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1.
Journal of Teaching in Physical Education ; 42(1):23-33, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20239188

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To identify motivational determinants explaining Physical Education teachers' behaviors promoting students' physical activity (PA) amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: Nine hundred thirty-one Italian and French teachers completed a questionnaire assessing motivational determinants (self-determined motivation, self-efficacy, perceived ease and usefulness toward digital technologies, engagement at work), their intention and behaviors promoting PA, in reference to before and during the pandemic. Path analyses tested the associations of changes in motivational determinants with changes in intention and behaviors. Results: Increases in autonomous, controlled motivation, self-efficacy, and perceived usefulness toward digital technologies, and a decrease in amotivation were associated with an increase in the intention to promote PA. In turn, an increase in intention, but also in self-efficacy, autonomous motivation, and perceived usefulness toward digital technologies were paired with an increase in behaviors promoting PA. Conclusion: Implications regarding the commitment of Physical Education teachers to challenging pedagogical situations, such as promoting PA amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, are discussed.

2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523962

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and the associated governmental restrictions suddenly changed everyday life and potentially affected exercise behavior. The aim of this study was to explore whether individuals changed their preference for certain types of physical exercise during the pandemic and to identify risk factors for inactivity. An international online survey with 13,881 adult participants from 18 countries/regions was conducted during the initial COVID-19 related lockdown (between April and May 2020). Data on types of exercise performed during and before the initial COVID-19 lockdown were collected, translated, and categorized (free-text input). Sankey charts were used to investigate these changes, and a mixed-effects logistic regression model was used to analyze risks for inactivity. Many participants managed to continue exercising but switched from playing games (e.g., football, tennis) to running, for example. In our sample, the most popular exercise types during the initial COVID-19 lockdown included endurance, muscular strength, and multimodal exercise. Regarding risk factors, higher education, living in rural areas, and physical activity before the COVID-19 lockdown reduced the risk for inactivity during the lockdown. In this relatively active multinational sample of adults, most participants were able to continue their preferred type of exercise despite restrictions, or changed to endurance type activities. Very few became physically inactive. It seems people can adapt quickly and that the constraints imposed by social distancing may even turn into an opportunity to start exercising for some. These findings may be helpful to identify individuals at risk and optimize interventions following a major context change that can disrupt the exercise routine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Exercise , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Sports Sci ; 39(24): 2796-2803, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352024

ABSTRACT

Physical activity has been proposed as a protective factor for COVID-19 hospitalisation. However, the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. We examined the association between physical activity and COVID-19 hospitalisation and whether this relationship was explained by risk factors (chronic conditions, weak muscle strength). We used data from adults over 50 years from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. The outcome was self-reported hospitalisation due to COVID-19, before August 2020. The main exposure was physical activity, self-reported between 2004 and 2017. Among the 3139 participants included (69.3 ± 8.5 years, 1763 women), 266 were tested positive for COVID-19, 66 were hospitalised. Logistic regression models showed that individuals who engaged in physical activity more than once a week had lower odds of COVID-19 hospitalisation than individuals who hardly ever or never engaged in physical activity (odds ratios = 0.41, 95% confidence interval = 0.22-0.74, p = .004). This association between physical activity and COVID-19 hospitalisation was explained by muscle strength, but not by other risk factors. These findings suggest that, after 50 years, engaging in physical activity is associated with lower odds of COVID-19 hospitalisation. This protective effect of physical activity may be explained by muscle strength.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Exercise , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Muscle Strength , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 12(5): 1136-1143, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345013

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Weak muscle strength has been associated with a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Yet, whether individuals with weaker muscle strength are more at risk for hospitalization due to severe COVID-19 is still unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the independent association between muscle strength and COVID-19 hospitalization. METHODS: Data from adults 50 years of age or older were analysed using logistic models adjusted for several chronic conditions, body-mass index, age, and sex. Hand-grip strength was repeatedly measured between 2004 and 2017 using a handheld dynamometer. COVID-19 hospitalization during the lockdown was self-reported in summer 2020 and was used as an indicator of COVID-19 severity. RESULTS: The study was based on the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and included 3600 older adults (68.8 ± 8.8 years, 2044 female), among whom 316 were tested positive for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (8.8%), and 83 (2.3%) were hospitalized due to COVID-19. Results showed that higher grip strength was associated with a lower risk of COVID-19 hospitalization [adjusted odds ratio (OR) per increase of 1 standard deviation in grip strength = 0.64, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.45-0.87, P = 0.015]. Results also showed that age (OR for a 10 -year period = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.32-2.20, P < 0.001) and obesity (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.00-3.69, P = 0.025) were associated with higher risk of COVID-19 hospitalization. Sensitivity analyses using different measurements of grip strength as well as robustness analyses based on rare-events logistic regression and a different sample of participants (i.e. COVID-19 patients) were consistent with the main results. CONCLUSIONS: Muscle strength is an independent risk factor for COVID-19 severity in adults 50 years of age or older.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Muscle Strength , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Eur J Investig Health Psychol Educ ; 11(2): 358-371, 2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247973

ABSTRACT

The overlay of the COVID-19 pandemic on the pandemic of physical inactivity has become a great concern. Both types of pandemics can decrease the health protection capacity and consequently increase complexity in human lives. This cross-sectional study intended to examine changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic among university students in a second-tier city of Bangladesh. Two hundred and nine students responded to an online questionnaire administered via Google Survey. In addition to descriptive statistics, parametric and non-parametric tests for comparing means, medians and distributions were used to assess differences in activity traits before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results show that the occurrence of COVID-19 has significantly reduced the practice of walking and physical activities among the students. They are commonly motivated by introjected regulation. Father's occupation and the type of family of a student have significant influences on the total physical activity in either situation. Bangladeshi university students have, particularly, been perceived as not generally used to vigorous physical activities. They are inactive compared to students from other countries. Thus, the public health policymakers and the corresponding authority should inspire the students to be more physically active by implementing different strategies such as increasing bicycling and walking facilities on the campus.

6.
Br J Health Psychol ; 26(4): 1135-1154, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169778

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Habits, defined as well-learned associations between cues and behaviours, are essential for health-related behaviours, including physical activity (PA). Despite the sensitivity of habits to context changes, little remains known about the influence of a context change on the interplay between PA habits and behaviours. We investigated the evolution of PA habits amidst the spring COVID-19 lockdown, a major context change. Moreover, we examined the association of PA behaviours and autonomous motivation with this evolution. DESIGN: Three-wave observational longitudinal design. METHODS: PA habits, behaviours, and autonomous motivation were collected through online surveys in 283 French and Swiss participants. Variables were self-reported with reference to three time-points: before-, mid-, and end-lockdown. RESULTS: Mixed effect modelling revealed a decrease in PA habits from before- to mid-lockdown, especially among individuals with strong before-lockdown habits. Path analysis showed that before-lockdown PA habits were not associated with mid-lockdown PA behaviours (ß = -.02, p = .837), while mid-lockdown PA habits were positively related to end-lockdown PA behaviours (ß = .23, p = .021). Autonomous motivation was directly associated with PA habits (ps < .001) and withto before- and mid-lockdown PA behaviours (ps < .001) (but not with end-lockdown PA behaviours) and did not moderate the relations between PA behaviours and habits (ps > .072). CONCLUSION: PA habits were altered, and their influence on PA behaviours was impeded during the COVID-19 lockdown. Engagement in PA behaviours and autonomous motivation helped in counteracting PA habits disruption.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Exercise , Habits , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(24)2020 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979101

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has drastically reduced physical activity (PA) behaviors of many people. Physical education (PE) is considered one of the privileged instruments to promote youths' PA. We aimed to investigate the effects of lockdown on PE teachers' behaviors promoting their students' out-of-school PA and differences between three European countries. A sample of 1146 PE teachers (59.5% females) from France, Italy, and Turkey answered an online questionnaire about guiding students to engage in out-of-school PA, helping them to set PA goals, encouraging in self-monitoring PA, the pedagogical formats of these behaviors and feedback asked to students. RM-MANCOVAs were performed with a two-time (before and during the lockdown), three country (France, Italy, Turkey), two gender factorial design, using teaching years and perceived health as covariates. A significant multivariate main effect time × country × gender (p < 0.001) was reported for the behaviors promoting students' PA, with French and Italian teachers increasing some behaviors, while Turkish teachers showing opposite trends. Significant multivariate main effects time × country were found for formats supporting the behaviors (p < 0.001) and for asked feedback formats (p < 0.001). The massive contextual change imposed by lockdown caused different reactions in teachers from the three countries. Findings are informative for PA promotion and PE teachers' education.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise , Health Promotion/methods , Pandemics , Physical Education and Training , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , School Teachers , Schools , Turkey/epidemiology
8.
J Sports Sci ; 39(6): 699-704, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894474

ABSTRACT

To assess whether changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviour during the COVID-19 lockdown are associated with changes in mental and physical health. Observational longitudinal study. Participants living in France or Switzerland responded to online questionnaires measuring physical activity, physical and mental health, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Paired sample t-tests were used to assess differences in physical activity and sedentary behaviour before and during lockdown. Multiple linear regressions were used to investigate associations between changes in physical activity and changes in mental and physical health during lockdown. 267 (wave1) and 110 participants (wave2; 2 weeks later) were recruited. Lockdown resulted in higher time spent in walking and moderate physical activity (~10min/day) and in sedentary behaviour (~75min/day), compared to pre COVID-19. Increased physical activity during leisure time from week 2 to week 4 of lockdown was associated with improved physical health (ß=.24, p=.002). Additionally, an increase in sedentary behaviour during leisure time was associated with poorer physical health (ß=-.35, p=.002), mental health (ß=-.25, p=.003), and subjective vitality (ß=-.30, p=.004). Ensuring sufficient levels of physical activity and reducing sedentary time can play a vital role in helping people to cope with a major stressful event, such as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise , Mental Health , Sedentary Behavior , Adult , Anxiety , Female , France , Humans , Linear Models , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Self Report , Switzerland , Young Adult
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