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J Clin Psychiatry ; 81(6)2020 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883925


OBJECTIVE: In light of the current evolving coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, and the need to learn from past infectious disease outbreaks to provide better psychological support for our frontline health care workers (HCW), we conducted a rapid review of extant studies that have reported on both psychological and coping responses in HCW during recent outbreaks. DATA SOURCES: We performed a systematic search of the available literature using PubMed, MEDLINE (Ovid), and Web of Science, combining key terms regarding recent infectious disease outbreaks and psychological and coping responses. Papers published from database inception to April 20, 2020, were considered for inclusion. Only studies in the English language and papers from peer-reviewed journals were included. STUDY SELECTION: We identified 95 (PubMed) and 49 papers (Web of Science) from the database search, of which 23 papers were eventually included in the review. DATA EXTRACTION: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were used for data extraction. The McMaster University critical appraisal tool was used to appraise quantitative studies. Guidelines by Higginbotham and colleagues were used to appraise qualitative studies. Only studies exploring the combined psychological and coping responses of HCW amid infectious diseases were included. RESULTS: Salient psychological responses that can persist beyond the outbreaks included anxiety/fears, stigmatization, depression, posttraumatic stress, anger/frustration, grief, and burnout, but also positive growth and transformation. Personal coping methods (such as problem solving, seeking social support, and positive thinking) alongside workplace measures (including infection control and safety, staff support and recognition, and clear communication) were reported to be helpful. CONCLUSIONS: Psychological support for HCW in the current COVID-19 pandemic and future outbreaks should focus on both individual (eg, psychoeducation on possible psychological responses, self-care) and institutional (eg, clear communication, providing access to resources for help, recognition of efforts of HCW) measures.

Adaptation, Psychological , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Global Health , Humans , Infection Control , Mental Disorders/prevention & control , Mental Disorders/psychology , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Occupational Diseases/psychology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(18)2020 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760924


This study aimed to explore changes in psychological responses (perceived stress, traumatic stress, stigma, coping) over time in residents, as well as their predictors. The level of perceived stress, traumatic stress, stigma, and coping responses were assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale, Impact of Event-Revised, Healthcare Workers Stigma Scale, and Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) Inventory, respectively. We collected responses from 274 residents at baseline and 221 residents at 3 months follow-up (timepoint 2) from the National Healthcare Group (NHG) residency programs in Singapore. All residents reported lower perceived stress and lower perceived stigma compared to baseline. Use of avoidance coping was associated with all three psychological responses (perceived stress, traumatic stress, and stigma) across the two timepoints. Compared to baseline, specific factors associated with perceived stress and traumatic stress at timepoint 2 were living alone, less problem solving, and seeking social support. Residency programs should encourage active coping strategies (e.g., seeking social support, positive thinking, problem solving) among residents, and proactively identify residents who may be at higher risk of psychological sequelae due to circumstances that contribute to isolation.

Adaptation, Psychological , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Internship and Residency/statistics & numerical data , Physicians/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Social Stigma , Stress Disorders, Traumatic/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore , Stress, Psychological/ethnology