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1.
Journal of Clinical Medicine ; 11(24):7388, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2163468

ABSTRACT

Background: Long-term sequelae, called Long-COVID (LC), may occur after SARS-CoV-2 infection, with unexplained dyspnoea as the most common symptom. The breathing pattern (BP) analysis, by means of the ratio of the inspiratory time (TI) during the tidal volume (VT) to the total breath duration (TI/TTOT) and by the VT/TI ratio, could further elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the unexplained dyspnoea in LC patients. Therefore, we analysed TI/TTOT and VT/TI at rest and during maximal exercise in LC patients with unexplained dyspnoea, compared to a control group. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled LC patients with normal spirometry, who were required to perform a cardio-pulmonary exercise test (CPET) for unexplained dyspnoea, lasting at least 3 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection. As a control group, we recruited healthy age and sex-matched subjects (HS). All subjects performed spirometry and CPET, according to standardized procedures. Results: We found that 42 LC patients (23 females) had lower maximal exercise capacity, both in terms of maximal O2 uptake (VO2peak) and workload, compared to 40 HS (22 females) (p < 0.05). LC patients also showed significantly higher values of TI/TTOT at rest and at peak, and lower values in VT/TI at peak (p < 0.05). In LC patients, values of TI/TTOT at peak were significantly related to ∆PETCO2, i.e., the end-tidal pressure of CO2 at peak minus the one at rest (p < 0.05). When LC patients were categorized by the TI/TTOT 0.38 cut-off value, patients with TI/TTOT > 0.38 showed lower values in VO2peak and maximal workload, and greater values in the ventilation/CO2 linear relationship slope than patients with TI/TTOT ≤0.38 (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our findings show that LC patients with unexplained dyspnoea have resting and exertional BP more prone to diaphragmatic fatigue, and less effective than controls. Pulmonary rehabilitation might be useful to revert this unpleasant condition.

2.
Pulmonology ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2126183

ABSTRACT

Background The risk of barotrauma associated with different types of ventilatory support is unclear in COVID-19 patients. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the different respiratory support strategies on barotrauma occurrence;we also sought to determine the frequency of barotrauma and the clinical characteristics of the patients who experienced this complication. Methods This multicentre retrospective case-control study from 1 March 2020 to 28 February 2021 included COVID-19 patients who experienced barotrauma during hospital stay. They were matched with controls in a 1:1 ratio for the same admission period in the same ward of treatment. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression (OR) were performed to explore which factors were associated with barotrauma and in-hospital death. Results We included 200 cases and 200 controls. Invasive mechanical ventilation was used in 39.3% of patients in the barotrauma group, and in 20.1% of controls (p<0.001). Receiving non-invasive ventilation (C-PAP/PSV) instead of conventional oxygen therapy (COT) increased the risk of barotrauma (OR 5.04, 95% CI 2.30 - 11.08, p<0.001), similarly for invasive mechanical ventilation (OR 6.24, 95% CI 2.86-13.60, p<0.001). High Flow Nasal Oxygen (HFNO), compared with COT, did not significantly increase the risk of barotrauma. Barotrauma frequency occurred in 1.00% [95% CI 0.88-1.16] of patients;these were older (p=0.022) and more frequently immunosuppressed (p=0.013). Barotrauma was shown to be an independent risk for death (OR 5.32, 95% CI 2.82-10.03, p<0.001). Conclusions C-PAP/PSV compared with COT or HFNO increased the risk of barotrauma;otherwise HFNO did not. Barotrauma was recorded in 1.00% of patients, affecting mainly patients with more severe COVID-19 disease. Barotrauma was independently associated with mortality. Trial registration this case-control study was prospectively registered in clinicaltrial.gov as NCT04897152 (on 21 May 2021).

3.
Pulmonology ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2122758

ABSTRACT

Background The risk of barotrauma associated with different types of ventilatory support is unclear in COVID-19 patients. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the different respiratory support strategies on barotrauma occurrence;we also sought to determine the frequency of barotrauma and the clinical characteristics of the patients who experienced this complication. Methods This multicentre retrospective case-control study from 1 March 2020 to 28 February 2021 included COVID-19 patients who experienced barotrauma during hospital stay. They were matched with controls in a 1:1 ratio for the same admission period in the same ward of treatment. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression (OR) were performed to explore which factors were associated with barotrauma and in-hospital death. Results We included 200 cases and 200 controls. Invasive mechanical ventilation was used in 39.3% of patients in the barotrauma group, and in 20.1% of controls (p<0.001). Receiving non-invasive ventilation (C-PAP/PSV) instead of conventional oxygen therapy (COT) increased the risk of barotrauma (OR 5.04, 95% CI 2.30 - 11.08, p<0.001), similarly for invasive mechanical ventilation (OR 6.24, 95% CI 2.86-13.60, p<0.001). High Flow Nasal Oxygen (HFNO), compared with COT, did not significantly increase the risk of barotrauma. Barotrauma frequency occurred in 1.00% [95% CI 0.88-1.16] of patients;these were older (p=0.022) and more frequently immunosuppressed (p=0.013). Barotrauma was shown to be an independent risk for death (OR 5.32, 95% CI 2.82-10.03, p<0.001). Conclusions C-PAP/PSV compared with COT or HFNO increased the risk of barotrauma;otherwise HFNO did not. Barotrauma was recorded in 1.00% of patients, affecting mainly patients with more severe COVID-19 disease. Barotrauma was independently associated with mortality. Trial registration this case-control study was prospectively registered in clinicaltrial.gov as NCT04897152 (on 21 May 2021).

4.
Respiration ; 101(3): 272-280, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865199

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The presence of interstitial pneumonia in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, as diagnosed through laboratory, functional, and radiological data, provides potential predicting factors of pulmonary sequelae. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were the creation of a risk assessment score for pulmonary sequelae at high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) through the assessment of laboratory data, lung function, and radiological changes in patients after the onset of COVID-19 interstitial pneumonia and the identification of predictive factors. METHODS: We enrolled 121 subjects hospitalized due to COVID-19 pneumonia in our study. Clinical features, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score, HRCT score, and blood chemistry data at hospital admission, as well as HRCT score, pulmonary function testing values, exercise capacity by means of a 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), and dyspnea perception by the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) at 4-month follow-up, were all recorded. The variables were elaborated in order to create a predictive model to identify patients at high risk of pulmonary sequelae at HRCT. RESULTS: At the time of follow-up visit, 63% of patients had functional abnormality (diffusion lung capacity and/or total lung capacity <80% of predicted). Age, BMI, CCI, D-dimer, 6MWT, and mMRC were included in the COVID-19 Sequelae Score (COSeSco, ranging 0-15), which was able to individuate COVID-19 patients with radiologic sequelae (HRCT score >10%) at follow-up. The most revelatory COSeSco value that was found to intercept the highest sensitivity (100%) and specificity (77%) was 2. CONCLUSION: The COSeSco - comprising age, BMI, comorbidities, D-dimer, walking distance, and dyspnea perception - makes it possible to identify particularly at-risk COVID-19 patients who are likely to develop pulmonary sequelae assessed by HRCT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/physiopathology , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 31(5): 620-630, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758608

ABSTRACT

Background: Sex differences have been demonstrated in the acute phase of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Women (F) were found to be less prone to develop a severe disease than men (M), but few studies have assessed sex-differences in Long-COVID-19 syndrome. Methods: The aim of this prospective/retrospective study was to characterize the long-term consequences of this infection based on sex. For this purpose, we enrolled 223 patients (89 F and 134 M) who were infected by SARS-CoV-2. In the acute phase of the illness, F reported the following symptoms more frequently than M: weakness, dysgeusia, anosmia, thoracic pain, palpitations, diarrhea, and myalgia-all without significant differences in breathlessness, cough, and sleep disturbance. Results: After a mean follow-up time of 5 months after the acute phase, F were significantly more likely than M to report dyspnea, weakness, thoracic pain, palpitations, and sleep disturbance but not myalgia and cough. At the multivariate logistic regression, women were statistically significantly likely to experience persistent symptoms such as dyspnea, fatigue, chest pain, and palpitations. On the contrary, myalgia, cough, and sleep disturbance were not influenced by sex. Conclusion: We demonstrated that F were more symptomatic than M not only in the acute phase but also at follow-up. Sex was found to be an important determinant of Long-COVID-19 syndrome because it is a significant predictor of persistent symptoms in F, such as dyspnea, fatigue, chest pain, and palpitations. Our results suggest the need for long-term follow-up of these patients from a sex perspective to implement early preventive and personalized therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Wake Disorders , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chest Pain/etiology , Cough/complications , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue , Female , Humans , Male , Myalgia/complications , Myalgia/etiology , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Characteristics , Sleep Wake Disorders/complications , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Syndrome
6.
Acta Biomed ; 93(1): e2022015, 2022 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1754146

ABSTRACT

Platypnea-Orthodeoxia Syndrome (POS) is a clinical entity defined as positional dyspnoea (platypnea) and arterial desaturation (orthodeoxia) that occurs when sitting or standing up and usually resolves by lying down. Up to April 25th 2021, eleven cases of POS after SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia have been reported on Pubmed. Accordingly, SARS-CoV-2 infection may be considered as an emergent cause of POS due to an increase in ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatch. In this article we provide an update on the patient with POS after fibrotic evolution of SARS-CoV-2 interstitial pneumonia, which we previously reported and we discuss the case reports of POS due to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , COVID-19/complications , Dyspnea/etiology , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Posture , SARS-CoV-2
7.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602387

ABSTRACT

Aims Sex-differences have been demonstrated in the acute phase of COVID-19 infection;females (f) were found to be less prone to develop a severe disease than males (M), but few studies have assessed sex-differences in Long-COVID-19 syndrome. Methods and results The aim of this prospective/retrospective study was to characterize the long-term consequences of this infection from a sex-perspective. For this purpose, we enrolled 223 patients (89 F and 134 M) who experienced a SARS-CoV-2 infection. In the acute phase of the illness, females reported more frequently than males: weakness, dysgeusia, anosmia, thoracic pain, palpitations, diarrhoea, and myalgia without significant differences in breathlessness, cough, and sleep disturbance. After a mean follow-up time of 5 months after the acute phase, females were significantly more likely than males to report weakness, thoracic pain, palpitations, and sleep disturbance but not myalgia and cough. At the multivariate logistic regression, women were statistically significantly likely to experience persistent symptoms such as dyspnoea, fatigue, chest pain, and palpitations. On the contrary, myalgia, cough and sleep disturbance were not influenced by sex. Conclusions We demonstrated that females were more symptomatic than males not only in the acute phase but also at follow-up. Sex was found to be an important determinant of Long-COVID syndrome because it is a significant predictor of persistent symptoms in females, such as dyspnoea, fatigue, chest pain, and palpitations. Our results suggest the need for long-term follow-up of these patients from a sex-perspective in order to implement early preventive and personalized therapeutic strategies.

8.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526831

ABSTRACT

A clinical interpretation of the Randomized Evaluation of COVID-19 Therapy (RECOVERY) study was performed to provide a useful tool to understand whether, when, and to whom dexamethasone should be administered during hospitalization for COVID-19. A post hoc analysis of data published in the preliminary report of the RECOVERY study was performed to calculate the person-based number needed to treat (NNT) and number needed to harm (NNH) of 6 mg dexamethasone once daily for up to 10 days vs. usual care with respect to mortality. At day 28, the NNT of dexamethasone vs. usual care was 36.0 (95%CI 24.9-65.1, p < 0.05) in all patients, 8.3 (95%CI 6.0-13.1, p < 0.05) in patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation, and 34.6 (95%CI 22.1-79.0, p < 0.05) in patients receiving oxygen only (with or without noninvasive ventilation). Dexamethasone increased mortality compared with usual care in patients not requiring oxygen supplementation, leading to a NNH value of 26.7 (95%CI 18.1-50.9, p < 0.05). NNT of dexamethasone vs. usual care was 17.3 (95%CI 14.9-20.6) in subjects <70 years, 27.0 (95%CI 18.5-49.8) in men, and 16.2 (95%CI 13.2-20.8) in patients in which the onset of symptoms was >7 days. Dexamethasone is effective in male subjects < 70 years that require invasive mechanical ventilation experiencing symptoms from >7 days and those patients receiving oxygen without invasive mechanical ventilation; it should be avoided in patients not requiring respiratory support.

9.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502382

ABSTRACT

Most patients who had COVID-19 are still symptomatic after many months post infection, but the long-term outcomes are not yet well defined. The aim of our prospective/retrospective study was to define the cardiac sequelae of COVID-19 infection. This monocentric cohort study included 160 consecutive patients who had been discharged from the ward or from the outpatient clinic after a diagnosis of COVID-19 and subsequently referred for a follow-up visit. Clinical features' data about the acute phase along with information about the follow-up visit, including ECG and Echocardiographic parameters, were recorded. At an average follow-up of 5 months, echocardiography showed morpho-functional characteristics of both right (RV) and left (LV) ventricles, such as RV dilation, increased pressure in the pulmonary circulation, and bi-ventricular systolic-diastolic dysfunction. When examined using multivariate analysis, independent of age, sex, and co-morbidities, RV and LV changes were significantly associated with chest High-Resolution computed tomography score and hemodynamic Instability (HI), and with C-reactive protein, respectively. Our results suggest that COVID-19 may impact RV and LV differently. Notably, the extent of the pneumonia and HI may affect RV, whereas the inflammatory status may influence LV. A long-term follow-up is warranted to refine and customize the most appropriate therapeutic strategies.

10.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): ahead of print, 2020 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389954

ABSTRACT

Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) is a clinical entity characterized by positional dyspnoea (platypnea) and arterial desaturation (orthodeoxia) that occurs when sitting or standing up and usually resolves by lying down. POS may result from some cardiopulmonary disorders or from other miscellaneous aetiologies. We report a case of POS in a patient after fibrotic evolution of SARS-CoV-2 interstitial pneumonia associated with pulmonary embolism. The patient did not have any evidence of an intracardiac/intrapulmonary shunt.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Dyspnea/etiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(3)2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1129796

ABSTRACT

Background: There are no studies providing head-to-head comparison across SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Therefore, we compared the efficacy of candidate vaccines in inducing neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Methods: A network meta-analysis was performed to compare the peak levels of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies across candidate vaccines. Data were reported as standardized mean difference (SMD) since the outcome was assessed via different metrics and methods across the studies. Results: Data obtained from 836 healthy adult vaccine recipients were extracted from 11 studies. BBIBP-CorV, AZD1222, BNT162b2, New Crown COVID-19, and Sputnik V induced a very large effect on the level of neutralizing antibodies (SMD > 1.3); CoVLP, CoronaVac, NVX-CoV2373, and Ad5-nCoV induced a large effect (SMD > 0.8 to ≤1.3); and Ad26.COV2.S induced a medium effect (SMD > 0.5 to ≤0.8). BBIBP-CorV and AZD122 were more effective (p < 0.05) than Ad26.COV2.S, Ad5-nCoV, mRNA-1237, CoronaVac, NVX-CoV2373, CoVLP, and New Crown COVID-19; New Crown COVID-19 was more effective (p < 0.05) than Ad26.COV2.S, Ad5-nCoV, and mRNA-1237; CoronaVac was more effective (p < 0.05) than Ad26.COV2.S and Ad5-nCoV; and Sputnik V and BNT162b2 were more effective (p < 0.05) than Ad26.COV2.S. In recipients aged ≤60 years, AZD1222, BBIBP-CorV, and mRNA-1237 were the most effective candidate vaccines. Conclusion: All the candidate vaccines induced significant levels of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies, but only AZD1222 and mRNA-1237 were certainly tested in patients aged ≥70 years. Compared with AZD1222, BNT162b and mRNA-1237 have the advantage that they can be quickly re-engineered to mimic new mutations of SARS-CoV-2.

12.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): e2020035, 2020 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-982594

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 was first identified in China in December 2019 and has since spread worldwide. People with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) have reduced survival mainly because of respiratory failure due to chronic pulmonary infections. Therefore, CF patients should be considered to have an increased risk of developing severe manifestations in case of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Surprisingly, the results of recent studies concerning SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with CF show that in these patients the infection rate was lower than that of the general population. Various factors have been considered to explain a possible protective effect of CF against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cystic Fibrosis/epidemiology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Cystic Fibrosis/diagnosis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 15(4): 561-568, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922369

ABSTRACT

Background: The comorbidities and clinical signs of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have been reported mainly as descriptive statistics, rather than quantitative analysis even in very large investigations. The aim of this study was to identify specific patients' characteristics that may modulate COVID-19 hospitalization risk.Research design and methods: A pooled analysis was performed on high-quality epidemiological studies to quantify the prevalence (%) of comorbidities and clinical signs in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Pooled data were used to calculate the relative risk (RR) of specific comorbidities by matching the frequency of comorbidities in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with those of general population.Results: The most frequent comorbidities were hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular and/or cerebrovascular diseases. The RR of COVID-19 hospitalization was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in patients with asthma (0.86, 0.77-0.97) or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (0.46, 0.40-0.52). The most frequent clinical signs were fever and cough.Conclusion: The clinical signs of hospitalized COVID-19 patients are similar to those of other infective diseases. Patients with asthma or COPD were at lower hospitalization risk. This paradoxical evidence could be related with the protective effect of inhaled corticosteroids that are administered worldwide to most asthmatic and COPD patients.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Administration, Inhalation , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Asthma/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Risk Factors
14.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): e2020062, 2020 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761263

ABSTRACT

The emergency caused by Covid-19 pandemic raised interest in studying lifestyles and comorbidities as important determinants of poor Covid-19 prognosis. Data on tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and obesity are still limited, while no data are available on the role of e-cigarettes and heated tobacco products (HTP). To clarify the role of tobacco smoking and other lifestyle habits on COVID-19 severity and progression, we designed a longitudinal observational study titled COvid19 and SMOking in ITaly (COSMO-IT). About 30 Italian hospitals in North, Centre and South of Italy joined the study. Its main aims are: 1) to quantify the role of tobacco smoking and smoking cessation on the severity and progression of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients; 2) to compare smoking prevalence and severity of the disease in relation to smoking in hospitalized COVID-19 patients versus patients treated at home; 3) to quantify the association between other lifestyle factors, such as e-cigarette and HTP use, alcohol and obesity and the risk of unfavourable COVID-19 outcomes. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and medical history information will be gathered for around 3000 hospitalized and 700-1000 home-isolated, laboratory-confirmed, COVID-19 patients. Given the current absence of a vaccine against SARS-COV-2 and the lack of a specific treatment for -COVID-19, prevention strategies are of extreme importance. This project, designed to highly contribute to the international scientific debate on the role of avoidable lifestyle habits on COVID-19 severity, will provide valuable epidemiological data in order to support important recommendations to prevent COVID-19 incidence, progression and mortality.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Life Style , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Tobacco Smoking/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tobacco Smoking/epidemiology
15.
Acta Biomed ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-312684

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 was first identified in Wuhan in December 2019 as cause of the consequent novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The virus has since spread worldwide. The clinical presentation following human infection ranges from a mild upper respiratory tract infection to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and sepsis. We reviewed literature using Pubmed to identify relevant English-language articles published until April 15, 2020. Search terms include novel coronavirus pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, coronavirus and ventilation. We summarized what SARS-CoV-2 infection means for the lungs.

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