenge. Not only can we detect severe cases, but also detect minor symptoms using real-world COVID-19 CT images in which the source domain only includes limited labeled CT images but the target domain has a lot of unlabeled CT images. Specifically, we adopt Network-in-Network and Instance Normalization to build a new module (we term it NI module) and extract discriminative representations from CT images from both source and target domains. A domain classifier is utilized to implement infected region adaptation from source domain to target domain in an Adversarial Learning manner, and learns domain-invariant region proposal network (RPN) in the Faster R-CNN model. We call our model NIA-Network (Network-in-Network, Instance Normalization and Adversarial Learning), and conduct extensive experiments on two COVID-19 datasets to validate our approach. The experimental results show that our model can effectively detect infected regions with different sizes and achieve the highest diagnostic accuracy compared with existing SOTA methods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung , Machine Learning , Algorithms , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(9)2021 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201922

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of hospital visits and attendance at scheduled appointments have dropped significantly. We used the health belief model (in three dimensions) to examine the determinants of non-attendance of scheduled appointments in outpatient clinics due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants in Taiwan (n = 1954) completed an online survey from 10 April 10 to 23 April 2020, which assessed how people perceived and responded to the outbreak of a fast-spreading infectious disease. We performed both univariate and multivariate logistic regression to examine the roles of cognitive, affective, and behavioral health belief constructs in nonattendance at scheduled appointments. The results indicated that individuals who perceived high confidence in coping with COVID-19 were less likely to miss or cancel their doctor's appointments, whereas individuals who reported high anxiety and practiced more preventive health behaviors, including avoiding crowded places, washing hands more often, and wearing a mask more often, were more likely to miss or cancel their appointments due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Non-heterosexual participants had a lower rate of nonattendance at scheduled appointments compared with heterosexual ones. The study results increase our understanding of the patients' cognitive health beliefs, psychological distress, and health behaviors when assessing adherence to medical appointments during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Health Belief Model , Humans , Outpatient Clinics, Hospital , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan/epidemiology
17.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(8): e14271, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201528

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fangcang Hospitals (cabin hospitals) played a key role in isolation and control of the infection sources during COVID-19 epidemic. Many patients at Fangcang Hospitals had complications or mental stress. As the doctors, nurses and paramedics presented in the emergency, there was a growing demand for clinical pharmacists to provide pharmaceutical care for the affected patients with chronic diseases via telemedicine. OBJECTIVE: This study was a retrospective study to evaluate the usefulness of clinical prevention and control measures of clinical pharmacists at Jianghan Fangcang Hospital. Besides, this study proposed innovative strategies for developing pharmacy services to ensure the medication compliance, accuracy and cure rates under the epidemic. METHODS: A total of 374 patients filled in the questionnaires and 349 patients were enrolled in this study. Patients who refused to receive pharmaceutical care were not included in this study. The pharmaceutical care included medication education via broadcast station, medication reconciliation, optimisation of drug use, monitor of adverse drug events and psychological comfort via WeChat one-to-one service. The data were collected from patients' interviews and the questionnaires of inpatients and discharged patients. RESULTS: In Jianghan Fangcang Hospital, many patients had complications with hypertension (12.9%), hyperlipidaemia (9.2%), thyroid disease (8.9%), diabetes (7.2%), heart disease (3.4%), nephropathy (1.7%), cancer (1.1%) and other diseases (12.6%). After 35 days' pharmacy service, about 200 different questions had been solved by our clinical pharmacists, including drug usage (65.38%), medication reconciliation (55.13%), drug precautions (23.1%), adverse drug reactions (35.9%) and psychological counselling (32.05%). Most patients were satisfied with clinical pharmacist service (66.7% great, 18.0% good). CONCLUSION: The results of the retrospective study indicated that clinical pharmacist can effectively reduce and prevent drug-related, life-related and COVID-19-related problems for COVID-19 patients, which is important for the disease recovery. This study also demonstrated that clinical pharmacist played a key role for patients' healthcare during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmacy Service, Hospital , Hospitals , Humans , Medication Reconciliation , Pandemics , Pharmacists , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(4)2021 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187068

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aims of the present study were to examine the prediction of the threat and coping appraisal utilizing an extended protection motivation theory (PMT) for the motivation to have COVID-19 vaccination and the influence of various information sources on coping appraisal among university students in China. METHODS: The sample comprised 3145 students from 43 universities in China who completed an online survey including PMT constructs as well as constructs added to PMT. The PMT constructs comprised motivation to have COVID-19 vaccination, threat appraisal, and coping appraisal. The extended PMT constructs comprised knowledge about mechanisms and information sources of COVID-19 vaccination. RESULTS: Perceived severity of COVID-19 was positively associated with motivation to have COVID-19 vaccination. Receiving information concerning COVID-19 vaccination from medical personnel was associated with greater self-efficacy, response efficacy, and knowledge, whereas receiving information concerning COVID-19 vaccination from coworkers/colleagues was associated with less response efficacy and knowledge. Receiving online information concerning COVID-19 vaccination was associated with greater response cost of vaccination efficacy and less knowledge. CONCLUSIONS: This study supported the prediction of perceived severity in the PMT for motivation to have COVID-19 vaccination among university students in China. Vaccination information sources have different effects on students' coping appraisal of COVID-19 vaccination.

19.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(3)2021 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154562

ABSTRACT

The impacts of novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) on human life continue to be serious. To control the spread of COVID-19, the production of effective vaccines is likely to be one of the best solutions. However, vaccination hesitancy may decrease individuals' willingness to get vaccinated. The Drivers of COVID-19 Vaccination Acceptance Scale (DrVac-COVID19S) was recently developed to help healthcare professionals and researchers better understand vaccination acceptance. The present study examined whether DrVac-COVID19S is measurement invariant across different subgroups (Taiwanese vs. mainland Chinese university students; males vs. females; and health-related program majors vs. non-health-related program majors). Taiwanese (n = 761; mean age = 25.51 years; standard deviation (SD) = 6.42; 63.5% females) and mainland Chinese university students (n = 3145; mean age = 20.72 years; SD = 2.06; 50.2% females) were recruited using an online survey between 5 January and 21 February 2021. Factor structure and measurement invariance of the two DrVac-COVID19S scales (nine-item and 12-item) were tested using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The findings indicated that the DrVac-COVID19S had a four-factor structure and was measurement invariant across the subgroups. The DrVac-COVID19S's four-factor structure was supported by the CFA results is a practical and valid instrument to quickly capture university students' willingness to get COVID-19 vaccination. Moreover, the DrVac-COVID19S can be used to compare university students' underlying reasons to get COVID-19 vaccination among different subgroups.

20.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 95: 107531, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122564

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Researches revealed that probiotics maybe a potential strategy for COVID-19, whereas there is a lack of related evidence. This study aims to analyze the role of probiotics on severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In the current retrospective single-center study, we collected data of 311 consecutive severe patients with confirmed COVID-19 in Wuhan Union Hospital from Feb 3rd to Feb 20th, 2020. Epidemiological, clinical and medication characteristics were compared and analyzed between patients with or without probiotics. RESULTS: In total, 93 of the 123 patients (75.61%) who were treated with probiotics survived to hospital discharge with the median inpatient day of 32 days and mean virus clearance time of 23 days, which were significantly longer than those of patients without probiotics. There were no bias in laboratory parameters, except for IL-6 and ESR, which were significantly higher in patients treated probiotics. We tracked the dynamic changes of 8 selected laboratory parameters (IL-6, CRP, total T lymphocytes, NK cells, B lymphocyte, CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells and CD4/CD8 ratio) and found that probiotics could not reduce the increased IL-6 levels but possessed the ability to moderate the immunity and decreased the incidence of secondary infection in COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Probiotics could be an effective strategy for the treatment of COVID-19 patients to reduce the secondary infection and moderated the immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Aged , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-CD8 Ratio , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/therapy , Interleukin-6/blood , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Immunologic/blood , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Treatment Outcome
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