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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319620

ABSTRACT

Background: Many countries have recommended the use of face masks for general population in public places to reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of face mask usage and investigate about different types of face mask and their distribution among pedestrians in southwest Iran during the Covid-19 pandemic. Methods: : This cross-sectional study was conducted in August 2020 in Ahvaz, southwest Iran. Using a multistage sampling method, a total of 10440 pedestrians selected from 8 urban districts and 92 neighborhoods of the city. The data gathered by observation method. Percentage, mean and standard deviation were used to describe the variables. Chi-square test, fisher exact test and Chi-square for trend used to assess relationship between two categorical variables. We used unconditional logistic regression model to control confounders. Results: : The mean ± SD age of the observed pedestrians was 32.2 ±15.1 years and 67.9% of them were male. The overall prevalence of face mask usage was 45.6% (95% CI, 44.6 – 46.5). In general, as the age increased, the prevalence of face mask use significantly increased (p for trend <0.001). Women used face masks significantly higher than men (60.2% vs. 38.7%, p <0.001). Among the pedestrians who used the mask, 75.6 % wore facemask correctly. The most common type of facemask used by the pedestrians were surgical(medical) masks (63.8%). In total, the prevalence of facemask usage was significantly higher during a.m. (49.4%) compared to p.m. (43.9%), (p<0.001). Besides, in our study, 1.7% and 0.3 % of Pedestrians had worn gloves and shielded respectively. Women used shields and gloves significantly higher than men (3.6 % vs. 0.7%, p <0.001). Also, women used shields more than men (0.5 % vs. 0.3%, p =0.036). Conclusion: We concluded that the prevalence rate of face mask use in Ahvaz was fairly low especially in men and younger people. Hence, the observed rates probably cannot protect the community against COVID-19 spread. Therefore, it is important to implement educational programs as well as to establish laws and regulations governing the use of face masks in public places.

2.
Complement Ther Med ; 65: 102808, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654291

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This randomized, double-blind, controlled trial (RCT) aimed to evaluate the effect of Phyllanthus Emblica (Amla) as an add-on therapy on COVID-19_ related biomarkers and clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In this RCT, sixty-one patients were randomly assigned into two arms [the intervention (n=31) and control arms (n=30)]. The effect of Amla on diagnostic Reverse-transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) test results between the first and the last days of the study, the length of stay (LOS) in hospital, the percentage of lung involvement on CT scans, changes in the clinical symptoms, and the laboratory markers were assessed. RESULTS: The two study groups had similar baseline demographics and characteristics in terms of medical history. The mean of LOS in the intervention arm (4.44 days) was significantly shorter than in the control arm (7.18 days, P < 0.001); RT-PCR results were not significantly different between the two arms (P = 0.07). All clinical variables decreased over time in the two groups (P < 0.001). However, the difference between the two groups in terms of fever (P = 0.004), severity of cough (P = 0.001), shortness of breath (P = 0.004), and myalgia (P = 0.005) were significant, but this intergroup comparison was not significant with regard to respiratory rate (P = 0.29), severity of chills (P = 0.06), sore throat (P = 0.22), and weakness (P = 0.12). Out of the eight evaluated para-clinical variables, three variables showed significant improvement in the intervention arm, including the mean increase in oxygen saturation (SpO2) level (P < 0.001), the reduction in the mean percentage of lung involvement on CT (P < 0.001), and the improvement in C-reactive protein test results (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Organic herbal Amla tea cannot significantly affect the RT-PCR results and or degree of lung involvement. Nevertheless, it showed an ameliorative effect on the severity of clinical signs and CRP levels. Also, Amla tea may shorten the recovery times of symptoms and LOS in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Phyllanthus emblica , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Laboratories , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
3.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1934, 2021 10 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484308

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has become one of the biggest challenges to global health and economy. The present study aimed to explore the factors related to preventive health behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic in Khuzestan Province, South of Iran, using the Health Belief Model (HBM). METHODS: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in the period between July 2020 and September 2020. A total of 1090 people from Khuzestan province participated in the study. The data collection method included a multistage cluster sampling method with a random selection of provincial of health centers. The questionnaire collected socio-demographic information and HBM constructs (e.g., perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits and barriers, cues to action, and COVID-19 preventive behaviors). Data were analyzed using ANOVA, t-test, hierarchical multiple linear regression, and SPSS version 22. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 35.53 ± 11.53, more than half of them were female (61.6%) and married (65.3). The results showed that 27% of the variance in the COVID-19 preventive behaviors was explained by HBM constructs. The regression analysis indicated that female gender (ß = 0.11), perceived benefits (ß = 0.10), perceived barriers (ß = - 0.18), external cues to action (ß = 0.25), and internal cues to action (ß = 0.12) were significantly associated with COVID-19 preventive behaviors (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Designing an educational intervention on the basis of HBM might be considered as a framework for the correction of beliefs and adherence to COVID-19 behavior. Health information campaigns need to (1) emphasize the benefits of preventive behaviors including avoiding the likelihood of getting a chronic disease and complications of the disease, (2) highlight the tips and advice to overcome the barriers (3) provide cues to action by means of showing various reminders in social media (4) focusing on adoption of COVID-19-related preventive behaviors, especially among men.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Belief Model , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2
4.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 133, 2021 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067210

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many countries have recommended the use of face masks for general population in public places to reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of face mask usage and investigate about different types of face mask and their distribution among pedestrians in southwest Iran during the Covid-19 pandemic. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in August 2020 in Ahvaz, southwest Iran. Using a multistage sampling method, a total of 10,440 pedestrians selected from 8 urban districts and 92 neighborhoods of the city. The data gathered by observation method. Percentage, mean and standard deviation were used to describe the variables. Chi-square test, fisher exact test and Chi-square for trend used to assess relationship between two categorical variables. We used unconditional logistic regression model to control confounders. RESULTS: The most common age group was 10 to 39 years and 67.9% of the participants were male. The overall prevalence of face mask usage was 45.6% (95% CI, 44.6-46.5). In general, as the age increased, the prevalence of face mask use significantly increased (p for trend < 0.001). Women used face masks significantly higher than men (60.2% vs. 38.7%, p < 0.001). Among the pedestrians who used the mask, 75.6% wore facemask correctly. The most common type of facemask used by the pedestrians were surgical (medical) masks (63.8%). In total, the prevalence of facemask usage was significantly higher during a.m. (49.4%) compared to p.m. (43.9%), (p < 0.001). Besides, in our study, 1.7 and 0.3% of Pedestrians had worn gloves and shielded respectively. Women used shields and gloves significantly higher than men (3.6% vs. 0.7%, p < 0.001). Also, women used shields more than men (0.5% vs. 0.3%, p = 0.036). CONCLUSION: We concluded that the prevalence rate of face mask use in Ahvaz was fairly low especially in men and younger people. Hence, the observed rates probably cannot protect the community against COVID-19 spread. Therefore, it is important to implement educational programs as well as to establish laws and regulations governing the use of face masks in public places.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pedestrians , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Young Adult
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