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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2020 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-711139

ABSTRACT

With the current global outbreak of novel coronaviruses, the fabrication of decomposable wet wipe with sufficient wet strength to meet daily use is promising but still challenging, especially when renewable cellulose was employed. In this work, a decomposable cellulose-based wet wipe substrate is demonstrated by introducing a synthetic N-vinyl pyrrolidone-glycidyl methacrylate (NVP-GMA) adhesive on the cellulose surface. Experimental results reveal that the NVP-GMA adhesive not only significantly facilitates the chemical bonding between cellulose fibers in the wet state, but also increase the surface wettability and water retention. The as-fabricated cellulose-based wet wipe substrate displays a superb water retention capacity of 1.9 times, an excellent water absorption capacity (completely wetted with 0° water contact angle), and a perfect wet tensile index of 3.32 N.m.g-1. It is far better than state-of-the-art wet toilet wipe on the market (non-woven). The prepared renewable and degradable cellulose-based substrate with excellent mechanical strength has potential application prospects in diverse commercially available products such as sanitary and medical wet wipes.

2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(15)2020 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680176

ABSTRACT

This article focuses on the unique needs and concerns of nursing educators and nursing students in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. During social distancing, interacting with other human beings has been restricted. This would undermine the experiential learning of nursing students. Hence, it is important to develop and evaluate an experiential learning program (ELP) for nursing education. A pre-test and post-test design were used. The study was conducted in a university in Central Taiwan. A total of 103 nursing students participated in the study from February to June 2019. The study intervention was the experiential learning program (ELP), including bodily experiences and nursing activities with babies, pregnant women, and the elderly. After the intervention, the students completed the self-reflection and insight scale (SRIS) and Taiwan Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (TCTDI) as outcome measures. An independent t-test showed that there was a significant difference between pre-test and post-test in both SRIS and TCTDI (p < 0.01). The Pearson product-moment correlation analysis showed that SRIS and TCTDI were significantly positively correlated (p < 0.01). ELP has a significant impact on the self-reflection and critical thinking of first-year nursing students, which can be used as a reference for the education of nursing students. During these turbulent times, it is especially vital for faculties to provide experiential learning instead of the traditional teaching concept.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/nursing , Education, Nursing/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/nursing , Problem-Based Learning , Thinking , Aged , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , Program Evaluation , Students, Nursing , Taiwan
3.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 2020 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-548385

ABSTRACT

Laboratory-based diagnostic measures including virological and serological tests are essential for detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions (rRT-PCR) can detect SARS-COV-2 by targeting open reading frame-1 antibodies (ORF1ab), envelope protein, nucleocapsid protein, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes, and the N1, N2, and N3 (3N) target genes. Therefore, rRT-PCR remains the primary method of diagnosing SARS-CoV-2 despite being limited by false-negative results, long turnaround, complex protocols, and a need for skilled personnel. Serological diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is simple and does not require complex techniques and equipment, rendering it suitable for rapid detection and massive screening. However, serological tests cannot confirm SARS-CoV-2, and results will be false-negative when antibody concentrations fall below detection limits. Balancing the increased use of laboratory tests, risk of testing errors, need for tests, burden on healthcare systems, benefits of early diagnosis, and risk of unnecessary exposure is a significant and persistent challenge in diagnosing COVID-19.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 739: 140000, 2020 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-548125

ABSTRACT

Wuhan was the first city to adopt the lockdown measures to prevent COVID-19 spreading, which improved the air quality accordingly. This study investigated the variations in chemical compositions, source contributions, and regional transport of fine particles (PM2.5) during January 23-February 22 of 2020, compared with the same period in 2019. The average mass concentration of PM2.5 decreased from 72.9 µg m-3 (2019) to 45.9 µg m-3 (2020), by 27.0 µg m-3. It was predominantly contributed by the emission reduction (92.0%), retrieved from a random forest tree approach. The main chemical species of PM2.5 all decreased with the reductions ranging from 0.85 µg m-3 (chloride) to 9.86 µg m-3 (nitrate) (p < 0.01). Positive matrix factorization model indicated that the mass contributions of seven PM2.5 sources all decreased. However, their contribution percentages varied from -11.0% (industrial processes) to 8.70% (secondary inorganic aerosol). Source contributions of PM2.5 transported from potential geographical regions showed reductions with mean values ranging from 0.22 to 4.36 µg m-3. However, increased contributions of firework burning, secondary inorganic aerosol, road dust, and vehicle emissions from transboundary transport were observed. This study highlighted the complex and nonlinear response of chemical compositions and sources of PM2.5 to air pollution control measures, suggesting the importance of regional-joint control.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/analysis , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , Cities , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(10): 2249-2256, 2020 May.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-398787

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to investigate the multi-constituent, multi-target mechanism of Xuanfei Baidu Tang(XFBD) in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19), through exploring the main ingredients and effective targets of XFBD, as well as analyzing the correlation between XFBD targets and COVID-19. The compounds of each herb in XFBD were collected from TCM-PTD, ETCM, TCMSP and SymMap database. Next, the information of meridian tropisms was collected from Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2015 edition), and the target information of the major constituents of XFBD were obtained from TCM-PTD, ETCM, TCMSP and TargetNet database. Subsequently, the target network model and the major modules were generated by Cytoscape, and the functional enrichment analysis of XFBD targets were completed by DAVID and STRING. As a result, ten of the 13 herbs in XFBD belonged to the lung meridian, and 326 of the 1 224 putative XFBD targets were associated with the disease target of COVID-19, among which 109 targets were enriched in the disease pathways of viral infection and lung injury. The main biological pathways regulated by the key XFBD targets included viral infection, energy metabolism, immunity and inflammation, parasites and bacterial infections. In conclusion, the therapeutic mechanism of XFBD in COVID-19 showed a multi-herb, multi-constituent, multi-target pattern, with lung as the chief targeted organ. By regulating a series of biological pathways closely related to the occurrence and development of diseases, XFBD plays a role in balancing immunity, eliminating inflammation, regulating hepatic and biliary metabolism and recovering energy metabolism balance.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy
6.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 53(4): 505-512, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-343540

ABSTRACT

Co-infection has been reported in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome, but there is limited knowledge on co-infection among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The prevalence of co-infection was variable among COVID-19 patients in different studies, however, it could be up to 50% among non-survivors. Co-pathogens included bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumonia, Legionella pneumophila and Acinetobacter baumannii; Candida species and Aspergillus flavus; and viruses such as influenza, coronavirus, rhinovirus/enterovirus, parainfluenza, metapneumovirus, influenza B virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. Influenza A was one of the most common co-infective viruses, which may have caused initial false-negative results of real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Laboratory and imaging findings alone cannot help distinguish co-infection from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Newly developed syndromic multiplex panels that incorporate SARS-CoV-2 may facilitate the early detection of co-infection among COVID-19 patients. By contrast, clinicians cannot rule out SARS-CoV-2 infection by ruling in other respiratory pathogens through old syndromic multiplex panels at this stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, clinicians must have a high index of suspicion for coinfection among COVID-19 patients. Clinicians can neither rule out other co-infections caused by respiratory pathogens by diagnosing SARS-CoV-2 infection nor rule out COVID-19 by detection of non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory pathogens. After recognizing the possible pathogens causing co-infection among COVID-19 patients, appropriate antimicrobial agents can be recommended.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic
8.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 55(6): 106001, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-133395

ABSTRACT

In addition to the absolute case number, a rapid increase in the number of COVID-19 cases within a short time results in insufficiency of healthcare systems and further negatively affects patient outcomes. This study was conducted to investigate the association between the outcomes of COVID-19 patients and daily cumulative index (DCI), which was defined as the average daily number of new cases of COVID-19 and calculated by cumulative cases/number of days between the first reported case and March 6, 2020, by country. Spearman's rank correlation analyses were conducted to evaluate the relationship between mortality, incidence, and DCI. In this study, DCI was positively correlated with incidence (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00-1.02, P < 0.01). Higher correlation was observed between mortality and DCI (mortality rate: r = 0.397, P = 0.018; mortality per 1 000 000 people: r = 0.0.428, P = 0.004) than between disease incidence and DCI. DCI remained statistically significantly associated with mortality per 1 000 000 people after adjustment of Health Care Index (aRR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.01-1.03, P < 0.001) or Healthcare Access and Quality Index (aRR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.01-1.04, P < 0.01. Reducing DCI through strict infection control measures can help slow the number of new COVID-19 cases and further improve outcomes in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Treatment Outcome
9.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 55(4): 105946, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-30949

ABSTRACT

It has been 2 months since the first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported in Wuhan, China. So far, COVID-19 has affected 85 403 patients in 57 countries/territories and has caused 2924 deaths in 9 countries. However, epidemiological data differ between countries. Although China had higher morbidity and mortality than other sites, the number of new daily cases in China has been lower than outside of China since 26 February 2020. The incidence ranged from 61.44 per 1 000 000 people in the Republic of Korea to 0.0002 per 1 000 000 people in India. The daily cumulative index (DCI) of COVID-19 (cumulative cases/no. of days between the first reported case and 29 February 2020) was greatest in China (1320.85), followed by the Republic of Korea (78.78), Iran (43.11) and Italy (30.62). However, the DCIs in other countries/territories were <10 per day. Several effective measures including restricting travel from China, controlling the distribution of masks, extensive investigation of COVID-19 spread, and once-daily press conferences by the government to inform and educate people were aggressively conducted in Taiwan. This is probably the reason why there was only 39 cases (as of 29 February 2020) with a DCI of 1 case per day in Taiwan, which is much lower than that of nearby countries such as the Republic of Korea and Japan. In addition, the incidence and mortality were correlated with the DCI. However, further study and continued monitoring are needed to better understand the underlying mechanism of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Geography, Medical , Health Resources , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Iran/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics/economics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Taiwan/epidemiology
10.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 55(4): 105946, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-11723

ABSTRACT

It has been 2 months since the first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported in Wuhan, China. So far, COVID-19 has affected 85 403 patients in 57 countries/territories and has caused 2924 deaths in 9 countries. However, epidemiological data differ between countries. Although China had higher morbidity and mortality than other sites, the number of new daily cases in China has been lower than outside of China since 26 February 2020. The incidence ranged from 61.44 per 1 000 000 people in the Republic of Korea to 0.0002 per 1 000 000 people in India. The daily cumulative index (DCI) of COVID-19 (cumulative cases/no. of days between the first reported case and 29 February 2020) was greatest in China (1320.85), followed by the Republic of Korea (78.78), Iran (43.11) and Italy (30.62). However, the DCIs in other countries/territories were <10 per day. Several effective measures including restricting travel from China, controlling the distribution of masks, extensive investigation of COVID-19 spread, and once-daily press conferences by the government to inform and educate people were aggressively conducted in Taiwan. This is probably the reason why there was only 39 cases (as of 29 February 2020) with a DCI of 1 case per day in Taiwan, which is much lower than that of nearby countries such as the Republic of Korea and Japan. In addition, the incidence and mortality were correlated with the DCI. However, further study and continued monitoring are needed to better understand the underlying mechanism of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Geography, Medical , Health Resources , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Iran/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics/economics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Taiwan/epidemiology
11.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 53(3): 404-412, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-4530

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (formerly known as the 2019 novel coronavirus [2019-nCoV]) in Wuhan, China in December 2019, which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), more than 75,000 cases have been reported in 32 countries/regions, resulting in more than 2000 deaths worldwide. Despite the fact that most COVID-19 cases and mortalities were reported in China, the WHO has declared this outbreak as the sixth public health emergency of international concern. The COVID-19 can present as an asymptomatic carrier state, acute respiratory disease, and pneumonia. Adults represent the population with the highest infection rate; however, neonates, children, and elderly patients can also be infected by SARS-CoV-2. In addition, nosocomial infection of hospitalized patients and healthcare workers, and viral transmission from asymptomatic carriers are possible. The most common finding on chest imaging among patients with pneumonia was ground-glass opacity with bilateral involvement. Severe cases are more likely to be older patients with underlying comorbidities compared to mild cases. Indeed, age and disease severity may be correlated with the outcomes of COVID-19. To date, effective treatment is lacking; however, clinical trials investigating the efficacy of several agents, including remdesivir and chloroquine, are underway in China. Currently, effective infection control intervention is the only way to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Young Adult
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