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1.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 571179, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199300

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is associated with increases in psychiatric morbidity, including depression. It is unclear if people with depressive symptoms understand or apply COVID-19 information differently to the general population. Therefore, this study aimed to examine associations between depression, health beliefs, and face mask use during the COVID-19 pandemic among the general population in Hong Kong. This study gathered data from 11,072 Hong Kong adults via an online survey. Respondents self-reported their demographic characteristics, depressive symptoms (PHQ-9), face mask use, and health beliefs about COVID-19. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to identify independent variables associated with depression. The point-prevalence of probable depression was 46.5% (n = 5,150). Respondents reporting higher mask reuse (OR = 1.24, 95%CI 1.17-1.34), wearing masks for self-protection (OR = 1.03 95%CI 1.01-1.06), perceived high susceptibility (OR = 1.15, 95%CI 1.09-1.23), and high severity (OR = 1.33, 95%CI 1.28-1.37) were more likely to report depression. Depression was less likely in those with higher scores for cues to action (OR = 0.82, 95%CI 0.80-0.84), knowledge of COVID-19 (OR = 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.99), and self-efficacy to wear mask properly (OR = 0.90 95%CI 0.83-0.98). We identified a high point-prevalence of probable major depression and suicidal ideation during the COVID-19 outbreak in Hong Kong, but this should be viewed with caution due to the convenience sampling method employed. Future studies should recruit a representative probability sample in order to draw more reliable conclusions. The findings highlight that COVID-19 health information may be a protective factor of probable depression and suicidal ideation during the pandemic. Accurate and up-to-date health information should be disseminated to distressed and vulnerable subpopulations, perhaps using digital health technology, and social media platforms to prompt professional help-seeking behavior.

2.
Journal of Affective Disorders ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165447

ABSTRACT

Background Persons with suicidality including suicidal ideation (SI), suicide plans (SP) and/or suicide attempts (SA) are at higher risk for future suicide than those without suicidality. To reduce risk of future suicide, it is important to understand symptoms of emotional distress having the strongest links with SI, SP and SA. This network analysis examined item-level relations of depressive and anxiety symptoms with suicidality among adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods Adolescents between 12 and 20 years of age were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), and individual binary reponse (no/yes) items assessing SI, SP, and SA during the pandemic. The structure of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms and suicidality was characterized using "Expected Influence” and "Bridge Expected Influence” as centrality indices in the symptom network. Network stability was tested using a case-dropping bootstrap procedure. Node-specific predictive betweenness was computed to examine short paths of anhedonia, other depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms with suicidality. A Network Comparison Test (NCT) was conducted to examine whether network characteristics differed based on gender. Results Prevalence rates of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and suicidality were 44.60 % (95%CI = 41.53–47.67 %), 31.12 % (95%CI = 28.26–33.98 %), and 16.95 % (95%CI = 14.63–19.26 %), respectively, in the study sample. The network analysis identified GAD3 ("Worry too much”) as the most central symptom, followed by GAD6 ("Irritability”) and PHQ6 ("Guilt”) in the sample. Additionally, PHQ6 ("Guilt”), GAD6 ("Irritability”), and PHQ2 ("Sad mood”) were bridge nodes linking depressive and anxiety symptoms with suicidality. A flow network indicated that the connection between S ("Suicidality”) and PHQ6 ("Guilt”) reflected the strongest connection, followed by connections of S ("Suicidality”) with GAD2 ("Uncontrollable worrying”), and S ("Suicidality”) with PHQ2 ("Sad mood”). Finally, PHQ2 ("Sad mood”) was the main bridge node linking anhedonia with other depressive and anxiety symptoms and suicidality in the sample. Conclusions Findings highlight the potential importance of reducing specific depressive and anxiety symptoms as possible means of reducing suicidality among adolescents during the pandemic. Central symptoms and key bridge symptoms identified in this study should be targeted in suicide prevention for at risk adolescents.

3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1004558, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123476

ABSTRACT

Background: Any infectious disease outbreak may lead to a negative detrimental psychological impact on individuals and the community at large, however; there was no systematic review nor meta-analysis that examined the relationship between the psychological/mental health impact of SARS and COVID-19 outbreak in Asia. Methods and design: A systematic search was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, Medline, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases from 1/1/2000 to 1/6/2020. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we analyzed the psychological impact on confirmed/suspected cases, healthcare workers and the general public during the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak and Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemics. Primary outcomes included prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress, post-traumatic stress disorder, aggression, sleeping problems and psychological symptoms. Result: Twenty-three eligible studies (N = 27,325) were included. Random effect model was used to analyze the data using STATA. Of these studies, 11 were related to the SARS outbreak and 12 related to COVID-19 outbreaks. The overall prevalence rate of anxiety during SARS and COVID-19 was 37.8% (95% CI: 21.1-54.5, P < 0.001, I2 = 96.9%) and 34.8% (95% CI: 29.1-40.4), respectively. For depression, the overall prevalence rate during SARS and COVID-19 was 30.9% (95% CI: 18.6-43.1, P < 0.001, I2 = 97.3%) and 32.4% (95% CI: 19.8-45.0, P < 0.001, I2 = 99.8%), respectively. The overall prevalence rate of stress was 9.4% (95% CI: -0.4 -19.2, P = 0.015, I2 = 83.3%) and 54.1% (95% CI: 35.7-72.6, P < 0.001, I2 = 98.8%) during SARS and COVID-19, respectively. The overall prevalence of PTSD was 15.1% (95% CI: 8.2-22.0, P < 0.001) during SARS epidemic, calculated by random-effects model (P < 0.05), with significant between-study heterogeneity (I2 = 93.5%). Conclusion: The SARS and COVID-19 epidemics have brought about high levels of psychological distress to individuals. Psychological interventions and contingent digital mental health platform should be promptly established nationwide for continuous surveillance of the increasing prevalence of negative psychological symptoms. Health policymakers and mental health experts should jointly collaborate to provide timely, contingent mental health treatment and psychological support to those in need to reduce the global disease burden. Systematic review registration: CRD42020182787, identifier PROSPER.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Prevalence
4.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 429, 2022 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050329

ABSTRACT

The association between coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccine acceptance and perceived stigma of having a mental illness is not clear. This study examined the association between COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and perceived stigma among patients with recurrent depressive disorder (depression hereafter) using network analysis. Participants were 1149 depressed patients (842 men, 307 women) who completed survey measures of perceived stigma and COVID-19 vaccine attitudes. T-tests, chi-square tests, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare differences in demographic and clinical characteristics between depressed patients who indented to accepted vaccines and those who were hesitant. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses assessed the unique association between COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and perceived stigma, independent of depression severity. Network analysis examined item-level relations between COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and perceived stigma after controlling for depressive symptoms. Altogether, 617 depressed patients (53.7%, 95 confidence intervals (CI) %: 50.82-56.58%) reported they would accept future COVID-19 vaccination. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated higher perceived stigma scores predicted lower levels of COVID-19 vaccination acceptance (ß = -0.125, P < 0.001), even after controlling for depression severity. In the network model of COVID-19 vaccination acceptance and perceived stigma nodes, "Feel others avoid me because of my illness", "Feel useless", and "Feel less competent than I did before" were the most influential symptoms. Furthermore, "COVID-19 vaccination acceptance" had the strongest connections with illness stigma items reflecting social rejection or social isolation concerns ("Employers/co-workers have discriminated", "Treated with less respect than usual", "Sense of being unequal in my relationships with others"). Given that a substantial proportion of depressed patients reported hesitancy with accepting COVID-19 vaccines and experiences of mental illness stigma related to social rejection and social isolation, providers working with this group should provide interventions to reduce stigma concerns toward addressing reluctance in receiving COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Depression , Female , Humans , Male , Social Stigma , Vaccination
5.
PeerJ ; 10: e13840, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040365

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic disrupted the working lives of Macau residents, possibly leading to mental health issues such as depression. The pandemic served as the context for this investigation of the network structure of depressive symptoms in a community sample. This study aimed to identify the backbone symptoms of depression and to propose an intervention target. Methods: This study recruited a convenience sample of 975 Macao residents between 20th August and 9th November 2020. In an electronic survey, depressive symptoms were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Symptom relationships and centrality indices were identified using directed and undirected network estimation methods. The undirected network was constructed using the extended Bayesian information criterion (EBIC) model, and the directed network was constructed using the Triangulated Maximally Filtered Graph (TMFG) method. The stability of the centrality indices was evaluated by a case-dropping bootstrap procedure. Wilcoxon signed rank tests of the centrality indices were used to assess whether the network structure was invariant between age and gender groups. Results: Loss of energy, psychomotor problems, and guilt feelings were the symptoms with the highest centrality indices, indicating that these three symptoms were backbone symptoms of depression. The directed graph showed that loss of energy had the highest number of outward projections to other symptoms. The network structure remained stable after randomly dropping 50% of the study sample, and the network structure was invariant by age and gender groups. Conclusion: Loss of energy, psychomotor problems and guilt feelings constituted the three backbone symptoms during the pandemic. Based on centrality and relative influence, loss of energy could be targeted by increasing opportunities for physical activity.

6.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(14): 5314-5316, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2030277

ABSTRACT

There has been no consensus about the best public health strategy for managing COVID-19 due to differences in sociocultural, political and economic contexts between countries. The central government of China has emphasized the importance of maintaining the dynamic zero-COVID policy in combating resurgences of new variants. To optimize the dynamic zero-COVID policy for future COVID-19 outbreaks in China, this article outlines a comprehensive strategy that should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Policy , Public Health
7.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 376, 2022 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016662

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The extent and severity of post-COVID-19 mental health symptoms among frontline clinicians are not clear. This study compared mental health symptoms (i.e., depression, anxiety, and insomnia symptoms) and global quality of life (QOL) after the first COVID-19 outbreak between the COVID-19 treating and non-COVID-19 treating frontline clinicians. METHODS: This cross-sectional, comparative, convenient-sampling study was conducted between October 13 and 22, 2020, which was five months after the first COVID-19 outbreak in China was brought under control. The severity of depression, anxiety, insomnia symptoms, and global QOL of the clinicians were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 items (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 items (GAD-7), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire-brief version (WHOQOL-BREF), respectively. The propensity score matching (PSM) method was used to identify comparable COVID-19 treating and non-COVID-19 treating frontline clinicians. A generalized linear model (GLM) was used to assess the differences in PHQ-9, GAD-7, ISI, and QOL scores between the COVID-19 treating and non-COVID-19 treating frontline clinicians. RESULTS: In total, 260 COVID-19 treating frontline clinicians and 260 matched non- COVID-19 treating frontline clinicians were included. Non-COVID-19 treating frontline clinicians experienced more frequent workplace violence (WPV) than the COVID-19 treating frontline clinicians (χ2 = 7.6, p = 0.006). COVID-19 treating frontline clinicians reported higher QOL compared to their non-COVID-19 treating frontline counterparts (b = 0.3, p = 0.042), after adjusting for WPV experience. COVID-19 treating and non- COVID-19 treating frontline clinicians reported similar PHQ-9, GAD-7, and ISI total scores (all p values > 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study did not reveal more severe post-COVID-19 mental health symptoms in COVID-19 treating frontline clinicians compared to non-COVID-19 treating frontline clinicians. It is possible that the implementation of timely and appropriate mental health, social and financial supports could have prevented the worsening of mental health symptoms among the COVID-19 treating frontline clinicians after the first COVID-19 outbreak in China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Mental Health , Propensity Score , Quality of Life
8.
J Affect Disord ; 318: 456-464, 2022 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007794

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Various populations have experienced significant increases in depression and decreased quality of life (QOL) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This network analysis study was designed to elucidate interconnections between particular depressive symptoms and different aspects of QOL and identify the most clinically important symptoms in this network among adults in Wuhan China, the initial epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This cross-sectional, convenience-sampling study (N = 2459) was conducted between May 25 to June 18, 2020, after the lockdown policy had been lifted in Wuhan. Depressive symptoms and QOL were measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and first two items of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire - brief version (WHOQOL-BREF), respectively. A network structure was constructed from the extended Bayesian Information Criterion (EBIC) model. Network centrality strength and bridge strength were evaluated along with the stability of the derived network model. RESULTS: Loss of energy (DEP-4) and Guilt feelings (DEP-6) were the two central symptoms with the highest strength as well as the two most prominent bridge symptoms connecting the clusters of depression and quality of life (QOL) in tandem with the two nodes from the QOL cluster. Network structure and bridge strengths remained stable after randomly dropping 75 % of the sample. CONCLUSION: Interventions targeting "Loss of energy" and "Guilt feelings" should be evaluated as strategies for reducing depressive symptoms and promoting improved QOL in COVID-19-affected populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Adult , Bayes Theorem , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics
9.
J Affect Disord ; 318: 80-87, 2022 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004180

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak may have a long-term impact on mental health in the general population. This study examined inter-relationships between post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSS) and quality of life (QOL) in Wuhan residents after the COVID-19 outbreak using network approach. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between May 25 and June 18, 2020. PTSS and QOL were measured using Chinese versions of the Post -Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist - Civilian Version and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire - brief version, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 2598 participants were included. A network analysis revealed "Avoiding reminders", "Feeling emotionally numb", "Avoiding thoughts", "Hypervigilance", and "Reliving experiences" as the most central (influential) nodes in PTSS network models both before and after controlling for covariates. The connection between "Avoiding thoughts" and "Avoiding reminders" had the strongest edge. Three symptom communities were detected and can be summarized as "re-experiencing and avoidance", "negative changes in thinking and mood", and "hyperarousal". The bridge symptoms connecting PTSS and QOL were "Sleep disturbances", "Irritability", and "Loss of interest". LIMITATIONS: Limitations included the cross-sectional study design, self-report measures in data collection, and lack of follow-ups beyond the initial phase of the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: PTSS were common among Wuhan residents even after the initial COVID-19 outbreak had passed. Attention should be paid to lingering symptoms of avoiding reminders, emotional numbness, avoiding thoughts, hypervigilance, and reliving experiences in treating PTSS related to the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Quality of Life , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
10.
Nat Sci Sleep ; 14: 1351-1362, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978919

ABSTRACT

Background: A high proportion of clinicians experienced common anxiety, insomnia and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study examined the item-level association of comorbid anxiety and insomnia symptoms among clinicians who suffered from depressive symptoms during the late stage of the COVID-19 pandemic using network analysis (NA). Methods: Clinicians with depressive symptoms (with a Patients Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) total score of 5 and above) were included in this study. Anxiety and insomnia symptoms were measured using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale - 7-item (GAD-7) and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), respectively. Network analysis was conducted to investigate the network structure, central symptoms, bridge symptoms, and network stability of these disturbances. Expected influence (EI) was used to measure the centrality of index. Results: Altogether, 1729 clinicians were included in this study. The mean age was 37.1 [standard deviation (SD)=8.04 years], while the mean PHQ-9 total score was 8.42 (SD=3.33), mean GAD-7 total score was 6.45 (SD=3.13) and mean ISI total score was 8.23 (SD=5.26). Of these clinicians, the prevalence of comorbid anxiety symptoms (GAD-7≥5) was 76.8% (95% CI 74.82-78.80%), while the prevalence of comorbid insomnia symptoms (ISI≥8) was 43.8% (95% CI: 41.50-46.18%). NA revealed that nodes ISI7 ("Interference with daytime functioning") (EI=1.18), ISI4 ("Sleep dissatisfaction") (EI=1.08) and ISI5 ("Noticeability of sleep problem by others") (EI=1.07) were the most central (influential) symptoms in the network model of comorbid anxiety and insomnia symptoms in clinicians. Bridge symptoms included nodes PHQ3 ("Sleep") (bridge EI=0.55) and PHQ4 ("Fatigue") (bridge EI=0.49). Gender did not significantly influence the network structure, but "having the experience of caring for COVID-19 patients" significantly influenced the network structure. Conclusion: Central symptoms and key bridge symptoms identified in this NA should be targeted in the treatment and preventive measures for clinicians suffering from comorbid anxiety, insomnia and depressive symptoms during the late stage of the COVID-19 pandemic.

11.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 303, 2022 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967593

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has a disproportionate impact on vulnerable subpopulations, including those with severe mental illness (SMI). This study examined the one-year prevalence of suicidal ideation (SI), suicide plans (SP), and suicide attempts (SA) in bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) patients during the pandemic. Prevalence rates were compared between the two disorders and associated factors were examined. A survey was conducted in six tertiary psychiatric hospitals and psychiatric units. People with a diagnosis of BD or SCZ were invited to participate. SI, SP, and SA (suicidality for short) were assessed and associated factors were examined using binary logistical regression. The 1-year prevalence of SI, SP and SA in BD patients were 58.3%, (95% CI: 54.1-62.6%), 38.4% (95% CI: 34.3-42.6%) and 38.6% (95% CI: 34.5-42.8%), respectively, which were higher than the corresponding figures in SCZ patients (SI: 33.2%, 95% CI: 28.6-37.8%; SP: 16.8%, 95% CI: 13.2-20.5%; SA: 19.4%, 95% CI: 15.5-23.3%). Patients with younger age, experience of cyberbullying, a history of SA among family or friends, a higher fatigue and physical pain score, inpatient status, and severe depressive symptoms were more likely to have suicidality. The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with increased risk of suicidality, particularly in BD patients. It is of importance to regularly screen suicidality in BD and SCZ patients during the pandemic even if they are clinically stable.


Subject(s)
Bipolar Disorder , COVID-19 , Schizophrenia , Suicide , Bipolar Disorder/epidemiology , Bipolar Disorder/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Schizophrenia/epidemiology , Suicidal Ideation
12.
J Affect Disord ; 314: 193-200, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1959646

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mental health problems are common among clinicians working in public hospitals even in the late stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. Network analysis is a novel approach to explore interactions between mental health problems at the symptom level. This study examined the network structure of comorbid depression and anxiety and their associations with quality of life (QOL) among hospital clinicians in China during the late stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A total of 4931 participants were recruited from October 13 to 22, 2020. The nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire-Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF) were used to measure depressive and anxiety symptoms, and QOL, respectively. Central and bridge symptoms were identified with centrality and bridge centrality indices, respectively. Network stability was examined using the case-dropping procedure. RESULTS: The prevalence of depression (defined as PHQ-9 total score ≥ 5) was 35.1 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) = 33.73-36.41 %)], the prevalence of anxiety (GAD-7 total score ≥ 5) was 32.5 % (95 % CI = 31.20-33.84 %), while the prevalence of comorbid depression and anxiety was 26.9 % (95 % CI = 25.7-28.2 %). "Impaired motor skills", "Trouble relaxing" and "Uncontrollable worry" were the central symptoms in the whole depression-anxiety network. "Irritability", "Feeling afraid" and "Sad mood" were the most key bridge symptoms linking depression and anxiety. Three symptoms ("Fatigue", "Trouble relaxing" and "Nervousness") were the most strongly and negatively associated with QOL. Neither gender nor the experiences of caring for COVID-19 patients was associated with network global strength, distribution of edge weights or individual edge weights. LIMITATIONS: The causality between variables could not be established. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed by self-report measures, which may result in recall bias and limitations in capturing clinical phenomena. CONCLUSIONS: Both the central (i.e., "Impaired motor skills", "Trouble relaxing" and "Uncontrollable worry") and bridge symptoms (i.e., "Irritability", "Feeling afraid" and "Sad mood") identified in this network analysis should be targeted in specific treatment and preventive measures for comorbid depressive and anxiety symptoms among clinicians in the late stage of the pandemic. Furthermore, "Fatigue", "Trouble relaxing" and "Nervousness" are key symptoms to address to improve clinicians' QOL.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life/psychology
14.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(10): 3934-3941, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1918062

ABSTRACT

Background: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak had a detrimental impact on the mental health of older adults. This study evaluated the central symptoms and their associations in the network of depressive symptoms and compared the network structure differences between male and female older adults in Hong Kong. Methods: Altogether, 3,946 older adults participated in this study. We evaluated the centrality indicators for network robustness using stability and accuracy tests, and examined the potential differences between the structure and connectivity of depression networks in male and female older adults. Results: The overall prevalence of depressive symptoms was 43.7% (95% CI=40.6-46.7%) in males, and 54.8% (95% CI=53.1-56.5%) in females (P<0.05). Sad Mood, Guilt, Motor problems and Lack of Energy were influential symptoms in the network model. Gender differences were found in the network global strength, especially in the following edges: Sad Mood--Guilt, Concentration--Guilt, Anhedonia--Motor, Lack of Energy--Suicide, Appetite--Suicide and Concentration--Suicide. Conclusions: Central symptoms in the depressive symptom network among male and female older adults may be prioritized in the treatment and prevention of depression during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Sex Factors
17.
J Affect Disord ; 311: 181-188, 2022 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851380

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has greatly impacted individuals' mental health and quality of life, network analysis studies of associations between symptoms of common syndromes during the pandemic are lacking, particularly among Macau residents. This study investigated the network structure of insomnia, anxiety, and depression and explored their associations with quality of life in this population. METHOD: This online survey was conducted in Macau between August 18 and November 9, 2020. Insomnia, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and quality of life were assessed with the Insomnia Severity Index, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire, and World Health Organization Quality of Life-brief version, respectively. Analyses were performed to identify central symptoms and bridge symptoms of this network and their links to quality of life. RESULTS: 975 participants enrolled in this survey. The prevalence of depressive, anxiety and insomnia symptoms were 38.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 35.5%-41.5%), 28.8% (95%CI: 26.0%-31.7%), and 27.6% (95% CI: 24.8%-30.4%), respectively. "Sleep maintenance" had the highest expected influence centrality, followed by "Trouble relaxing", "Interference with daytime functioning", "Irritability", and "Fatigue". Five bridge symptoms were identified: "Sleep problems", "Restlessness", "Irritability", "Severity of sleep onset", and "Motor activity". The insomnia symptom, "Sleep dissatisfaction", had the strongest direct relation to quality of life. CONCLUSION: Insomnia symptoms played a critical role in the distress symptom network regarding node and bridge centrality as well as associations with quality of life among Macau residents. Close attention to these symptoms may be critical to reducing risk and preventing exacerbations in common forms of distress in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Macau , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology
18.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 98, 2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795801

ABSTRACT

Network analysis is an effective approach for examining complex relationships between psychiatric symptoms. This study was designed to examine item-level relationships between depressive and anxiety symptoms using network analysis in an adolescent sample and identified the most central symptoms within the depressive-anxiety symptoms network model. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionire-9 (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener (GAD-7), respectively. The structure of depressive and anxiety symptoms was characterized using "Strength" and "Bridge Strength" as centrality indices in the symptom network. Network stability was tested using a case-dropping bootstrap procedure. Finally, a Network Comparison Test (NCT) was conducted to examine whether network characteristics differed on the basis of gender, school grade and residence. Network analysis revealed that nodes PHQ2 ("Sad mood"), GAD6 ("Irritability"), GAD3 ("Worry too much"), and PHQ6 ("Guilty") were central symptoms in the network model of adolescents. Additionally, bridge symptoms linking anxiety and depressive symptoms in this sample were nodes PHQ6 ("Guilty"), PHQ2 ("Sad mood"), and PHQ9 ("Suicide ideation"). Gender, school grade and residence did not significantly affect the network structure. Central symptoms (e.g., Sad mood, Irritability, Worry too much, and Guilty) and key bridge symptoms (e.g., Guilty, Sad mood, and Suicide ideation) in the depressive and anxiety symptoms network may be useful as potential targets for intervention among adolescents who are at risk for or suffer from depressive and anxiety symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics
19.
Front Neurol ; 13: 861214, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785382

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, there have been lots of published work examining the association between COVID-19 and mental health, particularly, anxiety and depression in the general populations and disease subpopulations globally. Depression is a debilitating disorder affecting individuals' level of bio-psychological-social functioning across different age groups. Since almost all studies were cross-sectional studies, there seems to be a lack of robust, large-scale, and technological-based interventional studies to restore the general public's optimal psychosocial wellbeing amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. Transcranial pulse stimulation (TPS) is a relatively new non-intrusive brain stimulation (NIBS) technology, and only a paucity of studies was conducted related to the TPS treatment on older adults with mild neurocognitive disorders. However, there is by far no study conducted on young adults with major depressive disorder nationwide. This gives us the impetus to execute the first nationwide study evaluating the efficacy of TPS on the treatment of depression among young adults in Hong Kong. Methods: This study proposes a two-armed single-blinded randomised controlled trial including TPS as an intervention group and a waitlist control group. Both groups will be measured at baseline (T1), immediately after the intervention (T2), and at the 3- month follow-up (T3). Recruitment: A total of 30 community-dwelling subjects who are aged 18 and above and diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) will be recruited in this study. All subjects will be computer randomised into either the intervention group or the waitlist control group, balanced by gender and age on a 1:1 ratio. Intervention: All subjects in each group will have to undertake functional MRI (fMRI) before and after six 30-min TPS sessions, which will be completed in 2 weeks' time. Outcomes: Baseline measurements and post-TPS evaluation of the psychological outcomes (i.e., depression, cognition, anhedonia, and instrumental activities of daily living) will also be conducted on all participants. A 3-month follow-up period will be usedto assess the long-term sustainability of the TPS intervention. For statistical analysis, ANOVA with repeated measures will be used to analyse data. Missing data were managed by multiple mutations. The level of significance will be set to p < 0.05. Significance of the Study: Results of this study will be used to inform health policy to determine whether TPS could be considered as a top treatment option for MDD. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT05006365.

20.
J Affect Disord ; 307: 142-148, 2022 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783445

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with an increased risk of mental health problems including suicide in many subpopulations, but its influence on stable patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) has been studied fleetingly. This study examined the one-year prevalence of suicidality including suicidal ideation (SI), suicide plans (SP), and suicide attempts (SA) as well as their correlates in clinically stable MDD patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted between October 1, 2020, and October 15, 2021, in six tertiary psychiatric hospitals. Socio-demographic information, clinical data and one-year prevalence of suicidality were recorded. RESULTS: Altogether, 1718 participants who met the eligibility criteria were included. The overall one-year prevalence of suicidality during the COVID-19 pandemic was 68.04% (95% confidence intervals (CI) =65.84-70.25%), with one-year SI prevalence of 66.4% (95%CI = 64.18-68.65%), SP prevalence of 36.26% (95%CI = 33.99-38.54%), and SA prevalence of 39.35% (95%CI = 37.04-41.66%). Binary logistic regression analyses revealed male gender, married marital status, college education level and above and age were negatively associated with risk of suicidality. Urban residence, unemployed work status, experiences of cyberbullying, a history of suicide among family members or friends, and more severe fatigue, physical pain, and residual depressive symptoms were positively associated with risk of suicidality. CONCLUSIONS: Suicidality is common among clinically stable MDD patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Regular suicide screening and preventive measures should be provided to clinically stable MDD patients during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Suicide , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/psychology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Suicidal Ideation
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