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1.
Small ; : e2200854, 2022 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1858927

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is profoundly influencing the global healthcare system and people's daily lives. The high resource consumption of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is resulting in insufficient surveillance of coinfection or resurgence of other critical respiratory epidemics, which is of public concern. To facilitate evaluation of the current coinfection situation, a microfluidic system (MAPnavi) is developed for the rapid (<40 min) and sensitive diagnosis of multiple respiratory viruses from swab samples in a fully sealed and automated manner, in which a nested-recombinase polymerase amplification and the CRISPR-based amplification system is first proposed to ensure the sensitivity and specificity. This novel system has a remarkably low limit of detection (50-200 copies mL-1 ) and is successfully applied to detect 171 clinical samples (98.5% positive predictive agreement; 100% negative predictive agreement), and the results identify 45.6% coinfection among clinical samples from patients with COVID-19. This approach has the potential to shift diagnostic and surveillance efforts from targeted testing for a high-priority virus to comprehensive testing of multiple virus sets and to greatly benefit the implementation of decentralized testing.

2.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 14(10): 4211-4219, 2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1856446

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading around the world. The COVID-19 vaccines may improve concerns about the pandemic. However, the roles of inactivated vaccines in older patients (aged ≥60 years) with infection of Delta variant were less studied. METHODS: We classified the older patients with infection of Delta variant into three groups based on the vaccination status: no vaccination (group A, n = 113), one dose of vaccination (group B, n = 46), and two doses of vaccination (group C, n = 22). Two inactivated COVID-19 vaccines (BBIBP-CorV or CoronaVac) were evaluated in this study. The demographic data, laboratory parameters, and clinical severity were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 181 older patients with infection of Delta variant were enrolled. 111 (61.3%) patients had one or more co-morbidities. The days of "turn negative" and hospital stay in Group C were lower than those in the other groups (P < 0.05). The incidences of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute kidney injury, and cardiac injury in Group A were higher than those in the other groups (P < 0.05). The MV-free days and ICU-free days during 28 days in Group A were also lower than those in the other groups (P < 0.05). In patients with co-morbidities, vaccinated cases had lower incidences of MODS (P = 0.015), septic shock (P = 0.015), and ARDS (P = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: The inactivated COVID-19 vaccines were effective in improving the clinical severity of older patients with infection of Delta variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Shock, Septic , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Humans , Multiple Organ Failure , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated
3.
Cancer Med ; 2022 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838159

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been a delay in the detection and treatment of lymphedema in breast cancer patients during the lockdown owing to quarantine and limited social activity. Moreover, this scenario has caused psychosocial issues in these patients. Given that there is scarce information on the prevalence and influence of lymphedema during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of lymphedema recurrence and its influencing factors among discharged breast cancer patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This was a multicenter, cross-sectional, hospital-based survey of discharged breast cancer patients was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic in eight first-class hospitals in Wuhan, China. The Norman Questionnaire was used to assess lymphedema. Univariable and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors influencing moderate or severe lymphedema. Differences in living characteristics, anxiety, and depression were compared between the no/mild lymphedema group and the moderate/severe lymphedema groups. Preferences for lymphedema management during the pandemic were determined. RESULTS: Overall, 202 patients were included in this study, and 191 of them reported recurrent lymphedema (prevalence: 94.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 90.5% to 97.3%). Among them, 134 and 57 had mild and moderate/severe lymphedema, respectively. In 191 patients, the main symptoms were swelling (140; 69.3%) and pain (56, 27.7%). Multivariable regression showed that older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.06; 95% CI: 1.02-1.10), radical surgery (OR = 4.35, 95% CI: 1.54-12.50), and fully complete radiotherapy (OR = 2.62, 95% CI: 1.17-5.87, p = 0.019) were associated with an elevated risk of moderate/severe lymphedema. The moderate/severe lymphedema group experienced a higher rate of anxiety and depression than the no/mild lymphedema group did. Patients equally preferred treatment in the hospital and self-care at home. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, high prevalence of lymphedema was observed in patients Age, radical surgery and fully completed radiotherapy were associated with increased risk of severer lymphedema. Meanwhile, the patients with severe lymphedema experienced psychological distress. While the Covid-19 pandemic was still raging, continuous efforts should be made to identify patient at risk of lymphedema and distribute feasible guidance and education for self-management in lymphedema.

4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332764

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the mental health status and sleep quality of university students after local outbreak of COVID-19, and to help them understand the psychological stress reaction and provide base for their mental health education. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on the mental health status of university students in a Wuhan-based university. Results: A total of 897 university students were enrolled in the study. Compared with the epidemic period, university students' mental health status and sleep quality has a great deal of difference in the aspects of gender, grade, discipline and specialty, physical exercise, as well as with their family relationships and so on. 64.26% students would like to talk to their peers or close friends, while only 2.71% would like to call a caring hotline or seek help from a psychologist. Conclusion: After the local outbreak of COVID-19 in Wuhan was contained, the mental health status and sleep quality of more than half of the students improved. However, priority attention and care should be given to female students, senior students, those undertaking literature and history majors and those dissatisfied with family relationships.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315375

ABSTRACT

Background: Rapid and convenient screening for identification of SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals are key to prevent and control this pandemic. Methods The peripheral blood samples were collected from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and asymptomatic carriers to evaluate the test characteristics of the IgM-IgG combined assay for SARS-CoV-2 compared to that of serum samples and enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). Close contacts, healthcare workers and workforces were recruited and screened using this assay. Results The sensitivity of the rapid IgM-IgG combined antibody test for SARS-CoV-2 using peripheral blood (sued as a POCT) was 97.0% and the specificity was 99.2%, which was consistent with the result obtained using serum sample (consistency is about 100%). Furthermore, this POCT assay also can detect IgM and IgG antibodies of SARS-CoV‐2 in asymptomatic carriers, with 19 of the 20 RT-PCR confirmed asymptomatic carriers testing positive. Therefore, this POCT assay was used for population screening of SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis. First, it found 4 positive close contacts among the 10 cases, and there were three IgM positive cases and one IgG positive case among them. It is worth noting that the IgM positive cases also tested positive for the nucleic acid of the SARS-CoV-2. Second, there was one IgM positive assay among the 63 healthcare workers, but RT-PCR of SARS CoV-2 was negative. Third, for workforces screening, there were no positive cases. Conclusions The IgM-IgG combined antibody test of SARS-CoV-2 can be used as a POCT for rapid screening of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324822

ABSTRACT

Background: Optimal fluid management in patients with COVID-19 has not been reported. This retrospective, multicenter study investigated the impact of intravenous infusion volume in the early stage of COVID-19 on clinical outcomes. Methods 127 patients from two tertiary hospitals were separated into the “conservative” and “liberal” groups based on average daily intravenous infusion volume within the first seven days after admission. Basic information, demographic and epidemiological characteristics, laboratory findings, treatments, and outcome measures were retrieved from medical records. The disease progression and prognosis were analyzed and compared. Results The average daily intravenous infusion volume within 7 days was 500 (150–700) ml/day in the conservative-strategy group (n = 87), and 1100 (1000–1288) ml/day in the liberal-strategy group (n = 40) ( p  < 0.001). There were no statistical differences in median age, male-to-female ratio, epidemiology, laboratory findings on admission, comorbidities, and average daily urine output within the seven days ( p  > 0.05). The final K + in the liberal group was slightly higher than that at admission, and the final hematocrit level in the conservative group had a significant difference than that at admission ( p  < 0.05). The mean (± SD) duration of hospitalization was 22.41 ± 11.99 days in the conservative group and 25.28 ± 12.08 days in the liberal group ( p  = 0.120). However, compared to the liberal group, conservative group had statistically lower rates of disease progression (9.3% vs 37.5%, p  < 0.001), mechanical ventilation (2.3% vs 27.5%, p  < 0.001) and in-hospital mortality (2.3% vs 15.0%, p  = 0.012). Conclusions Although there appeared to be no significant difference in the duration of hospitalization between using conservative and liberal fluid management strategies, the former was associated with lower rates of disease progression, mechanical ventilation and in-hospital mortality without increased nonpulmonary-organ dysfunction. These results support the importance of implementing conservative intravenous fluid infusion in the early stage of COVID-19.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324312

ABSTRACT

Background: PM 2.5 (particles matter smaller aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm ) exposure, as one major environmental risk factor for the global burden of disease, is associated with high risks of respiratory diseases and lung cancer. Heme-oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) has been considered as one of the major molecular antioxidant defenses to mediate cytoprotective effects against diverse stressors, including PM 2.5 -induced toxicity and SARS-CoV-2 infection;however, the regulatory mechanism of HMOX1 expression still needs to be elucidated. In this study, using PM 2.5 as a typical stressor, we explored whether microRNAs (miRNAs) might modulate HMOX1 expression in lung cells. Results: : Systematic bioinformatics analysis showed that seven miRNAs have the potential to target HMOX1 gene. Among these, hsa-miR-760 was identified as a response miRNA to PM 2.5 exposure. More importantly, we revealed a “non-conventional” miRNA function in hsa-miR-760 upregulating HMOX1 expression, by targeting the coding region and interacting with YBX1 protein. In addition, we observed that exogenous hsa-miR-760 effectively elevated HMOX1 expression, reduced the reactive oxygen agents (ROS) levels, and then rescued the lung cells from PM 2.5 -induced apoptosis. Conclusion: Our results revealed that hsa-miR-760 might play an important role in protecting lung cells against PM 2.5 -induced toxicity, by elevating HMOX1 expression, and offered new clues to elucidate the diverse function of miRNAs.

8.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e048267, 2022 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604369

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Up to 80% of patients with respiratory tract infections (RTI) attending healthcare facilities in rural areas of China are prescribed antibiotics, many of which are unnecessary. Since 2009, China has implemented several policies to try to reduce inappropriate antibiotic use; however, antibiotic prescribing remains high in rural health facilities. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A cluster randomised controlled trial will be carried out to estimate the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of a complex intervention in reducing antibiotic prescribing at township health centres in Anhui Province, China. 40 Township health centres will be randomised at a 1:1 ratio to the intervention or usual care arms. In the intervention group, practitioners will receive an intervention comprising: (1) training to support appropriate antibiotic prescribing for RTI, (2) a computer-based treatment decision support system, (3) virtual peer support, (4) a leaflet for patients and (5) a letter of commitment to optimise antibiotic use to display in their clinic. The primary outcome is the percentage of antibiotics (intravenous and oral) prescribed for RTI patients. Secondary outcomes include patient symptom severity and duration, recovery status, satisfaction, antibiotic consumption. A full economic evaluation will be conducted within the trial period. Costs and savings for both clinics and patients will be considered and quality of life will be measured by EuroQoL (EQ-5D-5L). A qualitative process evaluation will explore practitioner and patient views and experiences of trial processes, intervention fidelity and acceptability, and barriers and facilitators to implementation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was obtained from the Biomedical Research Ethics Committee of Anhui Medical University (Ref: 20180259); the study has undergone due diligence checks and is registered at the University of Bristol (Ref: 2020-3137). Research findings will be disseminated to stakeholders through conferences and peer-reviewed journals in China, the UK and internationally. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN30652037.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Respiratory Tract Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , China , Humans , Inappropriate Prescribing/prevention & control , Primary Health Care , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy
9.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 741204, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528830

ABSTRACT

Cancer patients are at a high risk of being infected with COVID-19 and have a poor prognosis after infection. Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers. Since vaccination is an effective measure to prevent the spread of COVID-19, we studied the vaccination rate among breast cancer survivors and analyzed their characteristics to provide evidence for boosting the vaccination rate. The researchers conducted a multicenter, cross-sectional study on 747 breast cancer survivors from six hospitals in Wuhan city between June 5, 2021, and June 12, 2021. The self-administrated questionnaires based on relevant studies were distributed. The researchers then compared differences in characteristics among vaccinated patients, hesitant patients, and non-vaccinated patients. Moreover, they performed univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses to identify potential factors associated with vaccination hesitancy. The researchers assessed a total of 744 breast cancer survivors -94 cases in the vaccinated group, 103 in the planning group, 295 in the hesitancy group, and 252 in the refusal group. The vaccination rate was 12.63% (95% CI 10.25-15.02%) and 37.23% (95% CI 27.48-47.82%) patients reported adverse reactions. The vaccination hesitancy/refusal rate was 73.52% (95% CI 70.19-76.66%), which was independently associated with current endocrine or targeted therapy (odds ratio [OR] = 1.52, 95% CI 1.03-2.24), no notification from communities or units (OR = 2.46, 95% CI 1.69-3.59) and self-perceived feel (general vs. good, OR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.01-2.13; bad vs. good, OR = 4.75, 95% CI 1.85-12.16). In the hesitancy/refusal group, the primary reason was "I did not know who to ask whether I can get vaccinated" (46.07%), the person who would most influence decisions of patients was the doctor in charge of treatment (35.83%). Effective interaction between doctors and patients, simple and consistent practical guidelines on vaccination, and timely and positive information from authoritative media could combat misinformation and greatly reduce vaccine hesitancy among breast cancer survivors.

10.
Microsyst Nanoeng ; 7: 94, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528008

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged, rapidly spread and caused significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is an urgent public health need for rapid, sensitive, specific, and on-site diagnostic tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In this study, a fully integrated and portable analyzer was developed to detect SARS-CoV-2 from swab samples based on solid-phase nucleic acid extraction and reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). The swab can be directly inserted into a cassette for multiplexed detection of respiratory pathogens without pre-preparation. The overall detection process, including swab rinsing, magnetic bead-based nucleic acid extraction, and 8-plex real-time RT-LAMP, can be automatically performed in the cassette within 80 min. The functionality of the cassette was validated by detecting the presence of a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus and three other respiratory pathogens, i.e., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The limit of detection (LoD) for the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus was 2.5 copies/µL with both primer sets (N gene and ORF1ab gene), and the three bacterial species were successfully detected with an LoD of 2.5 colony-forming units (CFU)/µL in 800 µL of swab rinse. Thus, the analyzer developed in this study has the potential to rapidly detect SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory pathogens on site in a "raw-sample-in and answer-out" manner.

11.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(8): 621, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224385

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since there are reports of cases of 2019-coronavirus disease (COVID-19) asymptomatic carriers in China recently and fever is one of the main symptoms, we aimed to distinguish COVID-19 cases from other febrile patients with clinical examinations in this study. METHODS: A total of 134 suspected COVID-19 patients in the isolation ward of the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University were recruited from January 23 to May 23, 2020. We analyze the pathogenic form and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Among them, pathogens were identified in only 84 patients (62.7%), including 23 (17.1%) with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), 30 (22.3%) with other viruses, 31 (25.0%) with other pathogens and 3 (3.5%) with mixed infections. The commonly observed symptoms of COVID-19 patients were cough, fever, fatigue, and muscle aches, which were significantly different than the symptoms of nonviral infections (P<0.05) but from those of other viral infections (P>0.05). Furthermore, lactate dehydrogenase and the neutrophil/lymphocyte were found significantly high in COVID-19 patients compared to non-COVID-19 patients (P<0.05). The most common manifestations of COVID-19 patients were ground-glass opacities (100%) with or without lung consolidation, however, they also often showed involvement of several lobes of both lungs (P<0.05). Due to the clear differential diagnosis, the overall antibiotic use rate was 35.8% (31/87). CONCLUSIONS: When diagnosing COVID-19, infections with other pathogens should not be ignored. Successful pathogen identification will support accurate treatment.

12.
Sci China Life Sci ; 64(12): 2129-2143, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1212915

ABSTRACT

Prolonged viral RNA shedding and recurrence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have been reported. However, the clinical outcome and pathogenesis remain unclear. In this study, we recruited 43 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients. We found that prolonged viral RNA shedding or recurrence mainly occurred in severe/critical patients (P<0.05). The average viral shedding time in severe/critical patients was more than 50 days, and up to 100 days in some patients, after symptom onset. However, chest computed tomography gradually improved and complete absorption occurred when SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR was still positive, but specific antibodies appeared. Furthermore, the viral shedding time significantly decreased when the A1,430G or C12,473T mutation occurred (P<0.01 and FDR<0.01) and increased when G227A occurred (P<0.05 and FDR<0.05). High IL1R1, IL1R2, and TNFRSF21 expression in the host positively correlated with viral shedding time (P<0.05 and false discovery rate <0.05). Prolonged viral RNA shedding often occurs but may not increase disease damage. Prolonged viral RNA shedding is associated with viral mutations and host factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , China/epidemiology , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Genome, Viral/genetics , Hospitalization , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Time Factors , Virus Replication , Virus Shedding
13.
JAMA Pediatr ; 175(7): 715-722, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210620

ABSTRACT

Importance: Stay-at-home policies related to the COVID-19 pandemic could disrupt adolescents' substance use and physical activity. Objective: To compare adolescents' substance use and physical activity behaviors before and after stay-at-home restrictions. Design, Setting, and Participants: Ongoing prospective cohort study of tobacco use behaviors among ninth- and tenth-grade students enrolled at 8 public high schools in Northern California from March 2019 to February 2020 and followed up from September 2019 to September 2020. Race/ethnicity was self-classified from investigator-provided categories and collected owing to racial/ethnic differences in tobacco and substance use. Exposures: In California, a COVID-19 statewide stay-at-home order was imposed March 19, 2020. In this study, 521 six-month follow-up responses were completed before the order and 485 were completed after the order. Main Outcomes and Measures: The prevalence of substance use (ie, past 30-day use of e-cigarettes, other tobacco, cannabis, and alcohol) and physical activity (active ≥5 days/week) was compared at baseline and follow-up. A difference-in-difference approach was used to assess whether changes from baseline to 6-month follow-up varied if follow-up occurred after the stay-at-home order, adjusting for baseline behaviors and characteristics. All models were weighted for losses to follow-up using the inverse probability method. Weights were derived from a logistic regression model for having a follow-up response (dependent variable), as predicted by baseline characteristics and behaviors. Results: Of 1423 adolescents enrolled at baseline, 1006 completed 6-month follow-up (623 [62%] were female, and 492 [49%] were non-Hispanic White). e-Cigarette use declined from baseline to 6-month follow-up completed before the stay-at-home order (17.3% [89 of 515] to 11.3% [58 of 515]; McNemar χ2 = 13.54; exact P < .001) and 6-month follow-up completed after the stay-at-home order (19.9% [96 of 482] to 10.8% [52 of 482]; McNemar χ2 = 26.16; exact P < .001), but the extent of decline did not differ statistically between groups responding before vs after the stay-at-home order (difference-in-difference adjusted odds ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.47-1.52; P = .58). In contrast, being physically active was unchanged from baseline if follow-up was before the order (53.7% [279 of 520] to 52.9% [275 of 520]; McNemar χ2 = 0.09; exact P = .82) but declined sharply from baseline if follow-up was after the order (54.0% [261 of 483] to 38.1% [184 of 483]; McNemar χ2 = 30.72; exact P < .001), indicating a pronounced difference in change from baseline after the stay-at-home order (difference-in-difference adjusted odds ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.35-0.69; P < .001). Overall in the cohort, reported use of other tobacco, cannabis, and alcohol did not differ meaningfully before and after the order. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort, a reduction in e-cigarette use occurred independently of COVID-19 stay-at-home restrictions, but persistent cannabis and alcohol use suggest continued need for youth substance use prevention and cessation support. Declining physical activity during the pandemic is a health concern.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Users/psychology , Exercise/psychology , Students/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/psychology , Drug Users/statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Students/statistics & numerical data , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States , Vaping/epidemiology
14.
Cell ; 184(13): 3426-3437.e8, 2021 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193254

ABSTRACT

We identified an emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant by viral whole-genome sequencing of 2,172 nasal/nasopharyngeal swab samples from 44 counties in California, a state in the western United States. Named B.1.427/B.1.429 to denote its two lineages, the variant emerged in May 2020 and increased from 0% to >50% of sequenced cases from September 2020 to January 2021, showing 18.6%-24% increased transmissibility relative to wild-type circulating strains. The variant carries three mutations in the spike protein, including an L452R substitution. We found 2-fold increased B.1.427/B.1.429 viral shedding in vivo and increased L452R pseudovirus infection of cell cultures and lung organoids, albeit decreased relative to pseudoviruses carrying the N501Y mutation common to variants B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1. Antibody neutralization assays revealed 4.0- to 6.7-fold and 2.0-fold decreases in neutralizing titers from convalescent patients and vaccine recipients, respectively. The increased prevalence of a more transmissible variant in California exhibiting decreased antibody neutralization warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Humans , Mutation/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing/methods
15.
Clin Chem ; 67(4): 672-683, 2021 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1165392

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infectious disease outbreaks such as the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic call for rapid response and complete screening of the suspected community population to identify potential carriers of pathogens. Central laboratories rely on time-consuming sample collection methods that are rarely available in resource-limited settings. METHODS: We present a highly automated and fully integrated mobile laboratory for fast deployment in response to infectious disease outbreaks. The mobile laboratory was equipped with a 6-axis robot arm for automated oropharyngeal swab specimen collection; virus in the collected specimen was inactivated rapidly using an infrared heating module. Nucleic acid extraction and nested isothermal amplification were performed by a "sample in, answer out" laboratory-on-a-chip system, and the result was automatically reported by the onboard information platform. Each module was evaluated using pseudovirus or clinical samples. RESULTS: The mobile laboratory was stand-alone and self-sustaining and capable of on-site specimen collection, inactivation, analysis, and reporting. The automated sampling robot arm achieved sampling efficiency comparable to manual collection. The collected samples were inactivated in as short as 12 min with efficiency comparable to a water bath without damage to nucleic acid integrity. The limit of detection of the integrated microfluidic nucleic acid analyzer reached 150 copies/mL within 45 min. Clinical evaluation of the onboard microfluidic nucleic acid analyzer demonstrated good consistency with reverse transcription quantitative PCR with a κ coefficient of 0.979. CONCLUSIONS: The mobile laboratory provides a promising solution for fast deployment of medical diagnostic resources at critical junctions of infectious disease outbreaks and facilitates local containment of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Laboratories , Mobile Health Units , Pathology, Molecular/methods , RNA, Viral/analysis , Adult , Automobiles , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/instrumentation , Female , Humans , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Male , Microfluidic Analytical Techniques/instrumentation , Microfluidic Analytical Techniques/methods , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/chemistry , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/instrumentation , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Pandemics , Pathology, Molecular/instrumentation , Robotics , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry
16.
Sci Adv ; 7(6)2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066793

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), has emerged as the cause of a global pandemic. We used RNA sequencing to analyze 286 nasopharyngeal (NP) swab and 53 whole-blood (WB) samples from 333 patients with COVID-19 and controls. Overall, a muted immune response was observed in COVID-19 relative to other infections (influenza, other seasonal coronaviruses, and bacterial sepsis), with paradoxical down-regulation of several key differentially expressed genes. Hospitalized patients and outpatients exhibited up-regulation of interferon-associated pathways, although heightened and more robust inflammatory responses were observed in hospitalized patients with more clinically severe illness. Two-layer machine learning-based host classifiers consisting of complete (>1000 genes), medium (<100), and small (<20) gene biomarker panels identified COVID-19 disease with 85.1-86.5% accuracy when benchmarked using an independent test set. SARS-CoV-2 infection has a distinct biosignature that differs between NP swabs and WB and can be leveraged for COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Gene Library , Humans , Machine Learning , RNA, Viral/blood , ROC Curve , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Transcriptome
18.
Sci Bull (Beijing) ; 66(9): 884-888, 2021 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1019467

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has become a major global epidemic. Facilitated by HTS2 technology, we evaluated the effects of 578 herbs and all 338 reported anti-COVID-19 TCM formulae on cytokine storm-related signaling pathways, and identified the key targets of the relevant pathways and potential active ingredients in these herbs. This large-scale transcriptional study innovatively combines HTS2 technology with bioinformatics methods and computer-aided drug design. For the first time, it systematically explores the molecular mechanism of TCM in regulating the COVID-19-related cytokine storm, providing an important scientific basis for elucidating the mechanism of action of TCM in treating COVID-19.

19.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 21(12): 955-960, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999889

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which first affected humans in China on December 31, 2019 (Shi et al., 2020). Coronaviruses generally cause mild, self-limiting upper respiratory tract infections in humans, such as the common cold, pneumonia, and gastroenteritis (To et al., 2013; Berry et al., 2015; Chan et al., 2015). According to the Report of the World Health Organization (WHO)-China Joint Mission on COVID-19 (WHO, 2020), the case fatality rate of COVID-19 increases with age, while the rate among males is higher than that among females (4.7% and 2.8%, respectively). Since an effective vaccine and specific anti-viral drugs are still under development, passive immunization using the convalescent plasma (CP) of recovered COVID-19 donors may offer a suitable therapeutic strategy for severely ill patients in the meantime. So far, several studies have shown therapeutic efficacy of CP transfusion in treating COVID-19 cases. A pilot study first reported that transfusion of CP with neutralizing antibody titers above 1:640 was well tolerated and could potentially improve clinical outcomes through neutralizing viremia in severe COVID-19 cases (Chen et al., 2020). Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM are the most abundant and important antibodies in protecting the human body from viral attack (Arabi et al., 2015; Marano et al., 2016). Our study aimed to understand the aspects of plasma antibody titer levels in convalescent patients, as well as assessing the clinical characteristics of normal, severely ill, and critically ill patients, and thus provide a basis for guiding CP therapy. We also hoped to find indicators which could serve as a reference in predicting the progression of the disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , China , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged
20.
EClinicalMedicine ; 26: 100503, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-805325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cancer patients had been profoundly affected by the outbreak of COVID-19 especially after quarantine restrictions in China. We aimed to explore the treatment changes and delays of early breast cancer (EBC) during the first quarter of 2020. METHODS: We did this retrospective, multicentre, cohort study at 97 cancer centres in China. EBC patients who received treatment regardless of preoperative therapy, surgery or postoperative therapy during first quarter of 2020 were included. FINDINGS: 8397 patients were eligible with a median age of 50 (IQR 43-56). 0·2% (15/8397) of EBC patients were confirmed as COVID-19 infection. Only 5·2% of breast cancer diagnosis occurred after quarantine in Hubei compared with 15·3% in other provinces (OR= 0·30, 95%CI 0·24-0·38). postoperative endocrine therapy were least affected compared with different regions after quarantine (OR=0·37 [95%CI 0·19-0·73]). The proportion of surgery decreased from 16·4% in December last year to 2·6% in February in Hubei. Compared with intervals from diagnosis to treatment before quarantine restrictions, the average time increased with significance from 3·5 to 7·7 days in Hubei and 5·7 to 7·7 days in other provinces (p< 0·001). There were also 18·5 and 7·2 days delay in Hubei and other provinces respectively when calculating interval from surgery to postoperative therapy. INTERPRETATION: EBC from high risk regions had a comparative rate of COVID-19 infection. After implementation of COVID-19 quarantine restrictions, fewer diagnosis and surgery with significant delays were seen when compared with treatment before. FUNDING: Beijing Medical Award Foundation (YJ0120).

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