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1.
Advanced materials technologies ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2058093

ABSTRACT

The fomite transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) has drawn attention because of its highly contagious nature. Therefore, surfaces that can prevent coronavirus contamination are an urgent and unmet need during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic. Conventional surfaces are usually based on superhydrophobic or antiviral coatings. However, these coatings may be dysfunctional because of biofouling, which is the undesired adhesion of biomolecules. A superhydrophobic surface independent of the material content and coating agents may serve the purpose of antibiofouling and preventing viral transmission. Doubly reentrant topology (DRT) is a unique structure that can meet the need. This study demonstrates that the DRT surfaces possess a striking antibiofouling effect that can prevent viral contamination. This effect still exists even if the DRT surface is made of a hydrophilic material such as silicon oxide and copper. To the best of our knowledge, this work first demonstrates that fomite transmission of viruses may be prevented by minimizing the contact area between pathogens and surfaces even made of hydrophilic materials. Furthermore, the DRT geometry per se features excellent antibiofouling ability, which may shed light on the applications of pathogen elimination in alleviating the COVID‐19 pandemic. The findings demonstrate that a unique fabricated doubly reentrant topology (DRT) structure carries remarkable superrepellent properties against biofouling of protein, blood, bacteria, and viruses. Moreover, this characteristic results from a highly minimized contact area and still exists even if the DRT surface is made of a hydrophilic material, such as silicon oxide.

2.
Adv Mater Technol ; : 2200387, 2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1976681

ABSTRACT

The fomite transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has drawn attention because of its highly contagious nature. Therefore, surfaces that can prevent coronavirus contamination are an urgent and unmet need during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Conventional surfaces are usually based on superhydrophobic or antiviral coatings. However, these coatings may be dysfunctional because of biofouling, which is the undesired adhesion of biomolecules. A superhydrophobic surface independent of the material content and coating agents may serve the purpose of antibiofouling and preventing viral transmission. Doubly reentrant topology (DRT) is a unique structure that can meet the need. This study demonstrates that the DRT surfaces possess a striking antibiofouling effect that can prevent viral contamination. This effect still exists even if the DRT surface is made of a hydrophilic material such as silicon oxide and copper. To the best of our knowledge, this work first demonstrates that fomite transmission of viruses may be prevented by minimizing the contact area between pathogens and surfaces even made of hydrophilic materials. Furthermore, the DRT geometry per se features excellent antibiofouling ability, which may shed light on the applications of pathogen elimination in alleviating the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409702

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with high infectivity and mortality has caused severe social and economic impacts worldwide. Growing reports of COVID-19 patients with multi-organ damage indicated that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) may also disturb the cardiovascular system. Herein, we used human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes (iCMs) as the in vitro platform to examine the consequence of SARS-CoV2 infection on iCMs. Differentiated iCMs expressed the primary SARS-CoV2 receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme-II (ACE2) and the transmembrane protease serine type 2 (TMPRSS2) receptor suggesting the susceptibility of iCMs to SARS-CoV2. Following the infection of iCMs with SARS-CoV2, the viral nucleocapsid (N) protein was detected in the host cells, demonstrating the successful infection. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the SARS-CoV2 infection upregulates several inflammation-related genes, including the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The pretreatment of iCMs with TNF-α for 24 h, significantly increased the expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, SASR-CoV2 entry receptors. The TNF-α pretreatment enhanced the entry of GFP-expressing SARS-CoV2 pseudovirus into iCMs, and the neutralization of TNF-α ameliorated the TNF-α-enhanced viral entry. Collectively, SARS-CoV2 elevated TNF-α expression, which in turn enhanced the SARS-CoV2 viral entry. Our findings suggest that, TNF-α may participate in the cytokine storm and aggravate the myocardial damage in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Cell Differentiation , Cell Line , Computational Biology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Myocardium/cytology , Myocardium/immunology , Myocardium/pathology , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/virology , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Up-Regulation/immunology , Virus Internalization/drug effects
4.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(2): 233-241, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066456

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since COVID-19 outbreak, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been tested for effective therapies, and the relevant researches have shown controversial results. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted after a thorough search of relevant studies from databases. Trials that have evaluated HCQ for COVID-19 treatment were recruited for statistical analysis with fixed- and random-effect models. RESULTS: Nine trials involving 4112 patients were included in present meta-analysis. It was seen that HCQ-azithromycin (HCQ-AZI) combination regimen increased the mortality rate in COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR], 2.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.63-3.36) patients; however, it also showed benefits associated with the viral clearance in patients (OR, 27.18; 95% CI, 1.29-574.32). HCQ-alone when used as a therapy in COVID-19 did not reveal significant changes in mortality rate, clinical progression, viral clearance, and cardiac QT prolongation. Subsequent subgroup analysis showed that HCQ treatment could decrease mortality rate and progression to severe illness in severely infected COVID-19 patients (OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.13-0.58). A lower risk of mortality rate was also noted in the stratified group of >14 days follow-up period (OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.13-0.58) compared to ≤14 days follow-up period group that conversely showed an increased mortality rate (OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.41-3.10). CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that HCQ-AZI combination treatment increased mortality rate in patients with COVID-19, but it also showed benefits associated with viral clearance in patients. HCQ-alone used for treatment has revealed benefits in decreasing the mortality rate among severely infected COVID-19 group and showed potential to be used for COVID-19 treatment in long-term follow-up period group. Accordingly, more rigorous, large-scale, and long follow-up period studies in patients with COVID-19 are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Publication Bias , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055070

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) was identified as the main host cell receptor for the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its subsequent infection. In some coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, it has been reported that the nervous tissues and the eyes were also affected. However, evidence supporting that the retina is a target tissue for SARS-CoV-2 infection is still lacking. This present study aimed to investigate whether ACE2 expression plays a role in human retinal neurons during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived retinal organoids and monolayer cultures derived from dissociated retinal organoids were generated. To validate the potential entry of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the retina, we showed that hiPSC-derived retinal organoids and monolayer cultures endogenously express ACE2 and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) on the mRNA level. Immunofluorescence staining confirmed the protein expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in retinal organoids and monolayer cultures. Furthermore, using the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus spike protein with GFP expression system, we found that retinal organoids and monolayer cultures can potentially be infected by the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus. Collectively, our findings highlighted the potential of iPSC-derived retinal organoids as the models for ACE2 receptor-based SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Expression , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Retina/cytology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Line , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Organoids/cytology , Organoids/metabolism , Retina/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Internalization
6.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(1): 9-13, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1010670

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has brought an unprecedented impact upon the global economy and public health. Although the SARS-CoV-2 virology has been gradually investigated, measures to combat this new threat in public health are still absent. To date, no certificated drug or vaccine has been developed for the treatment or prevention of coronavirus disease Extensive researches and international coordination has been conducted to rapidly develop novel vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Several major breakthroughs have been made through the identification of the genetic sequence and structural/non-structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2, which enabled the development of RNA-, DNA-based vaccines, subunit vaccines, and attenuated viral vaccines. In this review article, we present an overview of the recent advances of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and the challenges that may be encountered in the development process, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches that may help in effectively countering COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Humans , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
7.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 83(9): 812-816, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-752078

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV, later named SARS-CoV-2) is a pandemic disease worldwide. The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is continuing at a rapid speed. Till May 4, 2020, there have been 3,407,747 confirmed cases and 238,198 deaths globally. The common symptoms in pregnant women are fever, cough, and dyspnea. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has transient overexpression and increased activity during pregnancy, which is now confirmed as the receptor of SARS-CoV-2 and plays essential roles in human infection and transmission. There is no evidence that pregnant women are more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. To date, there is no valid medication or vaccination. The immune suppression or modulation during pregnancy increases the risk of severe pneumonia. Remdesivir is an antiviral medication targeting ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis that has clinical improvement in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2. Chloroquine is controversial in its effectiveness and safety to treat SARS-CoV-2. Remdesivir is safe in pregnancy. Chloroquine has not been formally assigned to a pregnancy category by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The management strategy includes monitoring fetal heart rate and uterine contractions; early oxygenation if O2 saturation is less than 95%; empiric antibiotics for prevention of secondary infection; corticosteroid to treat maternal SARS-CoV-2 disease routinely is not suggested, only for fetal lung maturation in selected cases; and consideration of delivery is according to the obstetric indication, gestational age, and severity of the disease. During epidemics, delivery at 32-34 weeks is considered. The indication for the Cesarean section should be flexible to minimize the risk of infection during the delivery. The newborn should be in isolation ward immediately after birth; breastfeeding is not contraindicated but should avoid direct transmission infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1022, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-478585

ABSTRACT

A sudden outbreak of COVID-19 caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, in Wuhan, China in December 2019 quickly grew into a global pandemic, putting at risk not only the global healthcare system, but also the world economy. As the disease continues to spread rapidly, the development of prophylactic and therapeutic approaches is urgently required. Although some progress has been made in understanding the viral structure and invasion mechanism of coronaviruses that may cause severe cases of the syndrome, due to the limited understanding of the immune effects caused by SARS-CoV-2, it is difficult for us to prevent patients from developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pulmonary fibrosis (PF), the major complications of coronavirus infection. Therefore, any potential treatments should focus not only on direct killing of coronaviruses and prevention strategies by vaccine development, but also on keeping in check the acute immune/inflammatory responses, resulting in ARDS and PF. In addition, potential treatments currently under clinical trials focusing on killing coronaviruses or on developing vaccines preventing coronavirus infection largely ignore the host immune response. However, taking care of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients with ARDS and PF is considered to be the major difficulty. Therefore, further understanding of the host immune response to SARS-CoV-2 is extremely important for clinical resolution and saving medication cost. In addition to a breif overview of the structure, infection mechanism, and possible therapeutic approaches, we summarized and compared the hematopathologic effect and immune responses to SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. We also discussed the indirect immune response caused by SARS and direct infection, replication, and destroying of immune cells by MERS-CoV. The molecular mechanisms of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV infection-induced lymphopenia or cytokine storm may provide some hint toward fight against SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus. This may provide guidance over using immune therapy as a combined treatment to prevent patients developing severe respiratory syndrome and largely reduce complications.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/virology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Virus Replication
9.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-338268

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with first presentation of atypical pneumonia, has spread rapidly from Wuhan, China on December 12, 2019 to over 200 countries, caused 2310572 infected individuals and 158691 mortalities, updated on 2020/4/19. Many studies have published timely to help global health-care workers to understand and control the disease. Vulnerable patients with risk factors such as elderly, cardiovascular diseases (e.g. hypertension, coronary disease, or cardiomyopathy), diabetes, chronic kidney disease...etc., have worse outcomes after covid-19 infection. COVID-19 could directly cause cardiovascular injuries such as pericarditis, myocarditis, myocardial infarction, heart failure, arrhythmias or thromboembolic events, which urge cardiologists to be involved in the frontline to practice. Here we provide a review of COVID-19 on cardiovascular system to assist clinical cardiologists to better understand the disease and being capable of providing comprehensive medical support.

10.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 83(7): 644-647, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-145641

ABSTRACT

The rapid surge and wide spread of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) overshadows the entire medical industries worldwide. The stringent medical resources hinder the diagnostic capacity globally, while 84 000 of new cases confirmed within a single day of April 14, 2020. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with is the current first-line diagnosis, but the false-negative rate remains concerned. Radiographic technologies and tools, including computed tomography (CT) and chest X-ray, were applied for initial screening and follow-up, from which the tools provide detail diagnosis with specific pathologic features for staging and treatment arrangement. Although the radiographic imaging is found less sensitive, numerous CT-positive patients were not screened out by RT-PCR initially and later confirmed as COVID-19 positive. Besides, the shortage of sampling kits and the longer turn-over time of PCR examinations in some areas were noticed due to logistic issues and healthcare burden. In this review, we will discuss the challenges and the future perspectives of using radiographic modalities for COVID-19 diagnosis in view of securing human lives amid the crisis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(7)2020 Apr 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-46057

ABSTRACT

The sudden outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV, later named SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China, which rapidly grew into a global pandemic, marked the third introduction of a virulent coronavirus into the human society, affecting not only the healthcare system, but also the global economy. Although our understanding of coronaviruses has undergone a huge leap after two precedents, the effective approaches to treatment and epidemiological control are still lacking. In this article, we present a succinct overview of the epidemiology, clinical features, and molecular characteristics of SARS-CoV-2. We summarize the current epidemiological and clinical data from the initial Wuhan studies, and emphasize several features of SARS-CoV-2, which differentiate it from SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), such as high variability of disease presentation. We systematize the current clinical trials that have been rapidly initiated after the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic. Whereas the trials on SARS-CoV-2 genome-based specific vaccines and therapeutic antibodies are currently being tested, this solution is more long-term, as they require thorough testing of their safety. On the other hand, the repurposing of the existing therapeutic agents previously designed for other virus infections and pathologies happens to be the only practical approach as a rapid response measure to the emergent pandemic, as most of these agents have already been tested for their safety. These agents can be divided into two broad categories, those that can directly target the virus replication cycle, and those based on immunotherapy approaches either aimed to boost innate antiviral immune responses or alleviate damage induced by dysregulated inflammatory responses. The initial clinical studies revealed the promising therapeutic potential of several of such drugs, including favipiravir, a broad-spectrum antiviral drug that interferes with the viral replication, and hydroxychloroquine, the repurposed antimalarial drug that interferes with the virus endosomal entry pathway. We speculate that the current pandemic emergency will be a trigger for more systematic drug repurposing design approaches based on big data analysis.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Viral Vaccines , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genome, Viral , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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