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1.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 781267, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957146

ABSTRACT

Background: The symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) range from moderate to critical conditions, leading to death in some patients, and the early warning indicators of the COVID-19 progression and the occurrence of its serious complications such as myocardial injury are limited. Methods: We carried out a multi-center, prospective cohort study in three hospitals in Wuhan. Genome-wide 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) profiles in plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) was used to identify risk factors for COVID-19 pneumonia and develop a machine learning model using samples from 53 healthy volunteers, 66 patients with moderate COVID-19, 99 patients with severe COVID-19, and 38 patients with critical COVID-19. Results: Our warning model demonstrated that an area under the curve (AUC) for 5hmC warning moderate patients developed into severe status was 0.81 (95% CI 0.77-0.85) and for severe patients developed into critical status was 0.92 (95% CI 0.89-0.96). We further built a warning model on patients with and without myocardial injury with the AUC of 0.89 (95% CI 0.84-0.95). Conclusion: This is the first study showing the utility of 5hmC as an accurate early warning marker for disease progression and myocardial injury in patients with COVID-19. Our results show that phosphodiesterase 4D and ten-eleven translocation 2 may be important markers in the progression of COVID-19 disease.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324961

ABSTRACT

Background: The variations and dynamics of blood essential and toxic metal(loid)s in patients with COVID-19 still remains unclear. Methods: A retrospective study was performed in a cohort of confirmed COVID-19 patients for their whole blood levels of essential and/or toxic metal(loid)s including magnesium, calcium, chromium, manganese, iron, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, thallium and lead according to the disease severity and outcome. Results: Compared to the non-severe COVID-19 patients, Whole blood calcium, chromium and copper were higher in the severe patients, while magnesium, manganese, iron, zinc, arsenic, thallium and lead were lower. These differences were further found to be consistently existed across the clinical course since the disease onset by longitudinal analysis. Moreover, among the severe patients, chromium and cadmium were higher in the deceased group compared to the recovered group, while arsenic were found to be lower. Whole blood iron, arsenic, and age and sex were determined to be independently factors associated with the disease severity, while chromium, cadmium and the co-morbidity of cardiovascular disease were determined to be independently factors associated with the mortality. Conclusions: These results suggest variations of whole blood metal(loid)s as associated factors correlated with the disease severity and mortality for COVID-19.

4.
Engineering (Beijing) ; 7(7): 958-965, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482579

ABSTRACT

The longitudinal immunologic status of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected patients and its association with the clinical outcome are barely known. Thus, we sought to analyze the temporal profiles of specific antibodies, as well as the associations between the antibodies, proinflammatory cytokines, and survival of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A total of 1830 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases were recruited. The temporal profiles of the virus, antibodies, and cytokines of the patients until 12 weeks since illness onset were fitted by the locally weighted scatter plot smoothing method. The mediation effect of cytokines on the associations between antibody responses and survival were explored by mediation analysis. Of the 1830 patients, 1435 were detectable for SARS-CoV-2, while 395 were positive in specific antibodies only. Of the 1435 patients, 2.4% presented seroconversion for neither immunoglobulin G (IgG) nor immunoglobulin M (IgM) during hospitalization. The seropositive rates of IgG and IgM were 29.6% and 48.1%, respectively, in the first week, and plateaued within five weeks. For the patients discharged from the hospital, the IgM decreased slowly, while high levels of IgG were maintained at around 188 AU·mL-1 for the 12 weeks since illness onset. In contrast, in the patients who subsequently died, IgM declined rapidly and IgG dropped to 87 AU·mL-1 at the twelfth week. Elevated interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interleukin-10, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-2R, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels were observed in the deceased patients in comparison with the discharged patients, and 12.5% of the association between IgG level and mortality risk was mediated by these cytokines. Our study deciphers the temporal profiles of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies within the 12 weeks since illness onset and indicates the protective effect of antibody response on survival, which may help to guide prognosis estimation.

6.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 94:107-109, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1409671

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan in December 2019, by March 10, 2020, a total of 80,932 confirmed cases have been reported in China. Two consecutively negative RT-PCR test results in respiratory tract specimens is required for the evaluation of discharge from hospital, and oropharyngeal swabs were the most common sample. However, false negative results occurred in the late stage of hospitalization, and avoiding false negative result is critical essential.

7.
J Nutr ; 151(1): 98-103, 2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135862

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D might have beneficial potential in influencing the natural history of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with COVID-19 incidence and disease severity in Chinese people. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study we retrospectively analyzed 335 COVID-19 patients (median: 56.0; IQR: 43.0-64.0 y) who were admitted to the Wuhan Tongji Hospital between 27 February and 21 March 2020. We also included an age- and sex-matched population of 560 individuals (median: 55; IQR: 49.0-60.0 y) who underwent the physical examination program. Their serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations were measured during the same period from 2018-2019. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured for all COVID-19 patients on admission. Severity of COVID-19 was determined based on the level of respiratory involvement. A general linear model with adjustment for covariates was used to compare 25(OH)D concentrations between the COVID-19 and 2018-2019 control groups. Adjusted ORs with 95% CIs for associations between vitamin D status and COVID-19 severity were estimated via multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: In the general linear model adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities, and BMI, serum 25(OH)D concentrations were significantly lower among COVID-19 patients than the 2018-2019 controls [ln transformed values of 3.32 ± 0.04 vs. 3.46 ± 0.022 ln (nmol/L), P = 0.014]. Multivariable logistic regression showed that male sex (OR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.06, 4.82), advanced age (≥65 y) (OR: 4.93; 95% CI: 1.44, 16.9), and vitamin D deficiency (<30 nmol/L) (OR: 2.72; 95% CI: 1.23, 6.01) were significantly associated with COVID-19 severity (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggested that vitamin D deficiency impacts COVID-19 hospitalization and severity in the Chinese population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications
8.
FASEB J ; 35(3): e21392, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084723

ABSTRACT

The variations and dynamics of essential and toxic metal(loid)s in patients with COVID-19 may associate with the progression and fatal outcome of the disease, which still remains to investigate. In the present study, a retrospective analysis was performed in a cohort of 306 confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to Tongji hospital (Wuhan, China) from February 10 to March 15, 2020. Whole blood levels of essential and/or toxic metal(loid)s were analyzed, including magnesium, calcium, chromium, manganese, iron, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, thallium, and lead according to the disease severity and outcome. Compared to the non-severe COVID-19 patients, severe cases showed significant higher levels of whole blood calcium, chromium, and copper, but lower levels of magnesium, manganese, iron, zinc, arsenic, thallium, and lead. These differences were further found consistently across the clinical course since the disease onset by longitudinal analysis. Among the severe patients, chromium and cadmium were higher in the deceased group compared to the recovered group, while arsenic was lower. Whole blood iron, age, and sex were determined to be independent factors associated with the disease severity, while chromium, cadmium, and the comorbidity of cardiovascular disease were determined to be independent factors associated with the mortality. These results suggest that variations of whole blood metal(loid)s may be associated with the severe illness and fatal outcome of COVID-19, which could be persistently monitored and would be helpful in the evaluation of the dynamic changes in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Metalloids/blood , Metals/blood , Aged , COVID-19/pathology , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 42(1): 260-267, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065548

ABSTRACT

RESEARCH QUESTION: Does SARS-CoV-2 infection have an effect on ovarian reserve, sex hormones and menstruation of women of child-bearing age? DESIGN: This is a retrospective, cross-sectional study in which clinical and laboratory data from 237 women of child-bearing age diagnosed with COVID-19 were retrospectively reviewed. Menstrual data from 177 patients were analysed. Blood samples from the early follicular phase were tested for sex hormones and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH). RESULTS: Among 237 patients with confirmed COVID-19, severely ill patients had more comorbidities than mildly ill patients (34% versus 8%), particularly for patients with diabetes, hepatic disease and malignant tumours. Of 177 patients with menstrual records, 45 (25%) patients presented with menstrual volume changes, and 50 (28%) patients had menstrual cycle changes, mainly a decreased volume (20%) and a prolonged cycle (19%). The average sex hormone and AMH concentrations of women of child-bearing age with COVID-19 were not different from those of age-matched controls. CONCLUSIONS: Average sex hormone concentrations and ovarian reserve did not change significantly in COVID-19 women of child-bearing age. Nearly one-fifth of patients exhibited a menstrual volume decrease or cycle prolongation. The menstruation changes of these patients might be the consequence of transient sex hormone changes caused by suppression of ovarian function that quickly resume after recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/blood , Menstruation/physiology , Reproduction/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/analysis , Humans , Menstrual Cycle/physiology , Middle Aged , Ovarian Reserve/physiology , Ovary/physiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
10.
Environ Res ; 194: 110670, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002512

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The dynamics of urinary trace elements in patients with COVID-19 still remains to be investigated. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on a cohort of 138 confirmed COVID-19 patients for their urinary levels of essential and/or toxic metals including chromium, manganese, copper, arsenic, selenium, cadmium, mercury, thallium and lead according to the different disease severity (severe or non-severe) and outcome (recovered or deceased). RESULTS: Urinary concentrations of chromium, manganese, copper, selenium, cadmium, mercury and lead after creatinine adjustment were found to be higher in severe patients than the non-severe cases with COVID-19. And among the severe cases, these elements were also higher in the deceased group than the recovered group. When the weeks of the post-symptom onset were taken in account, the changes of these urinary elements were existed across the clinical course since the disease onset. These urinary elements were found to be mostly positively inter-correlated, and further positively correlated with other laboratory inflammatory parameters including serum cytokines (IL-1B, IL2R, IL6, IL8, IL10, TNFα), ferritin, and neutrophil count and white blood cell count. As a independently predictive factor, urinary creatinine-adjusted copper of ≥25.57 µg/g and ≥99.32 µg/g were associated with significantly increased risk of severe illness and fatal outcome in COVID-19, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest abnormities in urinary levels of the trace metals were tightly associated with the severe illness and fatal outcome of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Selenium , Trace Elements , Cadmium , Copper , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Curr Med Sci ; 40(5): 817-821, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893328

ABSTRACT

In the period of regular epidemic prevention and control of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in our country, work resumption has been fully advanced. But there are still new sporadic local cases and imported cases across the country. In this situation, whether kindergartens reopening will increase the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread still remains uncertain. We reviewed two pediatric patients with moderate COVID-19, collected the epidemiologic information and monitored the cycle threshold value of rectal specimen and the viral loads, and discussed the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in pediatric patients and the virulence of feces in children with moderate COVID-19, in order to analyze the risk of kindergartens reopening.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Feces/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Humans , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Parents , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Viral Load , Virus Shedding
12.
FEBS J ; 288(17): 5190-5200, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-887379

ABSTRACT

Up to 10-20% of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) develop a severe pulmonary disease due to immune dysfunction and cytokine dysregulation. However, the extracellular proteomic characteristics in respiratory tract of these critical COVID-19 patients still remain to be investigated. In the present study, we performed a quantitative proteomic analysis of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from patients with critical COVID-19 and from non-COVID-19 controls. Our study identified 358 differentially expressed BALF proteins (P < 0.05), among which 41 were significantly changed after using the Benjamini-Hochberg correction (q < 0.05). The up-regulated signaling was found to be mainly involved in inflammatory signaling and response to oxidative stress. A series of increased extracellular factors including Tenascin-C (TNC), Mucin-1 (KL-6 or MUC1), Lipocalin-2 (LCN2), periostin (POSTN), Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1 or YKL40), and S100A12, and the antigens including lymphocyte antigen 6D/E48 antigen (LY6D), CD9 antigen, CD177 antigen, and prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) were identified, among which the proinflammatory factors TNC and KL-6 were further validated in serum of another thirty-nine COVID-19 patients and healthy controls, showing high potentials of being biomarkers or therapeutic candidates for COVID-19. This BALF proteome associated with COVID-19 would also be a valuable resource for researches on anti-inflammatory medication and understanding the molecular mechanisms of host response. DATABASE: Proteomic raw data are available in ProteomeXchange (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org) under the accession number PXD022085, and in iProX (www.iprox.org) under the accession number IPX0002429000.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/genetics , Proteome/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
13.
JCI Insight ; 5(10)2020 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-687860

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDThe severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a novel viral pneumonia (COVID-19), which is rapidly spreading throughout the world. The positive result of nucleic acid test is a golden criterion to confirm SARS-CoV-2 infection, but the detection features remain unclear.METHODSWe performed a retrospective analysis in 5630 high-risk individuals receiving SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid tests in Wuhan, China, and investigated their characteristics and diagnosis rates.RESULTSThe overall diagnosis rate was 34.7% (1952/5630). Male (P = 0.025) and older populations (P = 2.525 × 10-39) were at significantly higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. People were generally susceptible, and most cases concentrated in people of 30-79 years. Furthermore, we investigated the association between diagnosis rate and the amount of testing in 501 subjects. Results revealed a 1.27-fold improvement (from 27.9% to 35.5%) of diagnosis rate from testing once to twice (P = 5.847 × 10-9) and a 1.43-fold improvement (from 27.9% to 39.9%) from testing once to 3 times (P = 7.797 × 10-14). More than 3 testing administrations was not helpful for further improvement. However, this improvement was not observed in subjects with pneumonia (P = 0.097).CONCLUSIONAll populations are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and male and older-aged populations are at significantly higher risk. Increasing the amount of testing could significantly improve diagnosis rates, except for subjects with pneumonia. It is recommended to test twice in those high-risk individuals whose results are negative the first time, and performing 3 tests is better, if possible.FUNDINGThis work was supported by National Mega Project on Major Infectious Disease Prevention (no. 2017ZX10103005-007) and National Key Research and Development Program of China (no. 2018YFE0204500).


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors , Young Adult
14.
Int J Infect Dis ; 94: 107-109, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72510

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan in December 2019, by March 10, 2020, a total of 80,932 confirmed cases have been reported in China. Two consecutively negative RT-PCR test results in respiratory tract specimens is required for the evaluation of discharge from hospital, and oropharyngeal swabs were the most common sample. However, false negative results occurred in the late stage of hospitalization, and avoiding false negative result is critical essential. METHODS: We reviewed the medical record of 353 patients who received tests with both specimens simultaneously, and compared the performance between nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs. RESULTS: Of the 353 patients (outpatients, 192; inpatients, 161) studied, the median age was 54 years, and 177 (50.1%) were women. Higher positive rate (positive tests/total tests) was observed in nasopharyngeal swabs than oropharyngeal swabs, especially in inpatients. Nasopharyngeal swabs from inpatients showed higher positive rate than outpatients. Nasopharyngeal swabs from male showed higher positive rate than female, especially in outpatients. Detection with both specimens slightly increased the positive rate than nasopharyngeal swab only. Moreover, the consistency between from nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were poor (Kappa=0.308). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our study suggests that nasopharyngeal swabs may be more suitable than oropharyngeal swab at this stage of COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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