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1.
PeerJ ; 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1515636

ABSTRACT

Background The outbreak of the 2019 coronavirus disease outbreak (COVID-19) had a detrimental impact on adolescents’ daily life and studying, which could increase the risk of depression. This study examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms (depression hereafter) among Chinese adolescents and its associated factors. Methods An online survey was conducted during the COVID-19 outbreak in China. Adolescents aged 11–20 years who currently lived in China were invited to participate in the study. Data were collected with the “SurveyStar” platform using the Snowball Sampling method. Depression was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Results A total of 9,554 adolescents participated in the study. The prevalence of depression was 36.6% (95% CI [35.6%–37.6%]);the prevalence of mild and moderate-severe depression was 9.2% (95% CI [8.9%–9.5%]) and 27.4% (95% CI [26.9%–27.9%]), respectively. Female gender (OR = 1.235, P < 0.001), senior secondary school grade (OR = 1.513, P < 0.001), sleep duration of <6 h/day (OR = 2.455, P < 0.001), and living in Hubei province (total number of infected cases > 10,000) (OR = 1.245, P = 0.038) were significantly associated with higher risk of depression. Concern about COVID-19 (OR = 0.632, P < 0.001), participating in distance learning (OR = 0.728, P = 0.001), sleep duration of >8 h/day (OR = 0.726, P < 0.001), exercise of >30 min/day, and study duration of ≥4 h/day (OR = 0.835, P < 0.001) were associated with lower risk of depression. Conclusion Depression was common among adolescents in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. Considering the negative impact of depression on daily life and health outcomes, timely screening and appropriate interventions are urgently needed for depressed adolescents during the COVID-19 outbreak.

2.
Nat Sci Sleep ; 13: 1921-1930, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503595

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is associated with increased risk of insomnia symptoms (insomnia hereafter) in health-care professionals. Network analysis is a novel approach in linking mechanisms at the symptom level. The aim of this study was to characterize the insomnia network structure in mental health professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients and Methods: A total of 10,516 mental health professionals were recruited from psychiatric hospitals or psychiatric units of general hospitals nationwide between March 15 and March 20, 2020. Insomnia was assessed with the insomnia severity index (ISI). Centrality index (ie, strength) was used to identify symptoms central to the network. The stability of network was examined using a case-dropping bootstrap procedure. The network structures between different genders were also compared. Results: The overall network model showed that the item ISI7 (interference with daytime functioning) was the most central symptom in mental health professionals with the highest strength. The network was robust in stability and accuracy tests. The item ISI4 (sleep dissatisfaction) was connected to the two main clusters of insomnia symptoms (ie, the cluster of nocturnal and daytime symptoms). No significant gender network difference was found. Conclusion: Interference with daytime functioning was the most central symptom, suggesting that it may be an important treatment outcome measure for insomnia. Appropriate treatments, such as stimulus control techniques, cognitive behavioral therapy and relaxation training, could be developed. Moreover, addressing sleep satisfaction in treatment could simultaneously ameliorate daytime and nocturnal symptoms.

3.
Vaccines ; 9(11):1285, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1502548

ABSTRACT

Background: Following the initial manufacture of COVID-19 vaccines, numerous studies have investigated factors that influence people’s vaccination intentions. However, no studies have examined links of vaccination attitudes with body-related attitudes, especially body appreciation. To address this gap in the literature, we conducted this study to disentangle the relationship between college students’ COVID-19 vaccination intentions and body appreciation. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among Chinese college students. Participants completed the Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2) and other questionnaire measures of demographics, intentions to be vaccinated, and attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccination programs. Results: A total of 2058 college students participated in this study. Students who were willing to get COVID-19 vaccines had significantly higher BAS-2 scores than did those who were unwilling to receive a vaccine (3.61 ± 0.84 vs. 3.34 ± 0.92, p < 0.001). A hierarchical multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to test the association between body appreciation and COVID-19 vaccine intentions when controlling for other covariates;elevated BAS-2 scores were associated with greater willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccines (OR = 1.250, 95%CI: 1.112–1.406, p < 0.001), independent of other significant influences. Conclusion: Our study was the first to reveal that body appreciation is a significant factor related to college students’ COVID-19 vaccination intentions. Public health interventions designed to improve people’s body-appreciation levels may help in efforts to promote universal immunization.

4.
Asian Journal of Gerontology and Geriatrics ; 16(1):58, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1481684

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the surge of health information, including misinformation or infodemic. This study aimed to investigate the online health information seeking and its effects on psychological well-being among older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This multi-country, cross-sectional study included data gathered from April to May 2020 on older adults aged >60 years from Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau. Descriptive statistics were used to identify health information-seeking patterns. Logistic regression was used to determine associations of the patterns with psychological well-being. Results: 180 older adults were included. Most had accessed the internet to seek COVID-19 information. Information sources included search engines, news portals, social media, video sharing sites, and online encyclopaedias. Health-specific platforms were seldom accessed. Information sought included the spread of COVID-19, transmission routes, and symptoms. Older adults' psychological well-being was positively associated with availability of health information in Chinese (OR=4.69, p<0.05), search for topics that provide hygiene recommendations (OR=6.78, p<0.05), and access to blogs that offer health instructions (OR=3.59, p<0.05). Whereas lower psychological well-being was associated with information about individual measures on how to protect against COVID-19 (OR=0.10, p<0.05) and social restrictions (OR=0.19, p<0.05). Conclusion: Older adults prefer to access easily understandable information and recommendations to improve overall health during the COVID-19 pandemic. To improve psychological well-being, resources to enhance their capacity to protect themselves against COVID-19 and measures to manage social isolation should be offered.

5.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 735973, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472406

ABSTRACT

Background: Depression has been a common mental health problem during the COVID-19 epidemic. From a network perspective, depression can be conceptualized as the result of mutual interactions among individual symptoms, an approach that may elucidate the structure and mechanisms underlying this disorder. This study aimed to examine the structure of depression among residents in Wuhan, the epicenter of the COVID-19 outbreak in China, in the later stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A total of 2,515 participants were recruited from the community via snowball sampling. The Patient Health Questionnaire was used to assess self-reported depressive symptoms with the QuestionnaireStar program. The network structure and relevant centrality indices of depression were examined in this sample. Results: Network analysis revealed Fatigue, Sad mood, Guilt and Motor disturbances as the most central symptoms, while Suicide and Sleep problems had the lowest centrality. No significant differences were found between women and men regarding network structure (maximum difference = 0.11, p = 0.44) and global strength (global strength difference = 0.04; female vs. male: 3.78 vs. 3.83, p = 0.51), a finding that suggests there are no gender differences in the structure or centrality of depressive symptoms. Limitations: Due to the cross-sectional study design, causal relationships between these depressive symptoms or dynamic changes in networks over time could not be established. Conclusions: Fatigue, Sad mood, Guilt, and Motor disturbances should be prioritized as targets in interventions and prevention efforts to reduce depression among residents in Wuhan, in the later stage of the COVID-19 pandemic.

6.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 686177, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450841

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic emerged, Internet usage has increased among adolescents. Due to this trend, the prevalence of Internet addiction disorder (IAD) may have increased within this group. This study examined the prevalence of IAD and its correlates among clinically stable adolescents with psychiatric disorders in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. Method: A multi-center, cross-sectional study was carried out between April 29 and June 9, 2020 in three major tertiary mental health centers in China. IAD and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), respectively. Results: A total of 1,454 adolescent psychiatric patients were included in final analyses. The prevalence of IAD was 31.2% (95% CI: 28.8-33.6%) during the COVID-19 pandemic. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that poor relationships with parents (P < 0.001, OR = 2.34, 95%CI: 1.49-3.68) and elevated total PHQ-9 scores (P < 0.001, OR = 1.19, 95%CI: 1.16-1.21) were significantly associated with higher risk for IAD while longer daily physical exercise durations (P = 0.04, OR = 0.67, 95%CI: 0.46-0.98) and rural residence (P = 0.003, OR = 0.62, 95%CI: 0.46-0.85) were significant correlates of lower risk for IAD. Conclusions: IAD was common among adolescent patients with clinically stable psychiatric disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic; regular physical exercise, healthy relationships with parents and fewer symptoms of depression were associated with lower risk within this population.

7.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 505, 2021 10 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447295

ABSTRACT

Close contacts of those with COVID-19 (CC) may experience distress and long-lasting mental health effects. However, the mental health status and quality of life (QOL) in CC have not been adequately examined. This study examined the mental health status and QOL in CC during the post-COVID-19 period. This cross-sectional study comprised 1169 CC and 1290 who were non-close contacts (non-CC). Demographic data were collected; depression, fatigue, post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and QOL were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire - 9 items (PHQ-9), fatigue numeric rating scale, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist - 17 items (PCL-17), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire - brief version (WHOQOL-BREF), respectively. Analysis of covariance was used to compare depressive symptoms, QOL, fatigue, and PTSS between the CC and non-CC groups. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the independent correlates for depression, fatigue, PTSS, and QOL in the CC group. Compared to the non-CC group, the CC group reported significantly more severe depression (F(1, 2458) = 5.58, p = 0.018) and fatigue (F(1, 2458) = 9.22, p = 0.002) in the post-COVID-19 period. No significant differences in PTSS and QOL between the CC and non-CC groups were found (F(1, 2458) = 2.93, p = 0.087 for PTSS; F(1, 2458) = 3.45, p = 0.064 for QOL). In the CC group, younger age, financial loss due to COVID-19, and perception of poor or fair health status were significantly associated with depression and fatigue, while frequent use of mass media was significantly associated with fatigue. In conclusion, close contacts of COVID-19 patients experienced high levels of depression and fatigue in the post-COVID-19 period. Due to the negative effects of depression and fatigue on daily functioning, early detection and timely interventions should be provided to this neglected population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Health Status , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Am J Addict ; 30(6): 585-592, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416264

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of problematic Internet use (PIU) in the post-COVID-19 pandemic era is not known. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of PIU among baccalaureate nursing students (hereafter: nursing students) in the post-COVID-19 era. METHODS: A total of 1070 nursing students were consecutively invited to participate in this study from the nursing schools of five universities. PIU and quality of life (QOL) were assessed using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF), respectively. t Tests, χ2 , tests, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare basic demographic and clinical characteristics between participants with and without PIU. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine independent correlates. RESULTS: The prevalence of PIU was 23.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.7%-25.8%). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that second- (p = .024) and third-year (p = .012) students were more likely to suffer from PIU compared with first year students. Students with more severe depressive (p = .014) and anxiety symptoms (p = .011) were independently and significantly associated with more severe PIU. After controlling for covariates, nursing students with PIU had a lower overall QOL score (p = .002). CONCLUSION AND SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: Problematic Internet use (PIU) was common among nursing students in the post-COVID-19 era. Considering the negative impact of PIU on QOL and academic performance, regular screening should be conducted and effective interventions implemented for nursing students with PIU. This was the first study on the prevalence of PIU among nursing students in the post-COVID-19 era. The findings of this study could help health professionals and education authorities to understand the patterns of PIU and its influence on QOL among nursing students and to allocate health resources and develop effective measures to reduce the risk of PIU in this population.

9.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 460, 2021 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397857

ABSTRACT

In network theory depression is conceptualized as a complex network of individual symptoms that influence each other, and central symptoms in the network have the greatest impact on other symptoms. Clinical features of depression are largely determined by sociocultural context. No previous study examined the network structure of depressive symptoms in Hong Kong residents. The aim of this study was to characterize the depressive symptom network structure in a community adult sample in Hong Kong during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 11,072 participants were recruited between 24 March and 20 April 2020. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. The network structure of depressive symptoms was characterized, and indices of "strength", "betweenness", and "closeness" were used to identify symptoms central to the network. Network stability was examined using a case-dropping bootstrap procedure. Guilt, Sad Mood, and Energy symptoms had the highest centrality values. In contrast, Concentration, Suicide, and Sleep had lower centrality values. There were no significant differences in network global strength (p = 0.259), distribution of edge weights (p = 0.73) and individual edge weights (all p values > 0.05 after Holm-Bonferroni corrections) between males and females. Guilt, Sad Mood, and Energy symptoms were central in the depressive symptom network. These central symptoms may be targets for focused treatments and future psychological and neurobiological research to gain novel insight into depression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348642

ABSTRACT

In response to the worsening situation of the COVID pandemic, this follow-up study aimed to assess the impact of the "third wave" of the outbreak on sleep and mood disturbances among Hong Kong citizens. A total of 339 respondents included in our last study during the second wave (4-11 August 2020) joined this survey (response rate = 51.1%). The questionnaire collected data on sleep conditions, mood, stress, and risk perception. The sleep quality and mood status were assessed using the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), and Patient Health Questionnaire-9. The weighted prevalence of insomnia, anxiety, and depression was 33.6%, 15.3%, and 22.0%, respectively. Compared with the last survey, five out of six sleep parameters significantly worsened despite the lack of difference in the ISI score. The GAD-7 score was significantly lower. Old-aged adults were less likely to maintain good sleep quality compared with middle-aged adults (adjusted OR = 4.03, 95% CI: 1.04-15.73). Respondents without psychiatric disorder were more likely to be anxiety-free across the two time points (adjusted OR = 7.12, 95% CI: 1.33-38.03). One-third of Hong Kong people reported poor sleeping quality in the third wave of the COVID-19 outbreak. Policy-makers need to propose a contingent plan to allocate mental health resources to vulnerable subpopulations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Anxiety , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Disease Outbreaks , Follow-Up Studies , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 678917, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325577

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused psychological distress and heavy burden in medical professionals. This study examined the prevalence of fatigue and its association with quality of life (QOL) in clinicians working in ophthalmology and otolaryngology departments during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. Methods: This was a cross-sectional national online survey conducted between March 15 and March 20, 2020 in China. The severity of fatigue, depression and QOL were measured using the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire-Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF), respectively. Results: In total, 3,912 clinicians completed the survey (2,155 in ophthalmology department, and 1,757 in otolaryngology department); 2,049 [52.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 50.8-53.9%] reported fatigue (NRS score ≥ 4). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that junior clinicians [Odds ratio (OR) = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.68-1.00, P = 0.045] had lower risk of fatigue; while clinicians working in tertiary hospitals (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.02-1.49, P = 0.029), and the presence of more severe depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 total score ≥ 5; OR = 7.40, 95% CI = 6.29-8.70, P < 0.001) were independently associated with higher risk of fatigue. After controlling for covariates, clinicians with fatigue had significantly lower QOL compared with those without [F (1, 3, 911) = 283.75, P < 0.001]. Conclusion: Fatigue was common in clinicians working in ophthalmology and otolaryngology departments during the COVID-19 pandemic. Considering the negative impact of fatigue on clinicians' QOL, health authorities and policymakers should conduct regular screening for fatigue and develop preventive strategies for frontline clinicians working under excessive stress.

13.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 691079, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325538

ABSTRACT

Background: As COVID-19 vaccination programs are being implemented widely, it is important to examine the attitudes of adolescents toward the COVID-19 vaccine and its uptake. The aim of this study was to examine the acceptance of and attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccines, and their associated factors among adolescents in China. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, observational study conducted between November 27, 2020 and March 12, 2021 using snowball sampling method. Basic sociodemographic characteristics, health-related information, severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms, and attitudes and behavior toward COVID-19 vaccines were assessed. Results: Overall, 1,057 adolescents participated in this study, yielding a response rate of 89.3%. There were 799 (75.59%) [95% Confidence Interval (CI) 73.00-78.18%] adolescents who would accept future COVID-19 vaccination. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that adolescents who previously heard about COVID-19 vaccines (P = 0.001, odds ratio (OR) = 1.90, 95%CI:1.32-2.74), who thought that COVID-19 vaccines could protect them from COVID-19 infection (P = 0.002, OR = 2.93, 95%CI: 1.49-5.70), and those who encouraged their family members and friends to get vaccinated (P < 0.001, OR = 12.19, 95%CI: 6.78-21.92) and who believed that vaccines are safe (P = 0.012, OR = 3.94, 95%CI: 1.36-11.44) were more likely to accept future COVID-19 vaccination. In addition, younger adolescents (P = 0.003, OR = 0.93, 95%CI: 0.89-0.98) were more likely to accept future COVID-19 vaccines than older adolescents. Conclusions: In conclusion, Chinese adolescents appeared to have positive attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccines. It is important to increase public confidence and knowledge regarding the efficacy and safety of COVID-19 vaccines to maximize the success of vaccination programs.

14.
J Affect Disord ; 294: 753-760, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322168

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted the mental health and well-being of medical personnel, including nursing students. Network analysis provides a deeper characterization of symptom-symptom interactions in mental disorders. The aim of this study was to elucidate characteristics of anxiety and depressive symptom networks of Chinese nursing students during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: A total of 932 nursing students were included. Anxiety and depressive symptom were measured using the seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) and two-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), respectively. Central symptoms and bridge symptoms were identified via centrality indices and bridge centrality indices, respectively. Network stability was examined using the case-dropping procedure. RESULTS: Irritability, Uncontrollable worry, Trouble relaxing, and Depressed mood had the highest centrality values. Three bridge symptoms (Depressed mood, Nervousness, and Anhedonia) were also identified. Neither gender nor region of residence was associated with network global strength, distribution of edge weights or individual edge weights. LIMITATIONS: Data were collected in a cross-sectional study design, therefore, causal relations and dynamic changes between anxiety and depressive symptoms over time could not be inferred. Generalizability of findings may be limited to Chinese nursing students during a particular phase of the current pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Irritability, Uncontrollable worry, Trouble relaxing, and Depressed mood constituted central symptoms maintaining the anxiety-depression network structure of Chinese nursing students during the pandemic. Timely, systemic multi-level interventions targeting central symptoms and bridge symptoms may be effective in alleviating co-occurring experiences of anxiety and depression in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Nursing , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 681318, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304620

ABSTRACT

Aims: Carers of psychiatric patients often suffered from mental and physical burden during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic due to the lack of mental health services. This study investigated the pattern of fatigue and its association with quality of life (QOL) among the carers of patients attending psychiatric emergency services during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, carers of patients attending psychiatric emergency services during the COVID-19 pandemic were consecutively included. Fatigue, insomnia symptoms, depressive symptoms, and QOL were assessed with standardized instruments. Results: A total of 496 participants were included. The prevalence of fatigue was 44.0% (95% CI = 39.6-48.4%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that fatigue was positively associated with higher education level (OR = 1.92, P < 0.01) and more severe depressive (OR = 1.18, P < 0.01) and insomnia symptoms (OR = 1.11, P < 0.01). ANCOVA analysis revealed that the QOL was significantly lower in carers with fatigue compared with those without (P = 0.03). Conclusions: Fatigue was common among carers of patients attending psychiatric emergency services during the COVID-19 pandemic. Considering the adverse impact of fatigue on QOL and other health outcomes, routine screening and appropriate intervention for fatigue are warranted for this subpopulation.

16.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 665507, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259397

ABSTRACT

Background: The prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in COVID-19 survivors is unclear. This study examined the prevalence of PTSS and its association with quality of life (QOL) among COVID-19 survivors during the post-COVID-19 era in China. Methods: This was a comparative, cross-sectional study. PTSS, depressive symptoms, and QOL were assessed with standardized instruments. Results: A total of 134 COVID-19 survivors and 214 non-infected controls (healthy controls hereafter) were recruited. Among COVID-19 survivors, the PTSS prevalence was 18.66% (95%CI: 11.98-25.34%), which was significantly higher than that (5.61%, 95%CI: 2.50-8.71%) of healthy controls (P < 0.001). After controlling for covariates, an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that COVID-19 survivors had a higher PTSS total score than did healthy controls [F (1,348) = 4.664, P = 0.032]. A separate ANCOVA revealed there were no significant differences in overall QOL between COVID-19 survivors with and without PTSS [F (1,348) = 1.067, P = 0.304]. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that more severe depressive symptoms were significantly associated with PTSS in COVID-19 survivors (OR = 1.425, P < 0.001). Conclusions: PTSS were more severe in COVID-19 survivors compared to healthy controls in the post-COVID-19 era. Considering their negative impact on daily life and functional outcomes, regular assessment and appropriate treatments of PTSS should be conducted in COVID-19 survivors.

17.
Global Health ; 17(1): 54, 2021 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220233

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is closely associated with physical and mental health problems; however, little is known about the severity of stigma caused by COVID-19 among its survivors. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare differences in stigma experiences of COVID-19 survivors versus healthy controls after the COVID-19 outbreak peak in China. METHODS: This cross-sectional study comprised 154 COVID-19 survivors and 194 healthy controls recruited through consecutive and convenience sampling methods, respectively. COVID-19 related stigma was measured by the Social Impact Scale (SIS). Stigma differences between the two groups were compared with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and a generalized linear model (GLM) was used to identify independent correlates of COVID-19-related stigma in this study. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, COVID-19 survivors reported more overall stigma (F(1,347) = 60.82, p < 0.001), and stigma in domains of social rejection (F(1,347) = 56.54, p < 0.001), financial insecurity (F(1,347) = 19.96, p < 0.001), internalized shame (F(1,347) = 71.40, p < 0.001) and social isolation (F(1,347) = 34.73, p < 0.001). Status as a COVID-19 survivor, having family members infected with COVID-19, being married, economic loss during the COVID-19 pandemic, and depressive symptoms were positively associated with higher overall stigma levels (all p values < 0.05). CONCLUSION: COVID-19-related stigma is commonly experienced among COVID-19 survivors even though the outbreak has been well-contained in China. Routine assessment of stigma experiences should be conducted on COVID-19 survivors and appropriate psychological assistance, public education, and anti-stigma campaigns and policies should be enforced to reduce stigma within this vulnerable subpopulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Social Stigma , Socioeconomic Factors , Adult , Analysis of Variance , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Correlation of Data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data
18.
Psychosom Med ; 83(4): 345-350, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218025

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: According to recent studies, the COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with an increased risk of mental health problems across many subpopulations including pregnant and postnatal women. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms (depression hereafter) in Chinese pregnant and postpartum women during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This was a multicenter, cross-sectional study comprising 1309 pregnant and postpartum women across 12 provinces in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Depression was assessed using the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Univariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: The prevalence of depression in pregnant and postpartum women was 27.43% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 25.01%-29.85%). Women who were worried about themselves or their babies being infected with COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR] = 2.562, 95% CI = 1.670-3.929), and those who had delayed regular medical checkups (OR = 2.434, 95% CI = 1.580-3.750) were at higher risk of depression. Compared with those living in central and western parts of China, women living in northern (OR = 0.513, 95% CI = 0.326-0.807) and southeastern parts of China (OR = 0.626, 95% CI = 0.463-0.846) were less likely to have depression. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with an increased likelihood of mental health problems among pregnant and postnatal women. Over a quarter of the pregnant and postpartum women in China had depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. Considering the negative health impact of depression, preventive measures, regular mental health screening, and medical checkups are needed with the goal to reduce the risk of depression in this vulnerable population during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Depression, Postpartum/etiology , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/etiology , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 649989, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211874

ABSTRACT

Background: Workplace violence is a major concern for clinicians worldwide. There has been little data on the epidemiology of workplace violence against frontline clinicians during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study examined the pattern of workplace violence and its association with quality of life (QOL) against frontline clinicians during the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic in China. Methods: A cross-sectional online study was conducted in China between March 15 and March 20, 2020. Frontline clinicians' experience with workplace violence was measured with six standardized questions derived from the Workplace Violence Scale, while anxiety, depressive, and insomnia symptoms, and QOL were measured using the General Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire, the Patient Health Questionnaire, the Insomnia Severity Index, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire, respectively. Univariate analyses, multivariable logistic regression analyses, and structural equation modeling (SEM) were conducted. Results: A total of 15,531 clinicians completed the assessment; 2,878 (18.5, 95% CI = 17.92-19.14%) reported workplace violence during the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic (verbal violence: 16.1%; physical violence: 6.9%). According to multivariable models, key correlates of workplace violence were male gender, longer work experience, higher education level, smoking, working in the psychiatry or emergency department, working in tertiary hospitals, being involved in direct care of infected patients, having infected family/ friends/ colleagues, and frequently using social communication programs. Clinicians working in inpatient departments were less likely to report workplace violence compared to those working in outpatient departments. SEM analysis revealed that both violence and emotional disturbances (anxiety, depression, and insomnia) directly affected QOL (standardized direct effect = -0.031, and -0.566, respectively, P < 0.05), while emotional disturbances partly mediated the association between work violence and QOL (standardized indirect effect = -0.184, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Frontline clinicians were vulnerable to workplace violence during the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to the negative impact of workplace violence on quality of care and clinicians' QOL, health authorities and policymakers should take effective measures to reduce workplace violence against clinicians.

20.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(6): 1469-1475, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206428

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccination is an important preventative measure against the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic. To implement vaccination and immunization programs effectively, it is essential to investigate public attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccines. This study examined the attitudes of Chinese college students toward COVID-19 vaccines and their associated factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in college students nationwide from December 27, 2020 to January 18, 2021. Attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccines and acceptance of future vaccination programs were assessed. Results: Totally, 2,881 college students participated in this survey; of them, 76.3% (95% CI: 74.8% - 77.9%) were willing to accept a COVID-19 vaccine in the future. Multiple logistic analysis revealed that students living in urban (OR=1.409, 95% CI: 1.152 - 1.724, p=0.001) and those studying health-related courses (OR=1.581, 95% CI: 1.291 - 1.935, p<0.001) were more likely to have a positive attitude toward COVID-19 vaccines. In addition, those who were worried about being infected with COVID-19 (very much vs no, OR=1.690, 95% CI: 1.212-2.356, p=0.002), heard previously about COVID-19 vaccines (OR=1.659, 95% CI: 1.268-2.170, p<0.001), believed that vaccines are safe (Yes vs No, OR=3.570, 95% CI: 1.825-6.980), thought that vaccines can protect people from being infected with COVID-19 (Yes vs No, OR=1.957, 95% CI: 1.286-2.979, p=0.002), and had encouraged their family and friends to have a vaccine (Yes vs No, OR=17.745, 95% CI: 12.271-25.660, p<0.001) had higher acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination. Conclusions: A high rate of acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines was found among Chinese college students. However, vaccine uptake may be reduced by concerns about vaccine safety and efficacy. Alleviating these concerns and enhancing public confidence in vaccines are crucial for future immunization programs against the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Attitude to Health , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Students/psychology , Universities , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult
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