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1.
Mech Ageing Dev ; 204: 111674, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783626

ABSTRACT

To reduce the mortality of COVID-19 older patients, clear criteria to predict in-hospital mortality are urgently needed. Here, we aimed to evaluate the performance of selected routine laboratory biomarkers in improving the prediction of in-hospital mortality in 641 consecutive COVID-19 geriatric patients (mean age 86.6 ± 6.8) who were hospitalized at the INRCA hospital (Ancona, Italy). Thirty-four percent of the enrolled patients were deceased during the in-hospital stay. The percentage of severely frail patients, assessed with the Clinical Frailty Scale, was significantly increased in deceased patients compared to the survived ones. The age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) score was not significantly associated with an increased risk of death. Among the routine parameters, neutrophilia, eosinopenia, lymphopenia, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, IL-6, and NT-proBNP showed the highest predictive values. The fully adjusted Cox regressions models confirmed that high neutrophil %, NLR, derived NLR (dNLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and low lymphocyte count, eosinophil %, and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) were the best predictors of in-hospital mortality, independently from age, gender, and other potential confounders. Overall, our results strongly support the use of routine parameters, including complete blood count, in geriatric patients to predict COVID-19 in-hospital mortality, independent from baseline comorbidities and frailty.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Cell Count , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
2.
Mech Ageing Dev ; 202: 111636, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665255

ABSTRACT

The stratification of mortality risk in COVID-19 patients remains extremely challenging for physicians, especially in older patients. Innovative minimally invasive molecular biomarkers are needed to improve the prediction of mortality risk and better customize patient management. In this study, aimed at identifying circulating miRNAs associated with the risk of COVID-19 in-hospital mortality, we analyzed serum samples of 12 COVID-19 patients by small RNA-seq and validated the findings in an independent cohort of 116 COVID-19 patients by qRT-PCR. Thirty-four significantly deregulated miRNAs, 25 downregulated and 9 upregulated in deceased COVID-19 patients compared to survivors, were identified in the discovery cohort. Based on the highest fold-changes and on the highest expression levels, 5 of these 34 miRNAs were selected for the analysis in the validation cohort. MiR-320b and miR-483-5p were confirmed to be significantly hyper-expressed in deceased patients compared to survived ones. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models, adjusted for relevant confounders, confirmed that patients with the 20% highest miR-320b and miR-483-5p serum levels had three-fold increased risk to die during in-hospital stay for COVID-19. In conclusion, high levels of circulating miR-320b and miR-483-5p can be useful as minimally invasive biomarkers to stratify older COVID-19 patients with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Circulating MicroRNA/blood , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , MicroRNAs/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/genetics , Circulating MicroRNA/genetics , Female , Humans , Male , MicroRNAs/genetics , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , RNA-Seq , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Up-Regulation
4.
Ageing Res Rev ; 71: 101455, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385018

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic older subjects have been disproportionately affected by the disease. Vaccination is a fundamental intervention to prevent the negative consequences of COVID-19, but it is not known if the needs and vulnerabilities of older people are adequately addressed by their inclusion in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy of vaccines for COVID-19. Given this background, we aimed to evaluate if current and ongoing phase II-III RCTs evaluating the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines included a representative sample of older people. A systematic literature search in PubMed and Clinicaltrials.gov was performed until May 01st, 2021. Among 474 abstracts initially retrieved, 20 RCTs (ten already published, ten ongoing) were included. In the ten studies already published, the mean age of participants was 45.2 ± 11.9 years and only 9.83% of the participants were more than 65 years, 1.66% more than 75 years and less than 1% (0.55%) more than 85 years. In the ten ongoing RCTs, many of the studies aimed at including participants older than 18 years, with one study including participants between 18 and 84 years, and two between 21 and 100 years. In conclusion, our systematic review demonstrates that in published and ongoing phase II-III randomized clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines only a tiny fraction of the most vulnerable group of older people was included, although they clearly were the first population that had to be vaccinated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Aged , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Clin Med ; 10(13)2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295864

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of chest X-ray (CXR) score, frailty, and clinical and laboratory data on in-hospital mortality of hospitalized older patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This retrospective study included 122 patients 65 years or older with positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and with availability to CXRs on admission. The primary outcome of the study was in-hospital mortality. Statistical analysis was conducted using Cox regression. The predictive ability of the CXR score was compared with the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) and fever data using Area Under the Curve (AUC) and net reclassification improvement (NRI) statistics. RESULTS: Of 122 patients, 67 died during hospital stay (54.9%). The CXR score (HR: 1.16, 95% CI, 1.04-1.28), CFS (HR: 1.27; 95% CI, 1.09-1.47), and presence of fever (HR: 1.75; 95% CI, 1.03-2.97) were significant predictors of in-hospital mortality. The addition of both the CFS and presence of fever to the CXR score significantly improved the prediction of in-hospital mortality (NRI, 0.460; 95% CI, 0.102 to 0.888; AUC difference: 0.117; 95% CI, 0.041 to 0.192, p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: CXR score, CFS, and presence of fever were the main predictors of in-hospital mortality in our cohort of hospitalized older patients with COVID-19. Adding frailty and presence of fever to the CXR score statistically improved predictive accuracy compared to single risk factors.

8.
Allergy ; 76(10): 2952-2964, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1165737

ABSTRACT

Older adults, especially men and/or those with diabetes, hypertension, and/or obesity, are prone to severe COVID-19. In some countries, older adults, particularly those residing in nursing homes, have been prioritized to receive COVID-19 vaccines due to high risk of death. In very rare instances, the COVID-19 vaccines can induce anaphylaxis, and the management of anaphylaxis in older people should be considered carefully. An ARIA-EAACI-EuGMS (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma, European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, and European Geriatric Medicine Society) Working Group has proposed some recommendations for older adults receiving the COVID-19 vaccines. Anaphylaxis to COVID-19 vaccines is extremely rare (from 1 per 100,000 to 5 per million injections). Symptoms are similar in younger and older adults but they tend to be more severe in the older patients. Adrenaline is the mainstay treatment and should be readily available. A flowchart is proposed to manage anaphylaxis in the older patients.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , COVID-19 , Aged , Anaphylaxis/etiology , Anaphylaxis/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Epinephrine , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(1)2021 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1038624

ABSTRACT

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess prevalence, etiology, and association with mortality of MDR bacteria in older adult patients before and after the first peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy. An observational retrospective study was conducted in two geriatric wards of the Azienda Ospedaliera Ospedali Riuniti Marche Nord, Fano, and of the INRCA, IRCCS, Ancona, in the Marche Region, Italy, from December 2019 to February 2020 and from May to July 2020. A total of 73 patients (mean age 87.4 ± 5.9, 27.4% men) and 83 cultures (36 pre-COVID-19 and 47 post-COVID-19) were considered. Overall, 46 cultures (55.4%) reported MDR bacteria (50% in pre- and 59.6% in post-COVID-19 period, p = 0.384). MDR bacteria in bloodstream significantly increased in post-COVID-19 period (68.8% vs. 40.0% p = 0.038) and MDR bacteria in urine did not change (51.6 vs. 54.8%, p = 0.799). Escherichia coli was the main MDR bacterium in pre-COVID-19, p = 0.082 and post-COVID-19, p = 0.026. Among patients with MDR infection, in-hospital mortality was 37.5% and 68.8% in pre- and post-COVID-19, respectively (p = 0.104), and mortality at 30 days was higher in post-COVID-19 period (78.9% vs. 27.3%, p = 0.012). An increased number of MDR bacteria in bloodstream and mortality after MDR infection have been observed in the post-COVID-19 period.

11.
Eur Geriatr Med ; 11(6): 899-913, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898206

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The European Geriatric Medicine Society (EuGMS) is launching a second interim guidance whose aim is to prevent the entrance and spread of COVID-19 into long-term care facilities (LTCFs). METHODS: The EuGMS gathered experts to propose a guide of measures to prevent COVID-19 outbreaks in LTCFs. It is based on the specific features of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in LTCFs, residents' needs, and on experiences conducted in the field. RESULTS: Asymptomatic COVID-19 residents and staff members contribute substantially to the dissemination of COVID-19 infection in LTCFs. An infection prevention and control focal point should be set up in every LTCF for (1) supervising infection prevention and control measures aimed at keeping COVID-19 out of LTCFs, (2) RT-PCR testing of residents, staff members, and visitors with COVID-19 symptoms, even atypical, and (3) isolating subjects either infected or in contact with infected subjects. When a first LCTF resident or staff member is infected, a facility-wide RT-PCR test-retest strategy should be implemented for detecting all SARS-CoV-2 carriers. Testing should continue until no new COVID-19 cases are identified. The isolation of residents should be limited as much as possible and associated with measures aiming at limiting its negative effects on their mental and somatic health status. CONCLUSIONS: An early recognition of symptoms compatible with COVID-19 may help to diagnose COVID-19 residents and staff more promptly. Subsequently, an earlier testing for SARS-CoV-2 symptomatic and asymptomatic LTCF staff and residents will enable the implementation of appropriate infection prevention and control. The negative effects of social isolation in residents should be limited as much as possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Geriatrics , Long-Term Care , Skilled Nursing Facilities , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Europe , Geriatrics/methods , Geriatrics/organization & administration , Humans , Long-Term Care/classification , Long-Term Care/methods , Palliative Care , Pandemics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation
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