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1.
Kidney360 ; 3(1): 28-36, 2022 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776874

ABSTRACT

Background: AKI is a common sequela of infection with SARS-CoV-2 and contributes to the severity and mortality from COVID-19. Here, we tested the hypothesis that kidney alterations induced by COVID-19-associated AKI could be detected in cells collected from urine. Methods: We performed single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) on cells recovered from the urine of eight hospitalized patients with COVID-19 with (n=5) or without AKI (n=3) as well as four patients with non-COVID-19 AKI (n=4) to assess differences in cellular composition and gene expression during AKI. Results: Analysis of 30,076 cells revealed a diverse array of cell types, most of which were kidney, urothelial, and immune cells. Pathway analysis of tubular cells from patients with AKI showed enrichment of transcripts associated with damage-related pathways compared with those without AKI. ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression was highest in urothelial cells among cell types recovered. Notably, in one patient, we detected SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in urothelial cells. These same cells were enriched for transcripts associated with antiviral and anti-inflammatory pathways. Conclusions: We successfully performed scRNAseq on urinary sediment from hospitalized patients with COVID-19 to noninvasively study cellular alterations associated with AKI and established a dataset that includes both injured and uninjured kidney cells. Additionally, we provide preliminary evidence of direct infection of urinary bladder cells by SARS-CoV-2. The urinary sediment contains a wealth of information and is a useful resource for studying the pathophysiology and cellular alterations that occur in kidney diseases.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Kidney , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Analysis, RNA
3.
Curr Oncol ; 28(6): 5332-5345, 2021 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572387

ABSTRACT

Virtual cancer care (i.e., teleoncology) was rapidly adopted during the COVID-19 pandemic to meet the needs of patients with cancer. However, there is a paucity of guidance for clinicians regarding virtual cancer care. We sought to develop consensus-based statements to guide the optimal provision of virtual care for clinicians caring for patients with cancer, using a modified Delphi consensus process with a 29-member panel consisting of an interprofessional group of clinicians caring for patients with cancer and patient representatives. The consensus process consisted of two rounds and one synchronous final consensus meeting. At the end of the modified Delphi process, 62 of 62 statements achieved consensus. Fifty-seven statements reached consensus in the first round of the process. Concerns regarding the ability to convey difficult news virtually and maintaining similar standards as in-person care without disproportionate strain on clinicians and patients were addressed in the consensus process. We achieved interprofessional consensus on virtual cancer care practices. Further research examining the impact of virtual cancer care on person-centred and clinical outcomes are needed to inform practices during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Consensus , Delphi Technique , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Kidney Int Rep ; 6(12): 3002-3013, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549765

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in COVID-19 and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We investigated alterations in the urine metabolome to test the hypothesis that impaired nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) biosynthesis and other deficiencies in energy metabolism in the kidney, previously characterized in ischemic, toxic, and inflammatory etiologies of AKI, will be present in COVID-19-associated AKI. METHODS: This is a case-control study among the following 2 independent populations of adults hospitalized with COVID-19: a critically ill population in Boston, Massachusetts, and a general population in Birmingham, Alabama. The cases had AKI stages 2 or 3 by Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria; the controls had no AKI. Metabolites were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: A total of 14 cases and 14 controls were included from Boston and 8 cases and 10 controls from Birmingham. Increased urinary quinolinate-to-tryptophan ratio (Q/T), found with impaired NAD+ biosynthesis, was present in the cases at each location and pooled across locations (median [interquartile range]: 1.34 [0.59-2.96] in cases, 0.31 [0.13-1.63] in controls, P = 0.0013). Altered energy metabolism and purine metabolism contributed to a distinct urinary metabolomic signature that differentiated patients with and without AKI (supervised random forest class error: 2 of 28 in Boston, 0 of 18 in Birmingham). CONCLUSION: Urinary metabolites spanning multiple biochemical pathways differentiate AKI versus non-AKI in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and suggest a conserved impairment in NAD+ biosynthesis, which may present a novel therapeutic target to mitigate COVID-19-associated AKI.

5.
Kidney Int Rep ; 6(12): 3002-3013, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525779

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in COVID-19 and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We investigated alterations in the urine metabolome to test the hypothesis that impaired nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) biosynthesis and other deficiencies in energy metabolism in the kidney, previously characterized in ischemic, toxic, and inflammatory etiologies of AKI, will be present in COVID-19-associated AKI. METHODS: This is a case-control study among the following 2 independent populations of adults hospitalized with COVID-19: a critically ill population in Boston, Massachusetts, and a general population in Birmingham, Alabama. The cases had AKI stages 2 or 3 by Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria; the controls had no AKI. Metabolites were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: A total of 14 cases and 14 controls were included from Boston and 8 cases and 10 controls from Birmingham. Increased urinary quinolinate-to-tryptophan ratio (Q/T), found with impaired NAD+ biosynthesis, was present in the cases at each location and pooled across locations (median [interquartile range]: 1.34 [0.59-2.96] in cases, 0.31 [0.13-1.63] in controls, P = 0.0013). Altered energy metabolism and purine metabolism contributed to a distinct urinary metabolomic signature that differentiated patients with and without AKI (supervised random forest class error: 2 of 28 in Boston, 0 of 18 in Birmingham). CONCLUSION: Urinary metabolites spanning multiple biochemical pathways differentiate AKI versus non-AKI in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and suggest a conserved impairment in NAD+ biosynthesis, which may present a novel therapeutic target to mitigate COVID-19-associated AKI.

6.
J Patient Exp ; 8: 23743735211039328, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394400

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, most cancer centers shifted from in-person to virtual cancer care to curb community spread and ensure care continuity. This qualitative descriptive study aimed to understand cancer patient-perceived risks related to COVID-19 and cancer treatment, as well as the patient-perceived and experienced value of virtual care. From June to August 2020, focus groups were conducted with patients under active management or observation for a diagnosed malignancy in Toronto, Canada. A thematic analysis of six focus groups found that most participants worried more about treatment delays than they did about COVID-19 infection. Despite some concern about COVID-19 exposure in the hospital, care delays contributed to increased anxiety among participants who already subscribed to strict safety measures in their everyday lives. Most participants accepted virtual care for some appointment types; however, preference for in-person care was found to sustain the humanistic and therapeutic aspects of cancer care that many participants valued. Nuances in the appropriateness and adequacy of virtual cancer care still need exploration. Preserving the humanistic aspects of care is of paramount importance.

8.
Blood Adv ; 5(12): 2624-2643, 2021 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1277908

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of the literature on vaccine responsiveness in patients who have received anti-CD20 therapy. PubMed and EMBASE were searched up to 4 January 2021 to identify studies of vaccine immunogenicity in patients treated with anti-CD20 therapy, including patients with hematologic malignancy or autoimmune disease. The primary outcomes were seroprotection (SP), seroconversion (SC), and/or seroresponse rates for each type of vaccine reported. As the pandemic influenza vaccine (2009 H1N1) has standardized definitions for SP and SC, and represented a novel primary antigen similar to the COVID-19 vaccine, meta-analysis was conducted for SC of studies of this vaccine. Pooled estimates, relative benefit ratios (RBs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model. Thirty-eight studies (905 patients treated with anti-CD20 therapy) were included (19 studies of patients with hematologic malignancies). Patients on active (<3 months since last dose) anti-CD20 therapy had poor responses to all types of vaccines. The pooled estimate for SC after 1 pandemic influenza vaccine dose in these patients was 3% (95% CI, 0% to 9%), with an RB of 0.05 (95% CI, 0-0.73) compared with healthy controls and 0.22 (95% CI, 0.09-0.56) compared with disease controls. SC compared with controls seems abrogated for at least 6 months following treatment (3-6 months post anti-CD20 therapy with an RB of 0.50 [95% CI, 0.24-1.06] compared with healthy and of 0.44 [95% CI, 0.23-0.84] compared with disease controls). For all vaccine types, response to vaccination improves incrementally over time, but may not reach the level of healthy controls even 12 months after therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(6): 746-752, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269207

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The risk of hand recontamination is often neglected after using hand washing facilities, which can increase the spread of pathogens. The study aimed to evaluate the hygienic condition of posthandwashing facilities in public washrooms at different timeslots, particularly those near food courts and restaurants located in shopping malls. METHODS: This observational study was conducted in 12 public washrooms that ranged from low-end, middle-end, to high-end category on 3 different timeslots including baseline, T1 (immediate postcleaning) and T2 (1-hour postcleaning, with counting the footfall). Hand-touch surfaces with a high risk of recontamination after handwashing, which included paper tower dispensers, air drying outlets, and exit door handles, were evaluated by the surface adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence method (ATP-value). ATP-values <500 relative light units (RLUs) were considered a good hygiene. Cleaning schedules and footfalls of each sampled washroom were obtained by direct observations. RESULTS: The overall mean ATP value of washroom was 785 RLU (N = 108); the ATP values of female and male washrooms at T2 were 203 and 3,718 RLUs, respectively. The highest ATP value was found on the exit door handles of male washrooms (range = 13-26,695 RLUs, mean = 3,229 RLU). Regarding passed/failed hygiene conditions, there were significant differences in the proportion of exit door handles between genders (P = .018) and timeslots (P = .007) as well as that of paper towel button/screw between timeslots (P= .025). CONCLUSION: Attention should be paid at the exit door handles of male washrooms, where are high risks of cross and re-contamination.


Subject(s)
Hand Disinfection , Hygiene , Adenosine Triphosphate , Colony Count, Microbial , Female , Humans , Luminescent Measurements , Male
10.
Curr Oncol ; 28(2): 1153-1160, 2021 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167436

ABSTRACT

In a prospective study, we sought to determine acceptability of linkage of administrative and clinical trial data among Canadian patients and Research Ethics Boards (REBs). The goal is to develop a more harmonized approach to data, with potential to improve clinical trial conduct through enhanced data quality collected at reduced cost and inconvenience for patients. On completion of the original LY.12 randomized clinical trial in lymphoma (NCT00078949), participants were invited to enrol in the Long-term Innovative Follow-up Extension (LIFE) component. Those consenting to do so provided comprehensive identifying information to facilitate linkage with their administrative data. We prospectively designed a global assessment of this innovative approach to clinical trial follow-up including rates of REB approval and patient consent. The pre-specified benchmark for patient acceptability was 80%. Of 16 REBs who reviewed the research protocol, 14 (89%) provided approval; two in Quebec declined due to small patient numbers. Of 140 patients invited to participate, 115 (82%, 95% CI 76 to 88%) from across 9 Canadian provinces provided consent and their full name, date of birth, health insurance number and postal code to facilitate linkage with their administrative data for long-term follow-up. Linkage of clinical trial and administrative data is feasible and acceptable. Further collaborative work including many stakeholders is required to develop an optimized secure approach to research. A more coordinated national approach to health data could facilitate more rapid testing and identification of new effective treatments across multiple jurisdictions and diseases from diabetes to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Information Storage and Retrieval/methods , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Registries , Canada , Ethics Committees, Research , Female , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Information Storage and Retrieval/statistics & numerical data , Male , Prospective Studies
11.
Curr Oncol ; 28(1): 278-282, 2021 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011431

ABSTRACT

Patients with cancer are more vulnerable to severe COVID-19. As a result, routine SARS-CoV-2 testing of asymptomatic patients with cancer is recommended prior to treatment. However, there is limited evidence of its clinical usefulness. The objective of this study is to evaluate the value of routine testing of asymptomatic patients with cancer. Asymptomatic patients with cancer attending Odette Cancer Centre (Toronto, ON, Canada) were tested for SARS-CoV-2 prior to and during treatment cycles. Results were compared to positivity rates of SARS-CoV-2 locally and provincially. All 890 asymptomatic patients tested negative. Positivity rates in the province were 1.5%, in hospital were 1.0%, and among OCC's symptomatic cancer patients were 0% over the study period. Given our findings and the low SARS-CoV-2 community positivity rates, we recommend a dynamic testing model of asymptomatic patients that triggers testing during increasing community positivity rates of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Neoplasms/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cancer Care Facilities , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Ontario
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