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1.
Clinical Infectious Diseases ; 05:05, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017872

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are many pharmacologic therapies that are being used or considered for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with rapidly changing efficacy and safety evidence from trials. OBJECTIVE: Develop evidence-based, rapid, living guidelines intended to support patients, clinicians, and other healthcare professionals in their decisions about treatment and management of patients with COVID-19. METHODS: In March 2020, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) formed a multidisciplinary guideline panel of infectious disease clinicians, pharmacists, and methodologists with varied areas of expertise to regularly review the evidence and make recommendations about the treatment and management of persons with COVID-19. The process used a living guideline approach and followed a rapid recommendation development checklist. The panel prioritized questions and outcomes. A systematic review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature was conducted at regular intervals. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to assess the certainty of evidence and make recommendations. RESULTS: Based on the most recent search conducted on May 31, 2022, the IDSA guideline panel has made 30 recommendations for the treatment and management of the following groups/populations: pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis, ambulatory with mild-to-moderate disease, hospitalized with mild-to-moderate, severe but not critical, and critical disease. As these are living guidelines, the most recent recommendations can be found online at: https://idsociety.org/COVID19guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: At the inception of its work, the panel has expressed the overarching goal that patients be recruited into ongoing trials. Since then, many trials were done which provided much needed evidence for COVID-19 therapies. There still remain many unanswered questions as the pandemic evolved which we hope future trials can answer.

2.
J Hosp Infect ; 123: 52-60, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are rampant in hospitals and residential care homes for the elderly (RCHEs). AIM: To analyse the prevalence of MRSA colonization among residents and staff, and degree of environmental contamination and air dispersal of MRSA in RCHEs. METHODS: Epidemiological and genetic analysis by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in 12 RCHEs in Hong Kong. FINDINGS: During the COVID-19 pandemic (from September to October 2021), 48.7% (380/781) of RCHE residents were found to harbour MRSA at any body site, and 8.5% (8/213) of staff were nasal MRSA carriers. Among 239 environmental samples, MRSA was found in 39.0% (16/41) of randomly selected resident rooms and 31.3% (62/198) of common areas. The common areas accessible by residents had significantly higher MRSA contamination rates than those that were not accessible by residents (37.2%, 46/121 vs. 22.1%, 17/177, P=0.028). Of 124 air samples, nine (7.3%) were MRSA-positive from four RCHEs. Air dispersal of MRSA was significantly associated with operating indoor fans in RCHEs (100%, 4/4 vs. 0%, 0/8, P=0.002). WGS of MRSA isolates collected from residents, staff and environmental and air samples showed that ST 1047 (CC1) lineage 1 constituted 43.1% (66/153) of all MRSA isolates. A distinctive predominant genetic lineage of MRSA in each RCHE was observed, suggestive of intra-RCHE transmission rather than clonal acquisition from the catchment hospital. CONCLUSION: MRSA control in RCHEs is no less important than in hospitals. Air dispersal of MRSA may be an important mechanism of dissemination in RCHEs with operating indoor fans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcal Infections , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carrier State/epidemiology , Humans , Methicillin , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Pandemics , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology
3.
J Hosp Infect ; 116: 78-86, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404776

ABSTRACT

AIM: To describe the nosocomial transmission of Air, multidrug-resistant, Acinetobacter baumannii, nosocomial, COVID-19 Acinetobacter baumannii (MRAB) in an open-cubicle neurology ward with low ceiling height, where MRAB isolates collected from air, commonly shared items, non-reachable high-level surfaces and patients were analysed epidemiologically and genetically by whole-genome sequencing. This is the first study to understand the genetic relatedness of air, environmental and clinical isolates of MRAB in the outbreak setting. FINDINGS: Of 11 highly care-dependent patients with 363 MRAB colonization days during COVID-19 pandemic, 10 (90.9%) and nine (81.8%) had cutaneous and gastrointestinal colonization, respectively. Of 160 environmental and air samples, 31 (19.4%) were MRAB-positive. The proportion of MRAB-contaminated commonly shared items was significantly lower in cohort than in non-cohort patient care (0/10, 0% vs 12/18, 66.7%; P<0.001). Air dispersal of MRAB was consistently detected during but not before diaper change in the cohort cubicle by 25-min air sampling (4/4,100% vs 0/4, 0%; P=0.029). The settle plate method revealed MRAB in two samples during diaper change. The proportion of MRAB-contaminated exhaust air grills was significantly higher when the cohort cubicle was occupied by six MRAB patients than when fewer than six patients were cared for in the cubicle (5/9, 55.6% vs 0/18, 0%; P=0.002). The proportion of MRAB-contaminated non-reachable high-level surfaces was also significantly higher when there were three or more MRAB patients in the cohort cubicle (8/31, 25.8% vs 0/24, 0%; P=0.016). Whole-genome sequencing revealed clonality of air, environment, and patients' isolates, suggestive of air dispersal of MRAB. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the view that patient cohorting in enclosed cubicles with partitions and a closed door is preferred if single rooms are not available.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections , Acinetobacter baumannii , COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Hong Kong Med J ; 27(2): 99-105, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168171

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Hospital Authority of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region established a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) temporary test centre at the AsiaWorld-Expo from March 2020 to April 2020, which allowed high-risk individuals to undergo early assessment of potential severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. This study reviewed the characteristics and outcomes of individuals who attended the centre for COVID-19 testing. METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study collected epidemiological and clinical data. The primary outcome was a positive or negative SARS-CoV-2 test result, according to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses of pooled nasopharyngeal and throat swabs collected at the centre. The relationships of clinical characteristics with SARS-CoV-2 positive test results were assessed by multivariable binary logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 1258 attendees included in the analysis, 86 individuals tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection (positivity rate=6.84%; 95% confidence interval [CI]=5.57%-8.37%). Of these 86 individuals, 40 (46.5%) were aged 15 to 24 years and 81 (94.2%) had a history of recent travel. Symptoms were reported by 86.0% and 96.3% of individuals with positive and negative test results, respectively. The clinical characteristics most strongly associated with a positive test result were anosmia (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj]=8.30; 95% CI=1.12-127.09) and fever ORadj=1.32; 95% CI=1.02-3.28). CONCLUSION: The temporary test centre successfully helped identify individuals with COVID-19 who exhibited mild disease symptoms. Healthcare providers should carefully consider the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 to arrange early testing to reduce community spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Quick Diagnosis Units , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Quick Diagnosis Units/methods , Quick Diagnosis Units/organization & administration , Quick Diagnosis Units/statistics & numerical data , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Travel-Related Illness
7.
J Hosp Infect ; 106(2): 226-231, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635357

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In late 2019, a novel human coronavirus - severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) - emerged in Wuhan, China. This virus has caused a global pandemic involving more than 200 countries. SARS-CoV-2 is highly adapted to humans and readily transmits from person-to-person. AIM: To investigate the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 under various environmental and pH conditions. The efficacies of various laboratory virus inactivation methods and home disinfectants against SARS-CoV-2 were investigated. METHODS: The residual virus in dried form or in solution was titrated on to Vero E6 cells on days 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 after incubation at different temperatures. Viral viability was determined after treatment with various disinfectants and pH solutions at room temperature (20-25oC). FINDINGS: SARS-CoV-2 was able to retain viability for 3-5 days in dried form or 7 days in solution at room temperature. SARS-CoV-2 could be detected under a wide range of pH conditions from pH 4 to pH 11 for several days, and for 1-2 days in stool at room temperature but lost 5 logs of infectivity. A variety of commonly used disinfectants and laboratory inactivation procedures were found to reduce viral viability effectively. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the stability of SARS-CoV-2 on environmental surfaces, and raises the possibility of faecal-oral transmission. Commonly used fixatives, nucleic acid extraction methods and heat inactivation were found to reduce viral infectivity significantly, which could ensure hospital and laboratory safety during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/growth & development , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Microbial Viability , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Virulence , Virus Inactivation , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology
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