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1.
Indian Heart J ; 74:S108, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2119815
2.
Indian Journal of Leprosy ; 94(2):275-278, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2083675

ABSTRACT

Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) is an immune complex mediated type III hypersensitivity reaction seen in patients of borderline lepromatous and lepromatous leprosy. It can be caused by a wide array of triggers and can be seen before, during, or after completion of anti-leprosy therapy. There are multiple well-known triggers for type 2 reactions like the initiation of multidrug therapy, Mantoux testing, vaccination, mental and physical stress, and physiological states like pregnancy. Herein, we report a case of exacerbation of ENL in a middle-aged woman, probably due to COVID-19 vaccine while she was well-controlled on immunosuppressive therapy. The episode was treated with non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs and oral steroids and the symptoms resolved within 2 weeks. Although causality was highly possible between the occurrence of ENL and COVID-19 vaccine, physicians should be aware that it can be easily managed with proper care and medicines and this should not be a basis for deferring the vaccine. Copyright © Hind Kusht Nivaran Sangh, New Delhi.

3.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2005669

ABSTRACT

Background: Bispecific antibodies (bsAb) are a promising class of therapeutics in RRMM. While hypogammaglobinemia (HGG) is anticipated due to plasma cell depletion, there is a lack of information about the degree of secondary immunodeficiency and resultant infectious complications. We investigated the kinetics of HGG in patients with RRMM on bsAb therapy. Methods: We identified and followed 42 patients treated on early clinical trials of bsAb at our institution between 2019 and 2021. Serial immunoglobulin levels and infections were obtained from the start of therapy until last follow up or 3 months after study exit. Results: 49 treatment courses were included from 42 individual patients. All patients were triple class exposed with a median of 5 prior lines of therapy. The median age was 67 (44-85) years, with 49% females. African Americans accounted for 18% of patients. 96% of patients had at least one prior ASCT. 90% of patients received bsAb targeting BCMA including 7 patients who received more than one line of BCMA targeting therapies. At a median follow up 9.5 (0.9-28.6) months, 40.8% of patients remained on bsAb therapy. At the start of therapy, the median IgG, IgA, and IgM levels were 560 (44-9436), 15 (5-3886) and 6 (5-64) mg/dL, respectively and 50% of patients had severe HGG (≤400mg/dl). Serum IgG levels reached a nadir at 3 months while, IgA and IgM at 1 month, from the start of therapy. The median nadir levels of IgG were 159 (40-2996) mg/dL, while it was < 5 mg/dL for both IgA and IgM. IgG levels were below the detectable range (< 40 mg/dl) in 28% of patients at some point during therapy. IgA and IgM were also below the detectable range (< 5 mg/dl) in 50% and 60% of patients, respectively. At last follow-up, the median IgG levels were 444 (40-1860) mg/dL and IgA 5 (5-254) mg/dL and IgM 5 (5-44) mg/dL. Additionally, 38% of patients remained severely hypogammaglobinemic. 57% (24/42) of patients received IVIG supplements in the current series. About 71% of patients had at least one infectious event and the cumulative incidence of infections progressively increased with increasing duration of therapy with risk at 3, 6, 9 12, 15 months being 41%, 57%, 64%, 67% and 70%, respectively. Among these, 54% of infection were bacterial. Viral infection accounted for 41% of infections. A third of patients had new infectious events during the first 90 days following stopping bsAb treatment. 57% (8/14) of patients did not mount a response to the primary COVID19 immunization series. Among the five patients with repeat antibody titers after the booster dose, 50% were still not able to mount an antibody response. Conclusions: bsAb therapy in RRMM can be associated with profound and prolonged HGG. The cumulative risk of infection correlated with the degree of HGG and progressively increases with treatment and persisted months after being off therapy. Additionally, an impaired antibody response to the COVID-19 immunization series was also noted.

5.
Blood ; 138(SUPPL 1):1626, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1770264

ABSTRACT

Introduction: B cell maturation antigen (BCMA) is a novel target for T cell immunotherapy in MM including bispecific antibody (bsAb) and chimeric antigen receptor therapy (CAR-T). BCMA is critical for survival of the long-lived plasma cell, responsible for generation of protective antibodies. Impaired immune reconstitution, cytopenias, B cell aplasia and hypogammaglobinemia can compound preexisting MM-induced immunosuppression. In the case of bsAb, potential redirection/activation of T regulatory cells can create an immunosuppressive milieu. Herein, we describe the clinically relevant infectious complications observed across different BCMA-directed therapies used across multiple clinical trials at our center. Methods: Infections confirmed by microbiologic or histopathologic evidence were captured from the D1 C1 of bsAb and D 1 of lymphodepleting chemotherapy of autologous BCMA CAR-T therapies. The NCI CTCAE v5 was used to describe the site and grade of infections. Hypogammaglobinemia and severe hypogammaglobinemia were defined as ≤700 mg/dl and ≤400 mg /dl, respectively. Standard antimicrobial prophylaxis included herpes zoster prophylaxis for all MM patients with antibacterial (levofloxacin) / antifungal (fluconazole) during periods of neutropenia and IVIG supplementation as per the treating physician's discretion. PCP prophylaxis was prescribed to CAR T recipient per institutional guidelines. Descriptive statistics and comparisons were performed using two-sample t-test for continuous variables and chi-square goodness of fit test for categorical variables. Results: We identified 62 patients who received BCMA-directed bsAb (n=36) or CAR-T (n=26) between 2019-2021(table 1). The median age was 66 (range 48-84) years with % females and 14.8% of patients belonging to Black race. The median time to bsAb and CAR-T use from diagnosis were 6.6 (range 0.83-15.5) and 2.6 (range 0.35-14.4) years, respectively. The median lines of prior therapy were 6 (range 1-11) with BCMA CAR-T recipients receiving fewer prior lines of therapy (4 vs 6, p=<0.001). The baseline lymphocyte count was higher in the CAR-T (14.71 vs 0.84;p=<0.001). Baseline severe hypogammaglobulinemia and lymphopenia were present in 30% and 26.7% of all patients, respectively. Tocilizumab was used in 40.9% (bsAb -30.8% versus CAR-T 55.6%) patients for CRS. IVIG was used in 25% of patients. The median study duration for bsAb was 4 (range 0.03- 24) months across multiple dose levels. Median follow up among CAR-T recipients was 3.9 (range 0.3 - 22.3) months. Among recipients of bsAb, 41.2% of patients experienced at least one episode of infection vs. 23.1% with CAR-T (p=0.141). The cumulative incidence of infection with bsAb and CAR-T were 22 and 8, respectively. The spectrum of infections with bsAb was predominantly bacterial (64.3% While gram negative infection (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia, Proteus mirabilus and Psuedomonas aeroginosa urinary tract infections) were seen in 6 patients, skin infection including cellulitis occurred in 4 patients, with 1 case of necrotizing cellulitis. Bacteremia with rare opportunistic pathogens - Rhizobium radiobacter and recurrent Ochrobacterium anthropi were also observed . Viral infections included rhinovirus, cytomegalovirus, and parvovirus B19 reactivation, and COVID-19. About 50% of infections were ≥ grade 3 with 2 grade 5 events (Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia and COVID-19). In the CAR-T group, we observed more viral infections (66.7% vs 35.7%;p=0.028) and fewer bacterial infections (33.3% vs 64.3%;p=0.028) . Common viral infections included rhinovirus, RSV, and herpes simplex virus reactivation. In this group 25% of infections were ≥grade 3. Conclusion: BCMA-targeted therapies seem to be associated with clinically significant bacterial and viral infections. Repetitive dosing with bsAb therapies could be the reason for the propensity to serious bacterial infections compared to CAR-T recipients and may need novel prophylaxis strategies. (Figure Presented).

6.
Biomedical and Biotechnology Research Journal ; 5(2):121-128, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1291709

ABSTRACT

Currently, a disease name as corona (COVID-19) has become a serious problem around the globe. As of December 2020, the disease has spread to over 213 countries and territories around the world and 2 international conveyances, with over 79,850,900 confirmed cases and over 1,751,705 deaths. The ailment (COVID-19) is instigated by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). CoV impacts on the respiratory tract and causes infection that may be minor or deadly. Several studies reveal that coronavirus can remain live on nonliving surfaces (glass, metal, or plastic) for up to 9 days, but it may be denatured with many disinfectants having alcohol, benzalkonium chloride, sodium hypochlorite, etc., within 1 min. As we know, there is no fruitful therapy or medication for COVID-19 so early precaution and prevention is the only solution to break the chain of coronavirus. By using different types of disinfectants, we can inhibit the growth of this novel corona disease. © 2021 BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

7.
Indian Anaesthetists Forum ; 22(1):114-115, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1150845
8.
9.
Indian Journal of Cardiovascular Disease in Women - WINCARS ; 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-885543

ABSTRACT

The epidemiological data suggests predominant male prevalence, morbidity and mortality with SARS COVID-2. Similarly, venous thromboembolic (VTE) events have a male sex predilection with variant mechanisms involving angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) expression and pathways in women. COVID-19 could directly affect or it could be an indirect action of the disease via critical ailment hypoxemia, or hemostatic abnormalities might be the underlying mechanisms of VTE in a COVID-19 patient with baseline risk factor profile. VTE diagnosis in a COVID scenario has issues of a prone positioned patient, exposure of health workers and minimal therapeutic benefits in a critically ill patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Anticoagulation with low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) can be chosen over unfractionated heparin (UFH) with less monitoring requirements and thereby low exposure to healthcare workers. Variant guidelines for thromboprophylaxis (in hospital/extended postdischarge) have come up, stating anticoagulant administration, according to baseline risk profile and hemostatic biomarkers. Catheter-directed interventions should be reserved only for life-threatening situations. In women, hormonal milieu (for e.g., 17 β-estradiol) might influence occurrence of favorable ACE 2 polymorphisms with less VTE events. The management strategies in a female patient with VTE would be more or less similar to males. Combined oral contraceptives (COC) and estrogen replacement therapies (ERT) may be curtailed in COVID-19 positive patients, given their thrombogenic potential. Pregnancy and postpartum state in COVID-19 positive patient need VTE prophylaxis all the more in the presence of risk profile favoring VTE. Also, VTE prophylaxis when indicated should be continued in women in a normal menstrual cycle. Bleeding risks specific to women (menorrhagia secondary to dysfunctional uterine bleeding [DUB], fibroids, adnexal malignancies and masses, hypothyroidism, etc.) need to be weighed while taking a decision for indicated anticoagulation regimen.

10.
Indian Journal of Cardiovascular Disease in Women - WINCARS ; 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-851397

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular illness is one the foremost causes of death in females. The goal of preventive medicine is to identify and target high-risk females belonging to the younger age group in order to prevent future onset of cardiovascular pathologies. Certain obstetric complications like idiopathic preterm birth, preeclampsia (PE), gestational diabetes and abruptio placentae mark their presence in the checklist of risk indicators for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) among the female population. Previous severe acute respiratory syndrome-1 (SARS-1) infections recorded a significant impact on maternal and fetal outcomes. In this article, we aim to focus on the incidence of cardiovascular risk indicators with the incessant novel Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic in pregnant women and to provide recommendations for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in infected females. As the disease is novel and gradually unfolding to clinicians globally, the data and the publications are also evolving. Studies on COVID-19 in pregnancy has shown an increase in the number of preterm births, and PE with some reports on vertical transmission, but no significant increase in miscarriage, still births and teratogenicity. Preterm births appear more likely to be iatrogenic rather than idiopathic, owing to severity of infection or maternal/fetal safety. Causal association of virus with PE needs further analysis by large population studies, as both have common overlapping clinical and laboratory parameters. Direct placental involvement by virus leading on to PE or infection itself simulating PE needs further explication. Assessment of placental function, histopathological examination, and measurement of antiangiogenic factors are some of the suggested measures to differentiate further. Peripartum cardiomyopathy in COVID-19 positive pregnant females has not yet been actively explored, particularly in cases of clinical deterioration. Practical utilization of handheld point-of-care echocardiography machines stand in need for diagnosing myocardial dysfunction in this pandemic. COVID-19 infection and pregnancy together may impart a greater thromboembolism risk due to their inherent hypercoagulable states. All pregnant females with COVID-19 infection are candidates for VTE prophylaxis, both antepartum and postpartum depending on the severity of illness.

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