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PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333583


While SARS-CoV-2 infection has pleiotropic and systemic effects in some patients, many others experience milder symptoms. We sought a holistic understanding of the severe/mild distinction in COVID-19 pathology, and its origins. We performed a whole-blood preserving single-cell analysis protocol to integrate contributions from all major cell types including neutrophils, monocytes, platelets, lymphocytes and the contents of serum. Patients with mild COVID-19 disease display a coordinated pattern of interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression across every cell population and these cells are systemically absent in patients with severe disease. Severe COVID-19 patients also paradoxically produce very high anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers and have lower viral load as compared to mild disease. Examination of the serum from severe patients demonstrates that they uniquely produce antibodies with multiple patterns of specificity against interferon-stimulated cells and that those antibodies functionally block the production of the mild disease-associated ISG-expressing cells. Overzealous and auto-directed antibody responses pit the immune system against itself in many COVID-19 patients and this defines targets for immunotherapies to allow immune systems to provide viral defense. ONE SENTENCE SUMMARY: In severe COVID-19 patients, the immune system fails to generate cells that define mild disease;antibodies in their serum actively prevents the successful production of those cells.

QJM ; 114(10): 706-714, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061208


BACKGROUND/INTRODUCTION: There are little data on outcomes of COVID-19 patients with the presence of fever compared to the presence of symptoms. AIM: We examined the associations between symptomology, presence of fever and outcomes of a COVID-19 cohort. DESIGN AND METHODS: Between 23 January and 30 April 2020, 554 COVID-19 patients were admitted to a tertiary hospital in Singapore. They were allocated into four groups based on symptomology and fever-Group 1: asymptomatic and afebrile, Group 2: symptomatic but afebrile, Group 3: febrile but asymptomatic and Group 4: symptomatic and febrile. The primary outcomes were intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and mortality. The composite end-point included ICU admissions, mortality or any COVID-19 related end-organ involvement. RESULTS: There were differences in ferritin (P=0.003), C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (P<0.001) and lymphopenia (P=0.033) across all groups, with the most favourable biochemical profile in Group 1, and the least in Group 4. Symptomatic groups (Groups 2 and 4) had higher ICU admissions (1.9% and 6.0%, respectively, P=0.003) than asymptomatic groups (Groups 1 and 3). Composite end-point was highest in Group 4 (24.0%), followed by Group 3 (8.6%), Group 2 (4.8%) and Group 1 (2.4%) (P<0.001). The presence of fever (OR 4.096, 95% CI 1.737-9.656, P=0.001) was associated with the composite end-point after adjusting for age, pulse rate, comorbidities, lymphocyte, ferritin and CRP. Presence of symptoms was not associated with the composite end-point. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: In this COVID-19 cohort, presence of fever was a predictor of adverse outcomes. This has implications on the management of febrile but asymptomatic COVID-19 patients.

COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2