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J Glob Health ; 12: 05028, 2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964527


Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has been shown to cause enormous psychological burden among health care workers, including first responders. However, psychological well-being of first responders, essential in the fight against COVID-19 pandemic, has often been ignored. We performed the first meta-analysis to explore the prevalence of 1) depression, 2) anxiety, and 3) stress among first responders for medical emergencies during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted in Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsychInfo, PubMed, and the WHO COVID-19 database from 2020. The Freeman-Tukey double-arcsine transformation model in R-software determined the pooled prevalence and Comprehensive Meta-Analysis for associated factors of depression, anxiety, and stress with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). The Cochrane Q, τ2, and I2 statistics were used to examine heterogeneity. Sub-group analysis was conducted to identify moderator variables. Results: We identified 765 records, from which 17 studies were included with 8096 first responders. The pooled prevalence was 31% (95% CI = 21%-41%) for depression; 67% (95% CI = 64%-70%) for mild depression, 24% (95% CI = 17%-31%) for moderate depression, and 16% (95% CI = 4%-34%) for severe depression. The pooled prevalence for anxiety was 32% (95% CI = 20%-44%); 60% (95% CI = 46%-73%) for mild anxiety, 27% (95% CI = 14%-42%) for moderate anxiety, and 14% (95% CI = 7%-22%) for severe anxiety. The pooled prevalence for stress was 17% (95% CI = 4%-34%); 58% (95% CI = 38%-77%) for mild stress, 22% (95% CI = 5%-44%) for moderate stress, and 19% (95% CI = 5%-37%) for severe stress. The prevalence of depression was 37% (95% CI = 25%-52%) for paramedics, 28% (95% CI = 12%-54%) for EMS personnel and 22% (95% CI = 13%-33%) for police. Similarly, the prevalence of anxiety was 38% (95% CI = 20%-60%) for paramedics, 28% (95% CI = 11%-53%) for EMS personnel, and 19% (95% CI = 10%-32%) for police. Married responders were likely at risk for depression (1.50, 95% CI = 1.26-1.78) and anxiety (1.94, 95% CI = 1.62-2.33), while unmarried responders were less likely at risk for depression (0.67, 95% CI = 0.56-0.79) and anxiety (0.50, 95% CI = 0.43-0.63). Conclusions: High prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress during the COVID-19 pandemic among first responders for medical emergencies emphasizes the need for monitoring their psychological well-being. Early assessment and management of mild depression, anxiety, and stress among first responders are crucial in preventing progression into moderate and severe types.

COVID-19 , Emergency Responders , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Emergencies , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
Intensive Crit Care Nurs ; 72: 103257, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783407


OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness of prone positioning on COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome with moderating factors in both traditional prone positioning (invasive mechanical ventilation) and awake self-prone positioning patients (non-invasive ventilation). RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: A comprehensive search was conducted in CINAHL, Cochrane library, Embase, Medline-OVID, NCBI SARS-CoV-2 Resources, ProQuest, Scopus, and Web of Science without language restrictions. All studies with prospective and experimental designs evaluating the effect of prone position patients with COVID-19 related to acute respiratory distress syndrome were included. Pooled standardised mean differences were calculated after prone position for primary (PaO2/FiO2) and secondary outcomes (SpO2 and PaO2) RESULTS: A total of 15 articles were eligible and included in the final analysis. Prone position had a statistically significant effect in improving PaO2/FiO2 with standardised mean difference of 1.10 (95%CI 0.60-1.59), SpO2 with standardised mean difference of 3.39 (95% CI 1.30-5.48), and PaO2 with standardised mean difference of 0.77 (95% CI 0.19-1.35). Patients with higher body mass index and longer duration/day are associated with larger standardised mean difference effect sizes for prone positioning. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that prone position significantly improved oxygen saturation in COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome in both traditional prone positioning and awake self-prone positioning patients. Prone position should be recommended for patients with higher body mass index and longer durations to obtain the maximum effect.

COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Duration of Therapy , Humans , Obesity , Prone Position , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776214


Severe pneumonia with novel pathogens, also called COVID-19, caused a pandemic in Taiwan as well as in the rest of the world in May 2021. Nurses are under great stress when caring for critically ill patients with COVID-19. This study aimed to explore the perceived stress and coping behaviors of nurses caring for critically ill patients with COVID-19 using a mixed-methods approach. We recruited 85 nurses from a special intensive care unit (ICU) of a medical center in Taiwan between May and June 2021. To gather data, we used a questionnaire on basic characteristics, the perceived stress scale (PSS-14), and the brief coping orientation to problems experienced inventory (B-COPE), then conducted a qualitative interview. The results showed that the average perceived stress level among nurses was 25.4 points, and most of them perceived moderate stress. The top three coping behaviors practiced by the nurses were active coping, planning, and acceptance. Nurses who received less perceived support from their friends or families and who had shorter working experience in nursing had significantly higher stress levels. The qualitative results revealed that the nurses' perceived stress came from fear, worry, and the increased burden caused by caring for critical patients with COVID-19. Coping behaviors included rest, seeking support, and affirmative fighting. Based on these findings, it is suggested that the support nurses receive from their families is an important predictor of perceived stress. Therefore, it is suggested that nurses be provided with more support in dealing with stress caused by caring for critical patients with COVID-19 in special ICUs.

COVID-19 , Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Humans , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Taiwan/epidemiology