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Ann Surg ; 274(2): 234-239, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304022


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes of tracheostomy in patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Tracheostomy has an essential role in managing COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure who require prolonged mechanical ventilation. However, limited data are available on how tracheostomy affects COVID-19 outcomes, and uncertainty surrounding risk of infectious transmission has led to divergent recommendations and practices. METHODS: It is a multicenter, retrospective study; data were collected on all tracheostomies performed in COVID-19 patients at 7 hospitals in 5 tertiary academic medical systems from February 1, 2020 to September 4, 2020. RESULT: Tracheotomy was performed in 118 patients with median time from intubation to tracheostomy of 22 days (Q1-Q3: 18-25). All tracheostomies were performed employing measures to minimize aerosol generation, 78.0% by percutaneous technique, and 95.8% at bedside in negative pressure rooms. Seventy-eight (66.1%) patients were weaned from the ventilator and 18 (15.3%) patients died from causes unrelated to tracheostomy. No major procedural complications occurred. Early tracheostomy (≤14 days) was associated with decreased ventilator days; median ventilator days (Q1-Q3) among patients weaned from the ventilator in the early, middle and late groups were 21 (21-31), 34 (26.5-42), and 37 (32-41) days, respectively with P = 0.030. Compared to surgical tracheostomy, percutaneous technique was associated with faster weaning for patients weaned off the ventilator [median (Q1-Q3): 34 (29-39) vs 39 (34-51) days, P = 0.038]; decreased ventilator-associated pneumonia (58.7% vs 80.8%, P = 0.039); and among patients who were discharged, shorter intensive care unit duration [median (Q1-Q3): 33 (27-42) vs 47 (33-64) days, P = 0.009]; and shorter hospital length of stay [median (Q1-Q3): 46 (33-59) vs 59.5 (48-80) days, P = 0.001]. CONCLUSION: Early, percutaneous tracheostomy was associated with improved outcomes compared to surgical tracheostomy in a multi-institutional series of ventilated patients with COVID-19.

COVID-19/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Tracheostomy/methods , Adult , Aged , Cross Infection/transmission , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tracheotomy/methods , United States
Crit Care Explor ; 3(5): e0393, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243538


OBJECTIVES: To describe a ventilator and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation management strategy for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome complicated by bronchopleural and alveolopleural fistula with air leaks. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Case series from 2019 to 2020. Single tertiary referral center-University of California, San Diego. Four patients with various etiologies of acute respiratory distress syndrome, including influenza, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia, e-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury, and coronavirus disease 2019, complicated by bronchopleural and alveolopleural fistula and chest tubes with air leaks. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Bronchopleural and alveolopleural fistula closure and survival to discharge. All four patients were placed on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation with ventilator settings even lower than Extracorporeal Life Support Organization guideline recommended ultraprotective lung ventilation. The patients bronchopleural and alveolopleural fistulas closed during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and minimal ventilatory support. All four patients survived to discharge. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and bronchopleural and alveolopleural fistula with persistent air leaks, the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to allow for even lower ventilator settings than ultraprotective lung ventilation is safe and feasible to mediate bronchopleural and alveolopleural fistula healing.

Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 17(11): 1343-1351, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922719


Background: In March 2020, many elective medical services were canceled in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The daily case rate is now declining in many states and there is a need for guidance about the resumption of elective clinical services for patients with lung disease or sleep conditions.Methods: Volunteers were solicited from the Association of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Division Directors and American Thoracic Society. Working groups developed plans by discussion and consensus for resuming elective services in pulmonary and sleep-medicine clinics, pulmonary function testing laboratories, bronchoscopy and procedure suites, polysomnography laboratories, and pulmonary rehabilitation facilities.Results: The community new case rate should be consistently low or have a downward trajectory for at least 14 days before resuming elective clinical services. In addition, institutions should have an operational strategy that consists of patient prioritization, screening, diagnostic testing, physical distancing, infection control, and follow-up surveillance. The goals are to protect patients and staff from exposure to the virus, account for limitations in staff, equipment, and space that are essential for the care of patients with COVID-19, and provide access to care for patients with acute and chronic conditions.Conclusions: Transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a dynamic process and, therefore, it is likely that the prevalence of COVID-19 in the community will wax and wane. This will impact an institution's mitigation needs. Operating procedures should be frequently reassessed and modified as needed. The suggestions provided are those of the authors and do not represent official positions of the Association of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Division Directors or the American Thoracic Society.

Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Critical Care , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pulmonary Medicine , Sleep , Advisory Committees , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical , United States