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1.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 853389, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818003

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fped.2021.762684.].

2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD010168, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813437

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This is the second update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2015 and last updated in 2018. Appendectomy, the surgical removal of the appendix, is performed primarily for acute appendicitis. Patients who undergo appendectomy for complicated appendicitis, defined as gangrenous or perforated appendicitis, are more likely to suffer postoperative complications. The routine use of abdominal drainage to reduce postoperative complications after appendectomy for complicated appendicitis is controversial. OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety and efficacy of abdominal drainage to prevent intraperitoneal abscess after appendectomy (irrespective of open or laparoscopic) for complicated appendicitis; to compare the effects of different types of surgical drains; and to evaluate the optimal time for drain removal. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Web of Science, the World Health Organization International Trials Registry Platform, ClinicalTrials.gov, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and three trials registers on 24 February 2020, together with reference checking, citation searching, and contact with study authors to identify additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared abdominal drainage versus no drainage in people undergoing emergency open or laparoscopic appendectomy for complicated appendicitis. We also included RCTs that compared different types of drains and different schedules for drain removal in people undergoing appendectomy for complicated appendicitis. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Two review authors independently identified the trials for inclusion, collected the data, and assessed the risk of bias. We used the GRADE approach to assess evidence certainty. We included intraperitoneal abscess as the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were wound infection, morbidity, mortality, hospital stay, hospital costs, pain, and quality of life. MAIN RESULTS: Use of drain versus no drain We included six RCTs (521 participants) comparing abdominal drainage and no drainage in participants undergoing emergency open appendectomy for complicated appendicitis. The studies were conducted in North America, Asia, and Africa. The majority of participants had perforated appendicitis with local or general peritonitis. All participants received antibiotic regimens after open appendectomy. None of the trials was assessed as at low risk of bias. The evidence is very uncertain regarding the effects of abdominal drainage versus no drainage on intraperitoneal abscess at 30 days (risk ratio (RR) 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47 to 3.21; 5 RCTs; 453 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or wound infection at 30 days (RR 2.01, 95% CI 0.88 to 4.56; 5 RCTs; 478 participants; very low-certainty evidence). There were seven deaths in the drainage group (N = 183) compared to one in the no-drainage group (N = 180), equating to an increase in the risk of 30-day mortality from 0.6% to 2.7% (Peto odds ratio 4.88, 95% CI 1.18 to 20.09; 4 RCTs; 363 participants; low-certainty evidence). Abdominal drainage may increase 30-day overall complication rate (morbidity; RR 6.67, 95% CI 2.13 to 20.87; 1 RCT; 90 participants; low-certainty evidence) and hospital stay by 2.17 days (95% CI 1.76 to 2.58; 3 RCTs; 298 participants; low-certainty evidence) compared to no drainage. The outcomes hospital costs, pain, and quality of life were not reported in any of the included studies. There were no RCTs comparing the use of drain versus no drain in participants undergoing emergency laparoscopic appendectomy for complicated appendicitis. Open drain versus closed drain There were no RCTs comparing open drain versus closed drain for complicated appendicitis. Early versus late drain removal There were no RCTs comparing early versus late drain removal for complicated appendicitis. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The certainty of the currently available evidence is low to very low. The effect of abdominal drainage on the prevention of intraperitoneal abscess or wound infection after open appendectomy is uncertain for patients with complicated appendicitis. The increased rates for overall complication rate and hospital stay for the drainage group compared to the no-drainage group are based on low-certainty evidence. Consequently, there is no evidence for any clinical improvement with the use of abdominal drainage in patients undergoing open appendectomy for complicated appendicitis. The increased risk of mortality with drainage comes from eight deaths observed in just under 400 recruited participants. Larger studies are needed to more reliably determine the effects of drainage on morbidity and mortality outcomes.


Subject(s)
Abscess/prevention & control , Appendectomy/adverse effects , Appendicitis/surgery , Drainage/methods , Peritonitis/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Humans
3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325198

ABSTRACT

Background: As we know, some patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may stay longer in the hospital, but whether the different hospitalization days are associated with different clinical features is not clear yet. Methods: : This study is a single-centered, observational and retrospective case series.97 patients with COVID-19 were divided into two groups:patients with hospitalization for more than 20 days (Group1,n=35)and those with hospitalization for less than 20 days (Group2,n=62).Data were collected Results Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome(ARDS) and Hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP)were more common in Group1 than in Group2 . There were more patients administered quadruple antiviral therapy in Group1 than in Group2 . In group1, 14.3% patients’ specimens showed positive again after they were discharged from the hospital.Compared with Group2,Group1 had higher percentages of oxygenation index<300mmHg leucopenia and lymphopenia. In Group1, 19 patients were treated with chloroquine phosphate,whose nucleic acid tests were negative soon,but 5 patents who hadn’t used the medicine had positive testing again . Conclusions: : COVID-19 patients with longer hospitalization are more severe and need more quadruple antiviral therapy ;For patients who don't use chloroquine phosphate, the nucleic acid tests are more likely to return to positive again even if they have no symptoms at that time .

4.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 762684, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581249

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous studies on the pneumonia outbreak caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have focused on the general population and pregnant women, while little is known about the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on retardation during and after pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential influence of SARS-CoV-2 on infant neurobehavioral development. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Wuhan Maternal and Child Health Hospital, China. Nine pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection and 9 controls matched by maternal age, parity, and status of chronic disease were included. Infantile neurobehavioral development was assessed through the Ages and Stages Questionnaires Edition 3 (ASQ-3). Results: The majority of pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 experienced cesarean section (7 of 9), which was higher than the control group (5 of 9). The throat swabs of all newborn were negative. We found that compared with the control group, neonates of mothers with SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy had lower scores in communication, gross movement, fine movement, problem solving, and personal-social domains; but only fine movement domain yielded statistical significance (P = 0.031). Conclusion: Infection with SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy may have a certain impact on infant neurobehavioral development. Further studies with larger sample size are warranted for validation.

5.
Cerebrovascular Diseases. Extra ; 10(3):159-165, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1396098

ABSTRACT

Objective: Our study aims to evaluate the impact of a stay-at-home order on stroke metrics during the 2019-novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods: Data on baseline characteristics, stroke subtype, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, the time between last known well (LKW) to emergency department (ED) arrival, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration, the involvement of large vessel occlusion (LVO), and whether mechanical thrombectomy (MT) was pursued in patients with acute stroke were extracted from 24 March to 23 April 2020 (the time period of a stay-at-home order was placed due to the COVID-19 pandemic as the study group) at a tertiary care hospital in West Michigan, USA, compared with data from 24 March to 23 April 2019 (control group). Results: Our study demonstrated a reduction in cases of acute ischemic stroke (AIS), although this did not reach statistical significance. However, there was an increase in hemorrhagic stroke (7.5% controls vs. 19.2% study group). The age of stroke patients was significantly younger during the period of the stay-at-home order compared to the control group. We identified a significant overall delay of ED arrivals from LKW in the study group. Additionally, an increased number of AIS patients with LVO in the study group (34.8%) was found compared to the control group (17.5%). A significantly increased number of patients received MT in the study group. Additionally, 11 patients were COVID-19 PCR-positive in the study group, 10 with AIS and only 1 with hemorrhagic stroke. Patients with COVID-19 had a high incidence of atrial fibrillation and hyperlipidemia. One AIS patient with COVID-19 rapidly developed cytotoxic edema with corresponding elevated inflammatory biomarkers. No statistical significance was noted when stroke subtype, LVO, and MT groups were compared. Conclusions: There was a trend of decreasing AIS admissions during the COVID-19 pandemic. There was also a significantly increased number of AIS patients with LVO who received MT, especially those with COVID-19. We conclude that cytokine storm resulting from SARS-CoV-2 infection might play a role in AIS patients with COVID-19.

6.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 327, 2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295450

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and relevant prevention and control measures may affect the mental health and induce depressive symptoms in fathers with concurrent partner delivery exposure. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of depression in fathers with simultaneous exposure to COVID-19 pandemic and the effects of family functions on paternal perinatal depression (PPD) risk. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the perinatal fathers recruited in a large tertiary hospital in Wuhan across the whole pandemic period from 31 December 2019 to 11 April 2020. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and APGAR family function scale were used to evaluate PPD and family function, respectively. Chi-square test and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression model were applied for data analysis. RESULTS: Among the 1187 participants, the prevalence of PPD was 13.82% throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. Compared with that in the time period before the announcement of human-to-human transmission on 19 January 2020, the depression risk was significantly lower during the traffic restriction (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.86) and public transportation reopening periods (OR = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.14, 0.59). Poor/fair family functions was associated with elevated depression risk (OR = 2.93, 95% CI: 1.90, 4.52). Individuals reporting a low family income and smoking had high depression risks. CONCLUSIONS: A declined risk of PPD was observed over the traffic restriction period of the COVID-19 pandemic. An improved family function may help alleviate the risk of PPD during the pandemic. Health authorities are recommended to formulate targeted prevention and control strategies to handle PPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Fathers , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Prevalence , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Disease Surveillance ; 35(11):982-986, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1197567

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe the temporal risk characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Gansu province.

8.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 551812, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006207

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aims to investigate perinatal depression in women who gave birth during the COVID-19 pandemic in Wuhan, and to evaluate the effect of the pandemic on perinatal depression prevalence. Methods: A cross-sectional investigation was conducted into women hospitalized for delivery in Hubei Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital from December 31, 2019 to March 22, 2020, a period which encompasses the entire time frame of the COVID-19 pandemic in Wuhan. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was adopted to evaluate perinatal depression status. A Chi-square test and logistic regression model were utilized for data analysis. Results: A total of 2,883 participants were included, 33.71% of whom were found to suffer from depressive symptoms. In detail, 27.02%, 5.24%, and 1.46% were designated as having mild, moderate, and severe depressive symptoms, respectively. The perinatal depression prevalence increased as the COVID-19 pandemic worsened. Compared to the period from December 31, 2019 to January 12, 2020, perinatal depression risk significantly decreased within the 3 weeks of March 2-22, 2020 (1st week: OR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.20, 0.78; 2nd week: OR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.17, 0.73; and 3rd week: OR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.25, 0.94); and the postnatal depression risk significantly rose within the four weeks of January 27-February 23, 2020 (1st week: OR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.18, 2.68; 2nd week: OR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.35, 3.04; 3rd week: OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.14; and 4th week: OR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.20, 2.48). Conclusion: The dynamic change of perinatal depression was associated with the progression of the COVID-19 pandemic among new mothers who were exposed to the pandemic. An elevated risk of postnatal depression was also observed during the COVID-19 pandemic.

9.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 574143, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-993438

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by a novel strain of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) posed a major threat to public health. Anesthesiologists and operating room (OR) nurses are at high risk of occupational exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and developing COVID-19. We conducted a single-center survey to investigate the psychological status and perceived social support among operation room (OR) medical staffs during the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: A total of 197 OR medical staffs were enrolled in the survey. The authors performed a cohort study during the period of Wuhan lockdown and then conducted a longitudinal follow-up after lifting of lockdown. The Patient Health Questionaire-9 (PHQ-9) was used to assess for depression and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) for anxiety. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) was used to assess perceived social support. We compared the psychological status of OR medical staffs before and after lifting of Wuhan lockdown. Results: During the period of city lockdown, 177 (89.8%) had close contact with confirmed COVID-19 cases. The prevalence of depression and anxiety in OR medical staffs was 41.6 and 43.1% under Wuhan lockdown, while 13.2 and 15.7% after lifting of lockdown (P = 0.002, P = 0.004). Logistic regression analysis showed that being female, living in suburb areas, shortage of protective equipment and close contact with COVID-19 patients were associated with a higher risk of depression and anxiety. Perceived social support was negatively correlated with depression and anxiety severity in the OR medical staffs (P < 0.05). Conclusions: OR medical staffs exhibited high incidence of anxiety and depression faced with the high risk of exposure to COVID-19 patients. More social support and social recognition for anesthesiologists and OR nurses might potentially help them relieve their psychological pressure.

10.
Cells ; 9(10)2020 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962878

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses are able to establish persistence. However, how coronaviruses react to persistence and whether the selected viruses have altered their characteristics remain unclear. In this study, we found that the persistent infection of bovine coronavirus (BCoV), which is in the same genus as SARS-COV-2, led to alterations of genome structure, attenuation of gene expression, and the synthesis of subgenomic mRNA (sgmRNA) with a previously unidentified pattern. Subsequent analyses revealed that the altered genome structures were associated with the attenuation of gene expression. In addition, the genome structure at the 5' terminus and the cellular environment during the persistence were responsible for the sgmRNA synthesis, solving the previously unanswered question regarding the selection of transcription regulatory sequence for synthesis of BCoV sgmRNA 12.7. Although the BCoV variants (BCoV-p95) selected under the persistence replicated efficiently in cells without persistent infection, its pathogenicity was still lower than that of wild-type (wt) BCoV. Furthermore, in comparison with wt BCoV, the variant BCoV-p95 was not able to efficiently adapt to the challenges of alternative environments, suggesting wt BCoV is genetically robust. We anticipate that the findings derived from this fundamental research can contribute to the disease control and treatments against coronavirus infection including SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Regulatory Sequences, Ribonucleic Acid/genetics , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Cattle , Cell Line , Computational Biology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcription, Genetic/genetics
11.
Cerebrovasc Dis Extra ; 10(3): 159-165, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917828

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to evaluate the impact of a stay-at-home order on stroke metrics during the 2019-novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: Data on baseline characteristics, stroke subtype, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, the time between last known well (LKW) to emergency department (ED) arrival, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration, the involvement of large vessel occlusion (LVO), and whether mechanical thrombectomy (MT) was pursued in patients with acute stroke were extracted from 24 March to 23 April 2020 (the time period of a stay-at-home order was placed due to the COVID-19 pandemic as the study group) at a tertiary care hospital in West Michigan, USA, compared with data from 24 March to 23 April 2019 (control group). RESULTS: Our study demonstrated a reduction in cases of acute ischemic stroke (AIS), although this did not reach statistical significance. However, there was an increase in hemorrhagic stroke (7.5% controls vs. 19.2% study group). The age of stroke patients was significantly younger during the period of the stay-at-home order compared to the control group. We identified a significant overall delay of ED arrivals from LKW in the study group. Additionally, an increased number of AIS patients with LVO in the study group (34.8%) was found compared to the control group (17.5%). A significantly increased number of patients received MT in the study group. Additionally, 11 patients were COVID-19 PCR-positive in the study group, 10 with AIS and only 1 with hemorrhagic stroke. Patients with COVID-19 had a high incidence of atrial fibrillation and hyperlipidemia. One AIS patient with COVID-19 rapidly developed cytotoxic edema with corresponding elevated inflammatory biomarkers. No statistical significance was noted when stroke subtype, LVO, and MT groups were compared. CONCLUSIONS: There was a trend of decreasing AIS admissions during the COVID-19 pandemic. There was also a significantly increased number of AIS patients with LVO who received MT, especially those with COVID-19. We conclude that cytokine storm resulting from SARS-CoV-2 infection might play a role in AIS patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Communicable Disease Control , Patient Admission/trends , Stroke , Thrombectomy , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cerebrovascular Disorders/complications , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Stroke/classification , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy/methods , Thrombectomy/statistics & numerical data , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
12.
Biomedicines ; 8(10)2020 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-908342

ABSTRACT

With the global threat of SARS-CoV-2, much effort has been focused on treatment and disease control. However, how coronaviruses react to the treatments and whether the surviving viruses have altered their characteristics are also unanswered questions with medical importance. To this end, bovine coronavirus (BCoV), which is in the same genus as SARS-CoV-2, was used as a test model and the findings were as follows. With the treatment of antiviral remdesivir, the selected BCoV variant with an altered genome structure developed resistance, but its pathogenicity was not increased in comparison to that of wild type (wt) BCoV. Under the selection pressure of innate immunity, the genome structure was also altered; however, neither resistance developed nor pathogenicity increased for the selected BCoV variant. Furthermore, both selected BCoV variants showed a better efficiency in adapting to alternative host cells than wt BCoV. In addition, the previously unidentified feature that the spike protein was a common target for mutations under different antiviral treatments might pose a problem for vaccine development because spike protein is a common target for antibody and vaccine designs. The findings derived from this fundamental research may contribute to the disease control and treatments against coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2.

13.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 560899, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895292

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a current global public health emergency. However, current research on the blood test results of pregnant women with COVID-19 is insufficient. Methods: A case-control study was carried out based on clinical blood test results. Pregnant COVID-19 patients, pregnant COVID-19 patients with diabetes, and pregnant COVID-19 patients with hypertension, were assessed in this study. Also, 120 controls were matched by age, parity, fetus number, and presence of chronic disease. T-tests, Chi-square tests, Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare data from the blood tests and liver function indices among the selected groups. Results: Between January 24 and March 14, 2020, 60 pregnant COVID-19 patients delivered at the Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Hubei Province. The average maternal age of pregnant COVID-19 patients was 30.97 years and the mean gestational period was 37.87 weeks. 71.67% (43/60) of pregnant COVID-19 patients gave birth by cesarean delivery. In total, 21.67% (13/60) were diagnosed with diabetes and 18.33% (11/60) were diagnosed with hypertension during pregnancy. Compared to controls, pregnant COVID-19 patients showed significantly lower numbers of blood lymphocytes and higher numbers of neutrophils, as well as higher levels of C-reactive protein and total bilirubin. Among the three groups, pregnant COVID-19 patients with diabetes had significantly higher levels of neutrophils and lower levels of total protein. Aspartate transaminase levels were higher in pregnant COVID-19 patients with hypertension than in pregnant COVID-19 patients with no comorbidities and controls with hypertension. Interpretations: Blood and liver function indices indicate that chronic complications, including hypertension and diabetes, could increase the risk of inflammation and liver injury in pregnant COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Adult , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Betacoronavirus , Bilirubin/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Female , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Liver/physiology , Liver Function Tests , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocytes/cytology , Neutrophils/cytology , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Cells ; 9(10):2322, 2020.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-875343

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses are able to establish persistence. However, how coronaviruses react to persistence and whether the selected viruses have altered their characteristics remain unclear. In this study, we found that the persistent infection of bovine coronavirus (BCoV), which is in the same genus as SARS-COV-2, led to alterations of genome structure, attenuation of gene expression, and the synthesis of subgenomic mRNA (sgmRNA) with a previously unidentified pattern. Subsequent analyses revealed that the altered genome structures were associated with the attenuation of gene expression. In addition, the genome structure at the 5′terminus and the cellular environment during the persistence were responsible for the sgmRNA synthesis, solving the previously unanswered question regarding the selection of transcription regulatory sequence for synthesis of BCoV sgmRNA 12.7. Although the BCoV variants (BCoV-p95) selected under the persistence replicated efficiently in cells without persistent infection, its pathogenicity was still lower than that of wild-type (wt) BCoV. Furthermore, in comparison with wt BCoV, the variant BCoV-p95 was not able to efficiently adapt to the challenges of alternative environments, suggesting wt BCoV is genetically robust. We anticipate that the findings derived from this fundamental research can contribute to the disease control and treatments against coronavirus infection including SARS-CoV-2.

15.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1930

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has become a major public health problem around the world. There are limited data on maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnant women wi

16.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-987

ABSTRACT

Objective: The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first reported in Wuhan and has since spread all over the world. This study aims to investigate perinata

17.
Biomedicines ; 8(10):376, 2020.
Article | MDPI | ID: covidwho-792686

ABSTRACT

With the global threat of SARS-CoV-2, much effort has been focused on treatment and disease control. However, how coronaviruses react to the treatments and whether the surviving viruses have altered their characteristics are also unanswered questions with medical importance. To this end, bovine coronavirus (BCoV), which is in the same genus as SARS-CoV-2, was used as a test model and the findings were as follows. With the treatment of antiviral remdesivir, the selected BCoV variant with an altered genome structure developed resistance, but its pathogenicity was not increased in comparison to that of wild type (wt) BCoV. Under the selection pressure of innate immunity, the genome structure was also altered;however, neither resistance developed nor pathogenicity increased for the selected BCoV variant. Furthermore, both selected BCoV variants showed a better efficiency in adapting to alternative host cells than wt BCoV. In addition, the previously unidentified feature that the spike protein was a common target for mutations under different antiviral treatments might pose a problem for vaccine development because spike protein is a common target for antibody and vaccine designs. The findings derived from this fundamental research may contribute to the disease control and treatments against coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2.

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